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Exam One Flashcards


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Wabash Case
Who: Railroads
When: 1886
Why: Declared that because the Railroad was involved in interstate commerce, the federal government should regulate Railroad prices; states could continue regulating businesses unique to their states
Who: Southern and Western farmers
What: Patrons of Husbandry
Where: South and West
Why: Formed coops, purchasing items as a group to negotiate directly with the manufacturer; wanted regulation of RR rates (long and short haul differentials, especially)
Munn v. Illionis
Who: Granges, railroads
What: Legislation to regulate RR prices
When: 1876-77
Where: Supreme Court
Why: Granges wanted states legislatures to establish maximum rates RRs could charge for grain elevators; court upheld states' rights to regulate property "devoted to public use"; meant RRs had to lower short-haul rates so they raised long-haul rates
Pullman, Illionis
Who: Pullman Railcar Co., George Pullman
What: Company Town
Where: South Chicago
Why: G. Pullman created a co. town of 4000 acres south of Chicago for employees; population 12,000; never established a steady workforce because people disliked the undemocratic town; fell apart during 1893 Depression when workers had a strike for higher wages or lower rent
Haymarket Square Riot
Who: Knights of Labor members
What: Rally about police brutality
When: 1886
Where: Haymarket Square, Chicago
Why: Broke momentum of direct labor resistence because the media vilified the Knights of Labor; caused KOL membership to decline rapidly
Scientific Management
Who: F. W. Taylor
What: Managerial technique to increase productivity and profit in factories
Where: Factories
Why: Significant for taking decision-making out of the hands of workers and putting it into manager hands; all manufacturing was dividied into small tasks based on time-motion studies to determine the quickest, most effective ways to work; made factory work painfully monotonous
F. W. Taylor
Who: F.W. Taylor
What: Scientific Management
Why: Developed scientific management to make factories more efficent; advocated breaks and rewards for employees; introduced cost accounting, centralized purchasing
Horatio Alger
Who: Horatio Alger, author
What: Best-selling novels
Why: Alger wrote fictitious rags to riches stories for young people; protagonist was always a hard-working, sober, honest young man with luck and a goal to become respectable above all else; sold 20 million copies
Social Darwinism
Who: Darwin
What: "The Origin of the Species"
When: 1859
Why: Darwin argued survival of the fittest which in social and economic terms translates to a belief that the free enterprise system offers equal opporunity to all to survive and thrive; natural law determines man's social and economic behavior
John Rockefellar
Who: John Rockefellar, Standard Oil
What: pools, trusts, horizontal integration
Where: Cleveland
When: 1860s
Why: Consolidated control over oil industry using horizontal integration; reduced prices; drove out competition with low wages, attention to detail, and forming secret deals (trusts, pools), and getting rebates from railroads
James Buchanan Duke
Who: J.B. Duke, tobacco manufacturer
What: Cigarettes, vertical integration
Why: Acquired exclusive rights to cigarette-making machines; used vertical integration to own fields, manufacturing machines, and hired businessmen to market his product; eventually he also used horizontal integration for tobacco fields
Vertical Integration
Who: Carnegie, steel industry; Swift, meatpacking industry
What: Business technique
Why: A technique to control the entire production and distribution process of a product; increases productivity to increase profit; allows consistency and sometimes price fixing
Horizontal Integration
Who: Rockefellar, J.B. Duke
What: Business technique
Why: Technique to eliminate competition by controlling all firms in an area engaged in similar activities; pionerred by RRs who created "pools" to divide traffic and artifically inflate rates (agreements had no legal bearings)
Interstate Commerce Commission
Who: Five-man board, Railroads,
What: Congressional board to oversee activities of railroads
When: 1887
Why: set a precident that the federal government could regulate business; ordered railroads to publically post rates so no more rebates could be given; also required railroads to submit annual reports on their budgets and rates
Impact: The ICC had no way to enforce legislation because of poor definitions in the act and the courts continued to side with big business, but the precident was there nonetheless
Grover Cleveland
Who: Cleveland (D), President before and after President Harrison
When: 1885-89, 94-97
What: Returning to the gold standard
Why: Blamed the international collapse of the monetary system for the depression of 1893; Sucessfully asked Congress to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act to return to the gold standard; asked J.P. Morgan to back new bonds until Treasury printed $100 million in 1896; Wanted to lower the tariff
Helen Hunt Jackson
Who: Helen Hunt Jackson, author
What: "A Century of Dishonor"
When: 1885, 1881
Why: Exposed American duplicity and corruption in dealing with the indians with central theme of 100 years of mistreatment of the Indians; called for the reservation system to be revoked because it had already caused irreversible damage to Native Americans
Dawes Act
Who: Federal government, Indians
What; Legislation to westernize indians
When: 1887
Where: The West
Why: Intended to ehlp the indians by providing 160 acres of land to each household; the Indians were not to be titled to the land or gain citizenship unless they lived on it for 25 years; destroyed tribal unity, taking power from the chief to the government; in most cases Indians were given arid land
Tweed Ring
Who: Boss Tweed, Democratic Party
What: Political ring
When: 1860s, 1870s
Where: Tammany Hall, New York City
Why: By 1867, Tweed held 17 city offices and controlled 12,000 patronage jobs; milked New York City for millions of dollars, most of which he pocketed and did not help the poor with; in 1871 when he was worth $12 million he was arrested and convicted of 104 counts of fraud and briberty
Samuel Gompers
Who: S. Gompers, American Federation of Labor
What: Union leader
When: 1886-1924
Why: Believed in "pure and simple" unionism, rejecting sweeping assaults on the existing economic system; concerned with winning concrete benefits like higher wages, better working conditions, shorter hours; signaled the acceptance of the wage-labor system and a desire to fit into it; didn't think women should work
Terrance Powderly
Who: T. Powderly, Knights of Labor Union leader
What: Reform union leader
When: 1869
Why: Did not believe in strikes because they often resorted to violence; believed labor and industry could coexist peacefully; opened ranks of union to women, blacks, immigrants; wanted 8-hour workday, abolition of cild labor; did not believe workers constituted a permanent class
Credit Mobileer
Who: Congressmen, company associated with building the Union Pacific
Why: Represented government scandal on the national level; a company that raised money by bribing congressmen to pass legislation useful to them such as land grants and half-price stock
Edward Bellamy
What: "Looking Backward," fiction novel; Boy takes a sleeping pill and wakes up in 2000 in an international society controlled by one big trust; addressed views of urban life, worked unrest and social inequity
Who: Elitest Republicans
What: An unofficial political group
Why: Well-educated, prominent educators and journalists who disdained partisan politics; style of independence and moral rectitude; used positions to influence politics; if not for their disdain for the general public, could have formed a mass movement
Farmers' Alliances
Who: Farmers
Why: Wanted the government to print more greenbacks; wanted government ownership of the railroads and banks; wanted popular election of Senators, to be able to petition for legislations, and to have the secret ballot
The Election of 1896
Who: Bryan (D), McKinley (R)
What: Money issue
When: 1896
Why: Bryan traveled the countryside speaking of the "Cross of Gold"; McKinley had a "front-porch" campaign, but with the help of business organized a modern political campaign complete with pamphelts targeting specific groups, buttons, etc.; said "a threat to gold was a threat to prosperity"
Results: McKinley won because Bryan didn't carry any northern states
William Jenning Bryan
Who: Bryan, a Populist nominated as the Demcrat's presidential canidate for the 1986 election
What: "Cross of Gold," great orator
Where: Speech in Chicago, Dem. convention
Why: "Cross of Gold" speech convinced Democrats to adopt an unlimited coinage 16:1 gold-silver ratio for the 1896 campaign; wanted a high protective tariff; endorsed by the Populists
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Who: Lincoln
What: Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
When: 1863
Why: Said Southern states could organize gvts. after 10% of voters had pledged loyalty to the Union and accepted outlawed salvery; offered amnesty to everyone except high-ranking military and freedmen; Louisana, Tennessee, and Arkansas back in Union under this plan
Wade-Davis Bill
Who: Republicans in Congress
What: Reconstruction plan
When: 1864
Why: required 50% of southern white male citizens to pledge loyalty to the Union; only pledged southerns who never voluntarily bore arms against the Union could vote or serve in Consitutional Conventions; state conventions had to abolish slavery
Freedman's Bureau
What: relief organization
When: 1865
Why: Provided clothing ,fuel, etc. to help suffering refugees and freeman's familes; built schools, paid teachers, established courts for freed people to sue whites
Johnson's Policies, Democrat
Interested in "restoring" not "reconstructing" the Union; lenient policy toward South; not good at compromise; openly racist; wanted to withold political and economic rights of freedmen
Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction
When: 1865
Why: Appointed provisional governor for each southern state; new constitution must revoke ordinances of secession, repudiate the southern debt, and ratify the 13th amendment; offered amnesty and pardon to almost all southerns
13th Amendment
Neither salvery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment of crime... shall exist in the United States"
Black Codes
Stringent laws to restrict economic and political rights of freedmen and preferably, keep them on planations
The Joint Committee of 15 on Reconstruction
Who: made of 8 Radicals and 7 Democrats
When: 1866
Why: Recommended Congress pass laws to protect the freedmen; when Congress voted to extend the life of the Freedman's Bureau and a civil rights bill extending federal court protection to blacks, Johnson vetoed the measures
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Overrode Johnson's vetoes uniting moderates and Radicals against Johnson's policies
14th Amendment
When: 1866
What: Defined citizenship; showed Republicans felt national legislation was necessary to force southerns to treat blacks fairly; caused a shift in the relationship between the federal government and the people by asserting that the national government protected individual rights; did not enfranchise blacks but reduced representation in Congress of any state which did not extend voting to black men
1866 Congressional Election
Republicans won by a 3-to-1 majority
First Reconstruction Act
Declared "no legal government" existed in the South; divided the south into 5 military districts each under command of one Union general; to be constructed, all male citizens had to have the vote and states had to draft state contsitutions guaranteeing black suffrage, and ratify the 14th Amendment
Sherman's Land
Who: General Sherman, blacks fro his army
Where: Sea Island's off of Georgia's coast
Why: Each army family got 40 acres and a mule; 40,000 lived there; Johnson called for blacks towork out legal agreements with legal land owners and blacks who refused were forced to leave the land and go back to their masters
15th Amendment
When: 1870
Forbade states from denying the right to vote based on "race, color, or previous conditions of servitude"; left out women; extended rights to blacks but did not give universal suffrage because it did not prevent poll taxes or other methods of restricting from voting
Tenure of Office Act
Sought to limit Presidential power; required president to seek Senate approval before removing any officeholder who had been previously appointed by the Senate
Describe Johnson's Impeachment
Broke Tenure of Office Act by removing an officeholder, approved by the Senate, without the Senate's approval
Northerner who came South; included businessmen, former Freedmen's Bureau agents, Union army vets; most wante personal gain by advancing on northern ideas in the south; many won seats in the house
White southerns who resented the wealthy elite; included southern unionists, small town merchants, rural farmers
Former planation owners subdivided their land into farms of thirty to fifty acres and leased it to workers; tenants were given seed, fertilizer, farm implements, and clothing; most received half the crop at harvest; most were black; gave some feeling of independence because there weren't overlooked while working in the fields
Corp-Lien System
Merchants, who were also landowners, provided loans to sharecroppers and tenant farmers in exchange for claims on the next year's cotton crop; high interest rates and marked up prices quickly set sharecroppers and tenant farmers into debt
Uylsses S. Grant, Republican- First Term
Republican; Union hero for conquering Robert E. Lee's army; weak leader; scandals plagued his office; appointed greedy men to office, "spoilsmen"; Whiskey Ring
Whiskey Ring
Network of whisey distillers and Treasury agents led by a Grant appointee and former Union general who defrauded the IRS of $4 million in taxes; no evidence Grant was involved
Election of 1872
Grant was renominated with support from S. Republicans, business interests, and Radicals; Republicans platform of political and civil rights for all citizens in the United States and emphasized civil service; Democrats and Liberal Republicans both supported Horace Greeley in an "Anything but Grant" campaign; Grant won the popular vote
Specie Resumption Act
When: 1879
What: called back all greenbacks to replace them wth certificates backed by gold; satisfied creditors but small farmers and debtors worried about too restrictive a tie to gold
Grant's second term, Republican
When: 73-77
Dominated by money issue; Inflation from Civil War issued greenbacks became a problem; Grant endorsed gold
The Colfax Massacre
Where: Colfax, Louisiana
When: 1873, during Grant's first term
What: Blacks who had taken positions to protect Republican officers were attacked by a white mob; 100 blacks were killed before President Grant sent federal troops; the Supereme Court argued the federal government could only persecute states, not individuals, for civil rights violations so no one was tried
Enforcement Acts
Prohibited state officials from interferring with a citizen's rights to vote; created federal election marshalls to oversee congressional elections; included Ku Klux Klan Act which outlawed the group or any other conspiratorial group seeking to deprive individuals of Consitutional rights
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Guaranteed persons of every race "full and equal treatment of all public faciltiies"
Compromise of 1877
Significance: End of Reconstruction
Joint Electoral Commision of 15 gave presidency to Hayes over Tilden; Hayes promised to withdraw final troops from the south, include a southerner in his cabinet, provide federal subsidies for southern internal improvements, and give conservatives control of political patronage; democrats promised to accept Reconstruction amendments
Sound Banking Acts
Created a high tariff and a national currency
Emancipation Proclamation
When: 1863
Significance: turning point in war because it gave the north a moral reason to fight and established boundaries of slavery
Jim Crow Laws
Laws that began by establishing separate railroad cars for backs but extended to libraries, hotels, restaurants, hospital,s bathrooms, and cemetaries
Plessy v. Ferguson
When: (1896)
Significance: Upheld discrimination by a majority ruling that Louisiana railcars could be separate but equal; said the 14th amendment applied only to political reights, no social rights; Legislature could n ow pass laws maintaining "customs" of the people; established legality of separate but equal schools, poll taxes, and literary tests among other things
Booker T. Washington
Gave the Atlanta Compromise urging blacks to stop trying to gain political and social equality and focus on developing vocational skills because he said these would ultimately win them economic equality; advised cooperation and respect among both races
Massacre at Wounded Knee
U.S. War Department dispatched troops to capture Sitting Bull who was believed to invent the Ghost Dance; a supporter of Sitting Bull shot one of the policemen; the tribe was taken to Wounded Knee creek and in the morning someone fired a rifle; 250 native Americans were killed
Blue Laws
Law based on morality rather than legality; included temperance movements which reflected the strong Protestant morality of the country; at teh Centennial Celebration there was to be no alcohol or smoking
Homestead Act
Allowed citizens to claim 160 acres of land and cultivate or live on it for 5 year, pay a small sum, and then it was theirs; designed to help ordinary whites become prosperous farmers
Pacific Railroad Act
When: 1862
What: Pledged the nation to building a train link between the east and west
The Long Walk
When: 1863
What: The Navejos forced to move to swampy New Mexico; the Apaches, who were longtime enemies of the Navejos, were moved in beside the Navejos causing fights; the United States hoped the Navejos would engage in agriculture but gave them impossible land to farm; the Navejos stayed for 5 years until they were finally allowed to return to the four corners
Thomas Edison
Invented the lightbulb among other things after testing 6000 different elements (finally hit on tungsten); formed the Edison Electric Illuminating Company
Pacific Railroad Bill of 1862
Provided federal land grants to railraods to facilitate improved transportation
Economies of Scale basic principle
The cost of a final item costs less the more items you produce
Created by Rockefellar to exert more control, centralize management and decision-making processes, and adjust quickly to changing circumstances
Investment banker; channeled European investment into United States combining finance and industry; in exchange for his services he got some control over companies; managed reorganization of many railroads; controlled over $22 billion in investments worth more than all of the property in the 22 states and territories west of the Mississippi
"The Gospel of Wealth"
Who: Carnegie
What: Argued that better goods at lower prices outweighted the negatives of competition; said the concentration of wealth among a few leaders brought order and efficency out of rapid industrializiation; said the wealth should give to the poor
National Labor Union
Formed: 1866
Who: Craft unions
Goals: Temperance, wage rights, ending "wage salvery", wanted rule of the working class; how did they view the working class and what did they want for it?
The Knights of Labor
What: Reform union
Leader: Terrance Powderly
Members: Anyone, including women, immigrants, and blacks
Goals: 8-hour workday, abolition of child labor, cooperation of labor and industry
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Who: Skilled trades, Samuel Gompers
What: Economic
Where: Columbous, Ohio
Leader: Samuel Gompers
Goals: concrete benfits: higher wages, shorter hours, better working conditions
Principles: Did not want to fight existing economic system; did not support women working
Cornstock Law
Banned any lust inducingmaterial from the mail
Spoils System
Rewarded supporters and contributors with government jobs regardless of competence; i.e. patronage
Ineffective due to Democratic majorities; thought executive power was limited; had no policy to deal with the money supply; did not have a strategy to deal with the industrial conflict; did not seek reelection; his one issue was patronage and corruption- called for civil service reform
Won election based on personality; The Conkling machine, which had helped him to office, wanted him to give over all patronage jobs which he didn't and withheld Senate nominations until Conkling (a senator) resigned; assassinated
Chester Arthur
Garfield's VP, became Pres. after Garfield was assassinated; advocated civil service and tariff reform; used public sentiment from assassination to encourage first national civil service law; unpopular with Congress for using veto power to take power from political machine bosses
Election of 1884
One of the dirtiest elections in history; Cleveland v. Blaine; Cleveland was chosen as a nominee for his morality- he had attacked Tammany Hall while govenor of NY; Had an illegitimate child; endorsed by Mugwumps; Blaine lost the election for letting a comment about Catholics slide
Cleveland's first term
Thought the President had a duty to keep Congress from meddling in people's lives and Congress shouldn't grant special priviledges; vetoed three times as many bills as all his predecessors combined; probusiness
The Election of 1888
Harrison v. Cleveland; Clevelandwon the popular vote, Harrison won the electoral college; Harrison elected
Macune's subtreasury plan
Called for creation of federal subtreasury offices, warehouses for farmers to store nonperishables in to market produce any time anytime of year
The Depression of 1893
Started with the bankruptcy of the Philadelphia and Reading RRs due to overextension with $2.5 billion in bankruptcy in railroads; lack of steel demand from RRs caused further depression; banks failed and recalled loans others couldn't pay; Wall Street panicked causing Industrial Black Friday; demand for gold drained the Treasury
Coxley's Army
Marched on Washington in 1894 with 500 unemployed
Homestead Strike
At one of Carnegie's steel plants in Pennslyvania; workers objected to wage reductions and lockout ordered; strikebreakers hired built a barbed-wire fence around the plant; strikers eventually lost jobs
American Railway Union (ARU)
Formed uniting all workers on railroad with 150,000 workers nationally; joined in Pullman strike; President Cleveland sent in federal troops to break the strike so mail could be delivered
Characteristics of the 3rd Electoral System
1. Locally based issues
2. Two parties- Republican or Democrat; adhere to the party you're born into; no independent voting
3. Voting was party oriented
4. Highly functional system- 90% turnout
Pendleton Act
When: 1883
What: First civil service act; only included federal offices; based on merit, not patronage; passed during Arthur's term
Frank Baum
Author of the Wizard of Oz; Kansas represents heart of Populist movement; Auntie Em and Uncle happy before drought; Wicked Witch of the East symbolized oppression of workers; scarecrow rep. farmers; tin man was a factory worker looking for a heart; Bryan was the cowardly lion; the Yellow Brick Road was the golden standard; Dorthy's shoes were silver in the book
Eugene Debbs
ARU leader; jailed without a trial for the Pullman strike
Cleveland's Depression Actions
Believed the gvt. had no responsibility to help the poor; pointed to the collapse of the international monetary system as a problem; asked Congress to repealthe Sherman Silver Purchase Act sucessfully; people ran to banks to get gold reserves causing Cleveland to have to ask major business leaders for money to back bonds (J.P. Morgan)
4th Electoral System
1. Lower voter turnout, especially among discriminated against ethnic and racial groups
2. Rise of Republican party but the Democratic party remained strong, especially in the south
3. Foreign matters became of increasing concern
4. Many intellectuals began questioning the emerging society
Fredrick Jackson Turner
When: 1893
What: A speech to the American History Society
Why: Emphasized the importance of the frontier to defining American society
Turner Thesis
When: 1893
What: "The Significance of the Frontier on American History"
Where: American Historical Society annual meeting
Why: Explained much of the uniqueness of the American people came from the frontier; referred to 1890 census which said the frontier had closed; though freeland was important because the institutions in our country constantly had to adjust to the changing landscape of America; said the United States was becoming more independent of Europe; said the frontier was an equalitizer; said the frontier encouraged democracy
Lester Ward
Founder of modern sociology; "Dynamic Sociology"; argued that Social Darwinism ignored the potential of many people; argued the government should give planning and structuring of society- the Carnegie's plan wouldn't work
Henry George
"Progress and Poverty"; unique for identifying problems of income inqueity as property; said any land purchased should be taxed 100% because land speculation caused weath, not production
Jane Addams
created Hull House in Chicago; conducted studies in surronding neighborhood; know as first social worker; eventually joined by Kelly; created daycares, parks
Robert M. La Follette
Most successful state-level reformer from Wiconsin; "The Wisconsin Idea"; used statistics and expert advice for government projects
Sixteenth Amendment
Allowed for income tax; pushed by Progressives
Seventeenth Amendment
Called for direct election of Senators; pushed by Progressives
Ran articles about unfair business practices of Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust by Ida _______
Lincoln Steffens
Described municipal corruption is several large eastern and midwestern cities
Upton Sinclair
most famous muckraker; radical novelist; "The Jungle" about "Packingtown" described the filth of factories
The collective effort of various reformers to tame the consequences of industrialization and urbanization; different among wants but prevailing belife that the government should be used to improve society, especially during depressions
Hazen Pingree
Where: Detroit
First progressive mayor; used administrative efficency and social justice; reduced costs of utilies; exposed corruption in city government; started work-relief programs; higher taxes for the wealthy
Carrie Chapman Catt
President of the National American Women's Suffrage Association; had a grassroots campaign at state level
18th Amendment
Prohibited the sale, or making of alcohol
Mann Act
Prohibited transporting of women across state lines for "immoral reasons."
Gentlemen's Agreement of 1908
Ended segregation of Japanese in California schools; reduced Japanese immigration to the United States

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