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Ch 15 sage notes


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Bohemian phase
begins with Defenestration of Prague-Protestant forces defeated and Protestantism eliminated in Bohemia
Divine right of kings
power of kings came from God
Gustavus Adolphus
King of Sweden-led army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia
French Civil Wars
9 wars in last half of 16th century-power struggle between 3 noble families for Crown after death of Henry II
War of the Three Henry's
civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Bourbons
Henry VII
reduced influence of nobility through Star Chamber
Encomienda system
Spanish govt. sought to reduce savage exploration of Amerindians in Spanish empire-amerindians worked for owner for certain number of days per week but retained other parcels of land to work for themselves
Defenestration of Prague
HRE placed restrictions on Protestantism-2 HRE officials thrown out window and fell 70 feet into manure
Alphonso d 'Albuquerque
(1453-1515) laid foundation for Portuguese imperialism in 16th and 17th centuries-established strategy of making coastal regions a base to control Indian Ocean
Hapsburg-Valois Wars
(1519-1559) Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended them (1559)-France kept the HRE from gaining hegemony in Germany, while inadvertently helping Lutheranism to spread-Spain defeated France for control of Sicily, Naples, and Milan
Catherine de Medici
dominated 3 sons (kings) fought hard to maintain Catholic control in France
Edict of Nantes
-Henry IV granted religious toleration of Huguenots
sought all water trade route to Asia to tap spice trade-sought to find mystical Prester John for alliance against Muslims
New Model Army
army of Oliver Cromwell
Philip II
(1556-1598) father Charles V-fanatically sought to reimpose Catholicism in Europe-Golden Age of Spain-Escorial
denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
Treaty of Westphalia
ended Catholic Reformation in Germany-renewal of Peace of Augsburg-guaranteed Germany would remain divided for centuries-dissolution of HRE-France, Sweden, Brandenburg received territories and gained international stature-2 Hapsburg branches weakened
Portugal's major colony in New World-large numbers of slaves-coffee, cotton, sugar
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) financed numerous expeditions along West African coastline in hopes of finding gold
Joint-stock companies
investors pooled resources for a common purpose-early examples of capitalism
Bartholomew Dias
(1450-1500) rounded southern tip of Africa in 1488
Bartholomew de las Casas
(1474-1566) priest and former conquistador whose father accompanied Columbus on second voyage-proposed black slavery instead of Native Americans
Edict of Restitution
(1629) Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church
Spaniards married Amerindian women creating children of mixed white and Native American descent
Spaniards born in New World to Spanish parents
Rump Parliament
: 1/5 of original Parliament members left over after Pride's Purge
from South America became important staple crop
Cardinal Richelieu
allied with Protestant forces to defeat HRE-his policies reflect Catholic France's paramount diplomatic concerns as political not religious
Hanseatic League
evolved from within German states in Middle Ages that eventually controlled trade in much of northern Europe well into 16th century-mercantile association of towns and cities
God, glory, and gold
primary motives of age of exploration and conquest
Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castille and unified Spain together
Spanish Armada
1588-Spain's attempt to invade England-Spain's navy lay in ruins: storm, England's better navy-rise of England as world naval power
Mary Tudor
Philip's wife tried to reimpose Catholicism in England-Elizabeth reversed her course in Elizabethan Settlement
Francisco Pizarro
(1478-1541) conquered Incan Empire along Andes mountains in Peru
The Protectorate
Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector-dictatorship-denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics-allowed Jews to return to England-invaded Ireland-conquered Scotland-no fun-regulate lives of English
Francis Xavier
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
William of Orange
led 17 provinces against Spanish Inquisition
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480-1521) ship first to circumnavigate globe-charted enormous size of Pacific Ocean
United Provinces of the Netherlands
formed in 1581-Dutch Republic-received aid from Elizabeth I-major blow to Philip's goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire
Danish phase
represented height of Catholic power during war
James I
since his reign a struggle between king and Parliament regarding taxation and civil liberties-believed in divine right of kings
biggest killer of Amerindians
Price Revolution
increase in prices in 16th century-inflation-increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver
Tomas de Torquemada
Dominican monk-oversaw Inquisition
Calvinists opposed the king in English Civil War
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
1559-ended Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Henry IV
first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris
Star Chamber
nobles tried without jury, could not confront witnesses, and tortured
rule without king (1649-1660)
alliances of cities to oppose nobles-helped bring cities in line with royal authority
supported king in English Civil War
Pride's Purge
elements of New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament
Old Imperialism
characterized by establishing posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations
Spanish Netherlands
10 southern provinces remained under Spanish control (Belgium)
sought practical solutions
tax on land and property
Charles V
most powerful ruler in 16th century-controlled Austrian Hapsburg lands while ruled Spanish Empire-armies sacked Rome in 1527
Hernando Cortes
(1485-1547) conquered Aztecs in Mesoamerica
believed in inner light-divine spark that existed in each person-rejected church authority-Pacifists-allowed women to play role in preaching
Elizabeth I
reversed Mary's course of Catholicism in Elizabethan Settlement-helped Protestant Netherlands gain independence from Spain
slave trade
Jews who had converted to Christianity but were now suspected of backsliding into Judaism
English Civil War
Puritan Revolution
Columbian Exchange
exchange in ideas, plants, animals, and diseases between Americas and Europe
Spanish Inquisition
Isabella's idea-monarchy enforced authority of Catholic church
War of the Roses
(1455-1477) House of York vs. House of Lancaster-civil war to gain crown-York victoriousTudor dynasty
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
marriage of Margaret Valois to Protestant Huguenot Henry of Navarre intended to reconcile Catholics and Huguenots-Henry of Guise had leader of Huguenot party murdered night before wedding-Catherine ordered massacre of Calvinists in response
Dutch East India Company
founded in 1602-became major force behind Dutch imperialism
Maximilian I
gained much territory in eastern France with marriage to Mary of Burgundy-sparked dynastic struggle between Valois and Hapsburgs
Charles I
successor of James I-believed in divine right of kings-dissolved Parliament twice
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean
developed in 17th century-goal is a self-sufficient economy-more exports than imports-limited resources-states should intervene to get largest part of limited resources-get more gold
French phase
International Phase
Spanish who created empires by conquering Indians
Concordat of Bologna
(1516) king of France now had power to appoint bishops to French Church-major blow to papal influence in France
Thirty Years' War
most important war of 17th century-failure of Peace of Augsburg-actually achieves nothing
most significant disease transmitted to Europeans by Amerindians-affected thousands of people
1492-goal to remove last of Moors and Jews and Christianize Spain-significant decline in Middle class
new royal palace built in shape of grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Lawrence-symbolized Philip's power and commitment to Catholic crusade
Amerigo Vespucci
(1454-1512) explored Brazil-first European to realized that he had discovered continent in New World-America named after him
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) Spain sought to secure Columbus' discoveries in New World-New World divided between Spain and Portugal-Portugal given exclusive rights to slave trade-Spain west, Portugal east
Swedish Phase
Protestants liberated territory lost in Danish phase
Commercial Revolution
roots in Middle Ages-pop. growth-price revolution-increase in economic power-rise in capitalism
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) reached Bahamas believed to be Indies- 4 expeditions charted most of major islands in Caribbean and Honduras-ushered in era of European exploration and domination of New World
Oliver Cromwell
fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of Roundheads-led New Model Army to victory
Vasco de Gama
(1469-1525) completed all water expedition to India in 1498-brought back Indian goods-blow to Italian monopoly of trade with Asia
Albrecht von Wallenstein
(1583-1634) mercenary general who was paid by emperor to fight for HRE-won important battles
radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
(1475-1517) discovered Pacific Ocean after crossing Isthmus of Panama in 1513

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