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Similarities and differences between public speaking and conversation
Similarities- addressing an audience, Differences- public speaking is formal, conversation is informal
The Speech Communication Process
- the audience view (feedback) - the speaker view (spoken message) - the interplay
The five determinants of the rhetorical situation
1. Speaker 2. Audience 3. Speech 4. Occasion 5. Constraints and Opportunities
The four characteristics of the public forum
1. An issue confronts people collectively as well as individually. 2. Cooperative action is needed to address the problem. 3. The decision requires subjective judgment. 4. A decision is required.
Your responsibility for your statements
• Take responsibility for the accuracy and integrity of your statements and need to distinguish between fact and opinion
concern for consequences as a speaker
• Recognizing your speech has consequences is an important ethical responsibility • The fact that others may repeat what you've said in the speech is more reason to be sure that what you have said is true! • High ethical standards should lead you at least to think about how your speech might affect others
The 5 canons of rhetoric
1. Invention - generating ideas and information 2. Arrangement - organization of materials for each main idea, the ordering and connecting of main idea within the body of the speech, and overall structure of the intro, body, and conclusion 3. Style - deals with language choices and if reflects the speakers awareness through language 4. Delivery- The presentation of the speech including maintaining eye contact, physical control, and vocal delivery 5. Memory - sets of strategies you employ to remember such as using note card as a memory device
Establishing positive ETHOS
• Refers to character that is attributed to a speaker by listeners on the basis of what the speaker says and does in speech 1. An audience's judgments about a speaker's character can be quite detailed 2. Judgments about a speaker are made quickly 3. Assessment of ethos are durable
A clear message
• Purpose - Your goal for the speech, the response you are seeking from listeners - Provide new information and ask listeners to think about it • Thesis - A statement of your main idea, it summarizes the basic point you want the audience to accept
Strategies for overcoming speech anxiety
1. Acknowledge your fears, but recognize that you can overcome them 2. Think about what you are going to say and the effect you want to have on your audience 3. Act confident, even if you feel apprehensive 4. Visualize in your mind what it will be like to be a successful speaker 5. Work carefully on the introduction so you can start the speech on s strong note 6. End the speech on a strong note and pause for a second before returning to your seat
What are audience demographics and how do they influence a speaker
• Size - The more listeners there are, the greater distance from them therefore the more formal your presentation is likely to be • Heterogeneity - the smaller the audience the more likely that its members will have similar assumptions, values, and ways of thinking but a large audience assures that members will have different values and assumptions as learning styles said to be "heterogeneous" • Voluntary versus Captive Audience - people who have chosen to hear a speech are more likely interested and receptive than those who have been forced to attend. A captive audience may resent having to hear the speech and undercut the speaker's ethos and message • Composition - you can analyze the audience in terms of demographic such as age, sex, religion, educational level or socioeconomic status.
How do you show respect for different audience cultures
• Deriving examples from different cultures • Emphasizing the speaker's own culture as an example of distinctiveness • Resisting culture-specific references and searching for transcendent approaches
What are selective exposure, selective attention, and perception
Selective exposure- our communication choices are not random, we are inclined to expose ourselves to messages that are important to us personally and that are consistent with what we already believe Selective attention- Choices sometime made unconsciously. We are selective about whether to focus intently on a message, to follow it, to absorb it, and to take it seriously Perception- The particular interpretation or understanding that a listener gets from a speech.
What are the characteristics of a good topic
- Importance to speaker - Interest to the audience - Worthy of listeners' time - Appropriateness of scope - Appropriate for the oral delivery - Appropriateness to rhetorical situation
What is the purpose statement
Statement of overall goal of the speech: providing new information or perspective, agenda setting, creating positive or negative feeling, strengthening commitment, weakening commitment, conversion, or inducing a specific action - Indicates what you want the audience to take away from the speech
What is the thesis statement
The central idea or claim made by the speech, usually stated in a single sentence - Indicates what you want to put into it
Identify the different types of supporting material - what are the strengths and weaknesses
1. Personal experience • S - audience can relate to speaker • W - Must relate be able to relate to your experience or they will not think it meaningful to them 2. Common knowledge • S - This has the status of a presumption where this knowledge is common and consider right until shown otherwise • W - people can believe these presumption are not true 3. Direct observation • S - direct observation can be verified by others. Appeals to the common culture value that seeing is believing • W - 4. Examples • S - an excellent way to get an audience involved with a speech • W - 5. Documents • S - • W - 6. Statistics S- effective way to support a speaker's ideas. W- statistics can be easily manipulated and distorted 7. Testimony S - Listeners are often influenced by people who have special knowledge or experience on a topic. By quoting or paraphrasing such people, speakers can give their ideas greater strength and impact. W -
What are different sources of supporting material
• Periodicals • Newspapers • Books • Reference Works • Government publications • Other material found online • Interviews
Preparation for, conducting, and using interviews
• Prepare for the person/ subject / format • Conduct the interview competently • Take notes or record the interview • Determine what you use in your speech
Reasons why organization is important
• Recall - audience can better remember the main ideas of a speech • Active listening - engages listeners' attention and helps them ignore or override distractions • Personal satisfaction - being able to anticipate "what's coming next makes listeners feel better that they are "in the know"
Characteristics of main ideas
• Simplicity • Discreteness • Parallel structure • Balance • Coherence • Completeness
Organizational patterns for main points
• Chronological • Spatial • Categorical (Tropical) • Cause- effect • Problem - solution • Comparison and contrast • Residues
Functions of the introduction
• To gain the attention and interest of your audience • To influence the audience to view you and your topic favorably • To clarify the purpose or thesis of your speech • To preview the development of your topic
Functions of the conclusion
• Signal that the end is coming • Summarize the main ideas • Make a final appeal to the audience
Purpose of transitions
Transitions, create the sense of movement Help listeners follow the speaker's movement and remember what the speaker said. Keep the speaker from lapsing into nervous mannerisms that would accentuate the gaps between the ideas
Purpose of elements of effective transitions
• Internal summaries - Wraps up one main idea of the speech. It gives the audience a brief reminder of the idea and signal completion. • Links - Connections from one idea to the next. • Internal previews - A preview within the body of the speech, leading into of the main idea • Complete transitions - Includes a internal summary of the point concluded, a link to connect to next point, and internal preview leading into the new point
The differences between the preparation outline and the presentation outline
Preparation outline- is used in composing the speech and is developed in enough detail to show how each idea and piece of evidence fits in overall structure Presentation outline- is similar and briefer and is used as a memory aid while you deliver the speech
Using note cards
it as a memory device and put the key outline
What is the difference between persuading and informing an audience
The 6 strategies for informing your audience
1. Defining -clarify term or concept 2. Reporting- a strategy to relate what happen with little analysis or interpretation 3. Describing- evokes a mental image of the subject 4. Explaining 5. Demonstrating 6. Comparing
How can you encourage listeners to remember the information from your speech
- providing info that draws attention - Using an organizational structure that allows listening to anticipate what is coming next - Making complimentary references to the audience - Making strategic choices about style

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