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Organic Chemistry Terms


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Hund's Rule


Radius of an Atom
Filling atomic orbitals, pairing of two electrons in degenerate orbitals doesn't occur until each orbital contain one electrons.
Atom that loses elctrons becomes a positive ion.

Distance from the center of nulceus to out
Aufbau Principle


Electron Configuration
As we progress from H(atomic #1) up higher atomic # lowest orbitals are filled first 

Atom that gains electrons becomes a negative ion

Description of election structure for an element
Bond Length

Noble-gas Confoguration

Covalent Radii
Determines distance between nuclei

ex [Ne] perfect 8 electrons, octet rule

Symmetircal covalent compound ex. Cl-Cl or H-H and dividing by two.
Complete Structural Formulas


Condensed Structural Formulas
Formulas in general

Substance that can denote a H ion to a base

Bonds are not always shown and atoms of the same type bonded to one other atom are grouped together
Conjugate Acid

Basicity constant

Equilibrium Control
Of a base is the product of this reaction of the base and H ion

base opposite of Ka

[thermodynamic control] Reversible reactions
Cyclic Compounds

Hydrogen Bond

Polygon Formulas

Compound that contains one or more rings

A partially positive H-atom of are molecule is attracted to the unshared pair of electrons of the electronegative atom

Cyclic compounds a represented by these

Molecular Orbitals

Magnetic Moment
Orbitals that have the same energy

Shared electrons result from merging of atomic orbitals into shared orbitals

Spin of a charged particles gives rise to a small magnetic field
Double Bonds

Atomic Orbitals

Single Bonds
Two atoms can share two pairs of electrons

Regions in space with finding electron with specific energy

Sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
Electron Density

Lewis formulas or Lewis structures

Probability of finding an electron in a particular spot

dot formulas

zero point, probability of fiding an electron is very small

Pauling Scale

Measure of an atom's attraction for its own bonding electrons, especially in covalently bonded compounds

Numerical scale of electonegativity 

Element with a very low negativity
Empirical Formula

Strong Acid

Molecular Formula
Type of atom and numerical ratio in a molecule

Acid undergoes essentially complete ionization in water

Actual number of each atom in a molecule
Equilibrium Constant
Reflects how far the reaction proceeds toward completion [K]
Free Radical

Weak Acid

Bond Dissocation Energy
Unpaired electron

Small proportion of its molecules broken into ions in water

value, delta H
Heterolytic Cleavage


Homolytic Cleavage
Both bonding electrons are retained by one of the atoms

Similar to ammonia; amine contains N atom bonded covalently to one or more C atoms and has unshared pair of electrons

Each atom recieves one electron f
Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond
Results from transfer of electrons from one atom to another

Results from sharing of a pair of ele trons by two atoms
Lewis Acid

Acidity Constant

Lewis Base
Substance that can accept a pair of electrons

Ionization of an acid in water [Ka]

Substance that cen donate a pair of electrons

London Forces

van der Waals radius

van der Waals forces
Nonpolar molecules that are attracted to one another by weak dipole-dipole interactions

distance at which the attraction is greatest

The various dipole-dipole interactions
Molecular Orbitak (MO) Theory

Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory
provides mathematical descriptions of orbitals, their energies, and their interactions

Valence electrons or electron pairs repel each other. These repulsions are used to explain bons angles and molecular geometry
Organic Chemistry

Nonpolar Bond

First Energy Level
The chemistry of the compounds of carbon

Covalent bonds which exert equal or nearly equal attractions for the bonding electron

Lowest energy level of an electron
Partial Charges

Carboxyl Group

Bond Angle

Distrubution of electron density in a polar bond

-CO2H weak acid. Compounds that contain carboxyl groups are carboxylic acids

More than two atoms in a molecule bonds form angle 60-180* 
Polar Covalent Bond

Conjugate Base

Ionic Character
Bond with an uneven distirbution of electron density

An acid is the ion or molecule that is formed when an acid loses its H ion

Continusam increases with nonpolar equivlent bonds to ionic bonds
Second Energy Level

Formal Charge

Third Energy Level
Electrons in second energy level, higher energy

To some of the elements in these structures

Electrons in third shell the higher in energy

Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation

Strength increases when size increases

pH= pKa + log [A]/[HA]

If more electronegative atom can carry a negative charge more readily than a less electronegative atom
Structural Formula


Line-bond Formulas
Show struture of molecules or order of attachment

Substance that accepts a H ion from an acid

Dashes for bonds, electrons not written

Valence-Bond Theory

Standing Waves

Line-bond formulas are used to describe cobalent bonds and their interactions

Wave that has a fixed point at both ends

The height of a standing wave

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