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EOSC 110


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two most common minerals in the crust, all oxygens share 3D structure, ex. quartz and feldspar
a conical mountain formed around a vent where lava or pyroclastic materials erupt
covalent bonding
sharing electrons in the outer shell
mineral resource
a concentration of minerals that is valuable, ex. galena, silver, spalerite
atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
melted rocks prior to eruption form intrusive rocks (plutonic rocks)
vent for hot gases
growth of a solid from a liquid or gas in a crystalline arrangement
silicate forms
isolated tetrahedra, tetrahedra are isolated from each otehr by cations, ex. olivine
metamorphic rock
rocks from pre-existing rocks changed by pressure and temperature
ability to split along a plane of weakness
Van der Waals bonding
a weak attraction between mostly neutral atoms, eg. water
remanent magnetization
material will stay magnetized for a long time after the magnetic field is removed
felsic rock
rich in felsic minerals like quartz and feldspar. are light in colour and weight, ex. granite, rhyolite, lower siliccate content, more fluid
melted rock exposed at the surface forms extrusive rocks (volcanic rock)
inorganic, naturally reoccurring crystalline solide with a fixed internal arrangement of atoms and a fixed or variable chemical composition
sedimentary rock
an aggregate of minerals from weathering or precipitation
a mineral bounded by planar surfaces and whose shape is controlled by the internal structure of atoms, eg. halite (salt)
each tetrahedra shares 3 oxygens, tetrahedra form sheets interlayered, ex. mica
magnetism is due to the growth of the "correctly" aligned domains at the expense of others
metallic bonding
the outer shell of electrons moves freely, there is extreme electron sharing which makes metals great conductors
an aggregate of minerals
ionic bonding
missing or extra electrons can produce an ionic charge that attracts ions together, giving ions away
the most ferromagnetic mineral, common in basalt
thermoremanent magnetism
as the mineral cools the magnetizations is "locked in" because the domains can no longer shrink or grow easily
single chains
oxygen bond to adjacent tetrahedra, linked by cations, ex. pyroxene
a depression overlying a volcanic crater
Bowen's reaction series
crystalization happens in order of simplest to most complex
double chains (rings)
two chains likned by tetrahedra oxygens ex. hornblend (an amphibole)
"the present is the key to the past", same processes have occurred throughout earth's history
mafic rock
rocks with more ferromagnesian minerals, dark in colour and heavy, ex. gabbro, basalt, higher silicate content, more viscous
intrusive rocks
rocks that cooled and crystallized slowly from molten rock (magma) inside the earth

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