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NWRHS Presidential Flash Cards Set 1


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Rutherford B. Hayes

Republican 1877-1881
James A. Garfield

Republican - Mar 4 1881 - Sept 19 1881
Chester A. Arthur

Republican - 1881-0885

Who is this?
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican - 1877-1881

Who is this?
James A. Garfield
Republican - Mar4-Sept19 1881

Who is this?
Chester A. Arthur
Republican 1881-1885
What were the domestic policies of Rutherford B Hayes?
1879 signed bill allowing female attorneys to argue before the US Supreme Court

1877 signed Desert Land Act; offered 640 acres for 25 cents per acre to anyone who would promise to irrigate the land within 3 years

Bland-Allison Act of 1878: free coinage of silver at ratio of 16:1 to gold

Timber & Stone Act of 1878: sold western timberland for $2.50 per acre in 160 acre blocks; used by speculators to have great expanses declared "unfit for farming" to be sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining)
What were the foreign policies of Rutherford B. Hayes?
The insistence of Hayes on American control helped to shape the policy that eventually produced a Panama Canal owned by the United States.

In June 1877, Hayes authorized American troops to pursue Mexican marauders across the border.

In the 1870s, anti-Chinese sentiment grew, and in 1879, Congress passed a law forbidding any ship to bring more than 15 Chinese to the United States on one trip. Hayes vetoed the law, which he felt amounted to exclusion of Chinese immigrants in violation of a treaty with China.
What were the domestic policies of James A. Garfield?
In the spring of 1881, Garfield began the prosecution of the Star Route frauds, an attempt by post office employees, in collusion with private mail carriers, to defraud the government.

Garfield had a huge battle with Sen. Roscoe Conkling of New York over "senatorial courtesy" regarding state appointments - breaking party patronage

Appointed Robert T. Lincoln as Secretary of War

Refinanced government bonds
What were the foreign policies of James A. Garfield?
first Pan-American diplomatic conference

Filling vacant diplomatic positions
What were the domestic policies of Chester A. Arthur?
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act created the Civil Service Commission, required competitive tests for some federal jobs and prohibited political tests for officeholders.

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 banning Chinese immigration for ten years and forbidding Chinese citizenship.

vetoed the notorious pork-barrel Rivers and Harbors Act of 1882, arguing that the growing surplus of federal funds should be decreased by tax reductions rather than government expenditures

tariff reduction
What were the foreign policies of Chester A. Arthur?
acquisition of the right to construct nautical coaling and repair stations in Hawaii

ratification of a pact of friendship and commerce with Korea

Senate rejection of a treaty negotiated by Arthur to build a canal through Nicaragua.

requested money to strengthen the U.S. Navy. After a long debate Congress authorized the construction of three steel cruisers and a dispatch boat. In 1885, before Arthur left office, Congress agreed to build four more vessels. This was a modest first step toward making the United States a major naval power.

reciprocal trade agreements
Grover Cleveland

Democrat 1885-1889

Who is this?
Grover Cleveland
Democrat 1885-1889
What were the foreign policies of Grover Cleveland?
reached agreement with Great Britain and Canada over fishing rights in waters adjacent to the latter

favored Samoan autonomy over British, German, and even American intervention and control

scuttled the treaty Harrison had negotiated for the annexation of Hawaii and checked further attempts in that direction

When rebellion broke out in Cuba against Spain, beginning in 1895, Cleveland, against rising public sentiment and the provocative actions of U.S.-based arms dealers and volunteer expeditions, maintained official neutrality.

During a boundary dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain over the boundary of British Guiana, he invoked the Monroe Doctrine and convinced the parties to submit the issue to arbitration.
What were the domestic policies of Grover Cleveland?
signed the first Federal legislation designed to protect wildlife on government lands, the Yellowstone Act.

1897- created a number of additional forest reserves containing more than 21 million acres

sent Federal troops to restore order when the American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs, boycotted the cars of the Chicago-based Pullman Palace Car Company, whose workers were striking over wage cuts and the company's paternalistic policies

Growing unemployment, low wages, and excessively long working hours created domestic turmoil. In the spring of 1894, Jacob S. Coxey and his "army" marched from Ohio to Washington, D.C., to petition for unemployment relief. Cleveland approved Attorney General Richard Olney's use of police to disperse the protesters.

Who is this?
Benjamin Harrison
Republican 1889-1893
Benjamin Harrison

Republican 1889-1893
What were the foreign policies of Benjamin Harrison?
Faced with German intervention in Samoa, to which the British had acquiesced, Harrison arranged with the two nations for a three-power protectorate.

obtained an agreement with Britain regarding sealing rights in the Bering Sea

During Chile's civil war in 1891, a mob attacked some American sailors as a reprisal for detention of a rebel ship in the United States, and in 1892 Harrison demanded and received a Chilean apology and an indemnity.

After an 1893 coup, led by former Americans and abetted by U.S. officials and troops, overthrew the Hawaiian Queen, Harrison backed an annexation treaty, late in his term, but new President Cleveland was to withdraw the treaty before Senate ratification.
What were the domestic policies of Benjamin Harrison?
1890 Harrison signed the McKinley Tariff, which raised duties an average of 48 percent.

favored reduction of taxes due to huge government surplus but Congress disagreed

signed Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

signed Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890

1889 opened the Oklahoma District to clamoring homesteaders

approved legislation creating several national parks, and set aside more than 13 million acres of public domain for national forest preserves

a record number of six States were admitted to the Union during his administration
William McKinley

Republican 1897-1901

Who is this?
William McKinley
What were the domestic policies of William McKinley?
The McKinley Tariff 1890 imposed the highest tariffs that the United States had ever placed on imports.

Bimetallism - The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 pledged the government to issue more silver coins.

Gold Standard Act of 1900 - placed the United States on a single gold standard

Dingley Tariff Act of 1897 - levied even higher duties than had his own tariff of 1890; allowed the president to negotiate reciprocal trade agreements with other countries, under which the two countries would agree to lower tariffs on specific goods that they traded with each other.
What were the foreign policies of William McKinley?
Spanish-American War - April to August 1898 - Some people believed that the United States had a moral duty to use its power to help oppressed nations free themselves and construct democratic nations; a revolution in Cuba encouraged these groups; On February 15, 1898, the American battleship Maine exploded in the harbor at Havana, Cuba, and 266 men died; Congress, on April 25, enacted a resolution declaring war on Spain; Successful conclusion of the war with Spain brought peace to Cuba and economic concessions to American business.

Open Door Policy - McKinley announced that all nations should have equal access to China’s markets.

Filipino Revolt - the people of the Philippines wanted American domination no more than they wanted Spanish domination, and McKinley had to suppress their insurrection against American occupation. From 1899 to 1902, 70,000 U.S. troops and perhaps as much as $175 million were used to crush the resistance.

U.S. as Colonial Power - As part of the peace settlement of the Spanish-American War, the US acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. In 1899, by agreement with Britain and Germany, the United States also acquired the island of Tutuila in Samoa Islands

Who is this?
Theodore Roosevelt
Republican 1901-1909
Theodore Roosevelt

Republican 1901-1909
What were the domestic policies of Theodore Roosevelt?
Pennsylvania Coal Strike 1902 - Roosevelt summoned the owners and the miners’ representatives to Washington; When the owners still refused to negotiate, the president announced that he would appoint an investigative commission and, in effect, threatened to use U.S. Army troops to run the mines -- unprecedented use of his presidential powers.

National Securities Case - lawsuit to dissolve a railroad trust; emphasized to the nation’s industrial and financial directors that their interests were subservient to national interests

Meat Inspection Act 1906 - a bill providing for meat inspection

Hepburn Act of 1906 - authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to determine and prescribe maximum rates and to order the railroads to conform to them within 30 days. It also extended the regulatory powers of the commission to sleeping car, pipeline, and express companies. Four years later it was extended to telephone and telegraph companies.

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 - prohibited the manufacture of unsafe foods or drugs.

conservation efforts: set aside some 60 million hectares (150 million acres) of public lands to protect them from exploitation by private interests. He later added 34 million hectares (85 million acres) in Alaska and the Northwest to the public domain.

National Reclamation Act (1902) established irrigation and other services for Western lands. i.e., Roosevelt Dam near Phoenix, AZ

asked Congress to establish the Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903
What were the foreign policies of Theodore Roosevelt?
New Imperialism - Roosevelt's "corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine set up the U.S. as "policeman" in the western hemisphere. Under TR the U.S. "empire" extended to include the Philippines, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.

Panama Canal - He also oversaw the building of the Panama Canal, a tremendous feat that enhanced U.S. commerce immeasurably.

Treaty of Portsmouth - he negotiated the treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905; was awarded the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize

displays of US power - 1907 world tour of US Navy fleet; urged a stronger and more efficient army; made significant reforms to improve the Department of War; involved the creation of an effective general staff under a chief of staff and the reorganization and enlargement of the army school system.
William H. Taft

Republican 1909-1913

Who is this?
William H. Taft
What were the domestic policies of William H. Taft?
Arizona and New Mexico statehood

trust-busting litigation - Almost twice the number of antitrust cases were brought to the courts in Taft's four-year term than during Roosevelt's seven and a half years in office.

Ballinger-Pinchot dispute - Gifford Pinchot, head of the U.S. Forestry Service accused Ballinger of allowing private companies to obtain reserved coal lands in Alaska. In the course of investigating the charges, Taft dismissed Pinchot.

signed the 16th Amendment - gave US gov't the right to collect income taxes

signed the 17th Amendment - provided for direct election of US senators

The Publicity Act - which required political parties to divulge the sources and amounts of money they spent in federal election campaigns.
What were the foreign policies of William H. Taft?
"dollar diplomacy" - encouraged U.S. bankers and industrialists to invest abroad and used diplomatic pressure to force U.S. capital into regions where “it would not go of its own accord.”

promoted U.S. investments in the Caribbean, arranged it so that Americans were in charge of Latin American finances whenever possible, and used U.S. Marines when persuasion failed to accomplish his objectives

support of an international agreement in 1911 to preserve seal herds and his settlement of the Newfoundland fisheries disputes

was a major supporter of arbitration as the most viable method of settling international disputes.

The Payne Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909, which replaced the Dingley Tariff of 1897, trimmed the overall tariff rate from 46 to 41 percent while increasing the tariff rates on items such as coal, iron ore, and animal hides. Taft, a supporter of the Act, defended it against Democratic and Progressive republican charges that it was a token measure representing little departure from the conservative republicans' protective tactics.

Who is this?
Woodrow Wilson
Democrat 1913-1921
Woodrow Wilson

Democrat 1913-1921
What were the domestic policies of Woodrow Wilson?
Federal Reserve Act of 1913 - succeeded in passing a bill instituting the Federal Reserve

Clayton Antitrust Act 1914 - established a Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair business practices; forbade ownership of stock in competing corporation, Price cutting below cost to eliminate competitor; Since labor unions were exempt from law, boycotts
peaceful strikes and peaceful picketing were legalized.

Espionage and Sedition Acts - outlawed criticism of the government, the armed forces, and the war effort. Violators of the law were imprisoned or fined, and even mainstream publications were censored or banned.

1916 "New Freedom" legislation passed during Wilson's first term included an act improving working conditions for American sailors; the Federal Farm Loan Act, which provided credit for farmers; the Warehouse Act, which helped farmers obtain loans; the Adamson Act, which set an eight-hour workday on interstate railroads; an unemployment compensation act for federal employees; a bill providing greater self-government for the Philippines; and a bill prohibiting child labor.
What were the foreign policies of Woodrow Wilson?
Between 1914 and 1918 the United States invaded or intervened in Latin America many times, particularly in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba, and Panama.

Between 1917 and 1920 the U.S. supported the "White" side of the Russian civil war, first monetarily, but later with a naval blockade and an invasion force.

After refusing to recognize the Mexican government of General Huerto, he said, "I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men." He then sent U.S. forces into Mexico on an unsuccessful mission to try to get a change of government.

president/commander in chief during WWI

author of the Fourteen Points

architect of the League of Nations
What were the domestic policies of Warren G. Harding?
Immigrant Quota Act of 1921 - first established an immigration quota system. Each European nation was assigned an annual number of immigrants equal to 3 percent of the number from that country residing in the United States in 1910.

"The Ohio Gang" - placed many of his old allies in prominent political positions; some of the appointees used their new powers to rob the government

Teapot Dome Scandal: Sec. of Interior Albert Fall was eventually convicted of renting public oil fields to private concerns in exchange for personal loans. In 1931 Fall became the first member of Cabinet to be sent to prison.

Fordney McCumber Tariff Act - Sec of State Hughes and Sec of Commerce Herbert Hoover used the tariff to secure oil markets in the Middle East

established the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget)which increased the powers of the president by directing departmental spending plans to him rather than to Congress

allowed Andrew Mellon to push through tax cuts for the rich, stopped anti-trust actions, and opposed organized labor.
What were the foreign policies of Warren G. Harding?
Dawes Plan - revised Germany's war debts downward through legislation; Ruhr Valley would be evacuated by Allied forces; German Reichsbank would be reorganized under Allied supervision

Washington Naval Conference: naval conference with nine other nations to freeze naval spending in an effort to reduce taxes and curb the arms race

1921 treaty with Colombia proposed a payment to that country of $25 million for the loss of Panama; Senator Lodge, chairman of the powerful Committee on Foreign Relations, urged adoption of the treaty to soothe Colombia and to obtain drilling rights there for U.S. oil companies.

Who is this?
Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding

Republican 1921-23
What were the domestic policies of Calvin Coolidge?
Presided over orderly prosecution of Harding Era scandals; restored trust in presidency.

Signed legislation making Indians U.S. citizens.

Signed the Federal Radio Act, creating Federal Radio Commission.

Dedicated Mount Rushmore.

Authorized construction of Hoover Dam.

Immigration Act of 1924 - curbed the number of eastern and southern Europeans allowed into America and excluded the Japanese altogether

Revenue Acts of 1924 and 1926 - initiated by Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon, the wealthy Pittsburgh banker who favored tax cuts for the rich. These acts freed up private funds that fueled the speculation behind the stock market crash of 1929.

Proposed an anti-lynching law and a federal Department of Education and Relief.

Veterans Bonus Act of 1924 - awarded World War I veterans paid-up insurance policies that were redeemable in twenty years; passed over Coolidge's veto

farm relief legislation - took the stand of limited aid to farmers, twice vetoing farm relief bills while in office.
What were the foreign policies of Calvin Coolidge?
⬢ Favored U.S. participation in the World Court.
⬢ Opposed U.S. participation in the League of Nations.
⬢ Avoided war with Mexico and restored good relations with that nation.
⬢ Withdrew U.S. troops from Nicaragua.
⬢ Non-recognition of the Soviet Union.

Kellog-Briand Pact - renounced war as a means of settling international differences, but the pact had no means of enforcement and was little more than an empty gesture

Attended the International Conference of American States in Havana.

Latin American Economic Imperialism - the United Fruit and Standard Fruit companies controlled most of the revenue of Honduras, and U.S. firms dominated Venezuelan oil production. Control of the Panama Canal, and a policy of using of troops, when necessary, to safeguard U.S. interests also worked to give America the upper hand in the region. In a direct show of influence, U.S. troops trained and maintained a pro-American National Guard in the Dominican Republic and occupied Nicaragua and Haiti with a peacekeeping force of U.S. soldiers throughout the decade. Americans also controlled Cuban politics and the Cuban economy, and the U.S. nearly came to blows with Mexico over the ownership of Mexican oil fields by American companies.

Who is this?
Calvin Coolidge
Republican 1923-29
Calvin Coolidge

Republican 1923-29

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