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Describe the alternative high energy phosphate compound that serves to maintain the ATP pool.
Compare the rate of ATP synthesis between Creatine Kinase and Oxidative Phosphorylation.
ATP synthesis via Creatine Kinase is 10 times faster than from oxidative phosphorylation
Describe the function of the Phosphocreatine Shuttle.
Phosphocreatine Shuttle is designed to maintain the [ATP] relatively constant until the muscle nears exhaustion.ATP from mitochondria is transported to cytososol so it can be used by muscle, phosphocreatine is exchanged into mitochondria to regenerate ADP to ATP
Describe the Phosphocreatine / ATP energy pool timeline during exercise.
Phosphocreatine levels are rapidly depleated as they donate their phospate to sustain the ATP stores. When they are depleated the ATP stores drop and the muscle reaches exhaustion.
Indicate the difference between Creatine and Creatinine.
Creatinine is a breakdown product of Creatine (among other things). It has lost a H2O and is rid of by the kidneys.
Identify the dietary and endogenous sources of Creatine.
Dietary = beef, fish, suppliments
Endogenous = liver
List the pros and cons of Creatine Supplementation
Pros: Strength, Muscle Mass, Speed
Cons: Cramps, Diarrhea, Bloating, Injuries, unknown effects of creatinine
What is the function of the Phosphocreatine Shuttle?
Phosphocreatine Shuttle is designed to maintain the [ATP] relatively constant until the muscle nears exhaustion.
Describe the Phosphocreatine / ATP Energy Pool timeline?

Identify the 2 main energy sources of the heart.
Glucose & Fatty Acids (heart prefers)
Identify the metabolic pathway stimulated during a myocardial infarct.
Describe the benefits of glycolysis on a hypoxic or ischemic heart.
Glycolysis supports an hypoxic or ischemic heart. It delays progression of the ischemic contraction & increases chances that functionality will be restored upon reperfusion.
Use Evidence Based Medicine to evaluate GIK therapy for MI patients.
The initial trials suggested that GIK infusion might be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes who were not treated with reperfusion. However, the more recent trials (GIPS-I, GIPS-II, and CREATE-ECLA) utilizing current rapid reperfusion therapies have failed to demonstrate any benefit in the administration of GIK with acute coronary syndromes.

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