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AP US Vocab 1900-1918

Terms

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17th Amendment
Provides direct election of senators by the people of a state
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Roosevelt Corollary
An amendment to the Monroe Doctrine - said US would act as International Policemen
Northern Securities Case
1904 - dissolved the Northern Securities Co. because it was a trust
W.E.B. DuBois (Niagara movement)
Black civil rights activist
Upton Sinclair
author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906 - wrote The Jungle
Dollar Diplomacy
Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
Fourteen Points
Speech delivered by Woodrow Wilson at a Joint Session of Congress - gave reasons US should engage in WWI
Progressive Movement
Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax
Federal Reserve System
1913 - central banking system of the US - created by the Federal Reserve Act - quasi public system
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Taft cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I - most important part was the forced blame on Germany and other allies
Lochner V. New York
Supreme Court case that decided against setting up an 8 hour work day for bakers
Sussex/Arabic Pledges
Germany pledged to stop submarine warfare after sinking of Lusitania
Good and Bad Trusts
Square deal outlined these different types of trusts
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's philosphy - trusts were busted so government must now regulate business
The Jungle
Book by Upton Sinclair that spoke of the horrors of the meat packing industry in Chicago
Clayton Anti-trust Act
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Samuel (Golden Rule) Jones
American Political reformer - advanced employee-management relations
International Workers of the World
1905 - Also known as IWW or Wobblies - created in opposition to American Federation of Labor
Lusitania
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs - had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
Irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
Robert LaFollette
Republican Senator from Wisconsin - ran for president under the Progressive Party - proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philipines gain freedom from US
Wobblies
Nickname for the International Workers of the World labor union, headed by Daniel Haywood
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children
16th Amendment
Allowed Congress to levy an income tax
Bull Moose Party
Roosevelt's party in the election of 1812
Niagara Movement
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909
Spheres of Influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Charles and Mary Beard
Famous historians from the 20th century - wrote that the founding fathers were driven by economic issues rather than political philosophies
Insurgent's Revolt
Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule - supported by American sugar planters - yellow press coverage of the Spanish backlash led to the Spanish-American War
D.W. Griffith
American Film Director - directed Birth of a Nation
Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
Zimmerman Note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Eugene V. Debs
Supreme Court case that upheld state restrictions on the working hours of women
Birth of a Nation
Movie released in 1915 - promoted White supremecy and pro KKK - first blockbuster
Volstead Act
Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition
Article X
Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations
Mann-Elkin Act
1901, gave the Interstate Comerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companies
Underwood-Simmons Tariff
1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
Theodore Roosevelt
Former President - Served as head of the Republican Party - known as the trust buster - served in the Spanish-American War - started square deal
Jacob Riis
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"
Reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Muckrakers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Panama Canal
Canal through the Isthmus of Panama - made travel faster between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean
Triple Wall of Privilege
Banks, Tariff, and Trusts were the things Wilson tried to stop
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
U.S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
Woodrow Wilson
American President during WWI - had 14 point plan - key figure in League of Nations
Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Open Door Policy
Foreign policy that stated all countries should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
Food Administration
Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers
Muller v Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
New Nationalism
Theo Roosevelt's system in which the government would cordinate economic activity - government would regulate business
John (Black Jack) Pershing
Led the American Expeditionary Force in WWI
Insular Cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
League of Nations
Proposed organization comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Anthracite Coal Strike
Large strike by coal miners led by Miner's Union president George F. Baer

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