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Biology Mid-Term Review


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plant cell
A small living part of a multicellular organism that makes its own food in chloroplast and reproduces sexually or asexually.
the division of the cytoplasma of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
1663, 1st person to observe (dead) cells; named them "cells". Used compound microscope & observed cork.
cell wall
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
hypertonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions
passive transport
movement of materials through the cell membrane without the use of energy
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
a guess that leads to further investigation
a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized to NAD+ and reduced to NADH
small, dense particles that are found attached to ER or in clusters in the cytoplasm called polyribosomes. Ribosomes function in protein synthesis.
light microscope
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
Krebs Cycle
a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy
Cells that contain a nucleus and organelles. All cells, except bacteria; are this.
cell membrane
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
These have a negative charge and orbit the nucleus
saturated fat
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms
metric system
a decimal system of weights and measures based on the meter and the kilogram and the second
the cells powerhouse, turning food into energy, it's where cellular respiration takes place. (Harvesting chemical energy).
active transport
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient, with energy
a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio or proportion
Green, light-trapping pigment in plant chloroplasts that is important in photosynthesis.
valence electrons
The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.
an organism that is produced by asexual reproduction and that is genetically identical to its parent; to make a genetic duplicate
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances,smallest unit in an atom, made up of only on kind of atom
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
A network of membranes inside eukarytoic cells invovled in lipid synthesis, detoxification, and/or Ca2+ storage
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotes, it consists of a cell-growth period in which DNA is synthesized and a cell-division period in which mitosis takes place
covalent bonds
form when electrons are shared between atoms
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
animal cell
A small living part of a multicellular organism that eats to gain energy and reproduces sexually.
organisms that make their own food
ionic bonds
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a statement based on something one has seen, heard or noticed
A sac made of membrane inside of cells.
The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole
atomic number
The number of protons in an atom's nucleus
cell theory
all living thing composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells produced from existing cells
adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
cellular respiration
the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
nuclear pores
structures in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of certain materials between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm
peptide bonds
The chemical bond formed between the carboxyl groups and amino groups of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all protein structures.
a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration
unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms
atomic mass
The average mass of one atom of an element
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
consumers, they rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction.
amino acids
are the basic structural building units of proteins.
carboxyl groups
COOH - Fatty acids, amino acids
one of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator
nuclear envelope
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Made of two lipid bilayers that seperate the nucleus from the cytoplasm, semipermeable
energy levels
The specific amount of energy an electron has.
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)
Two small structures that move to the ends of the cell. The spindle fibers are connected to these
substances that help build and maintain body cells and tissues
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
Golgi body
a structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell
isotonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
diatomic molecules
molecules made up of two atom of the same element
pyruvic acids
a colorless acid formed as an important intermediate in metabolism or fermentation
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
nucleic acids
large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; store and process info at the molecular level inside cells; two classes: DNA, RNA
the first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes
Ending materials in a chemical reaction.
These have no electrical charge, but add to the mass of the atom
asexual reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
German pathologist who recognized that all cells come from cells by binary fission and who emphasized cellular abnormalities in disease (1821-1902)
daughter cell
a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis
proteins that act as biological catalysts
hypotonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
organelles that store starches or oils
German physiologist and histologist who in 1838 and 1839 identified the cell as the basic structure of plant and animal tissue (1810-1882)
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
Electron transport chain
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
electron microscope
a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
Properties of life
cellular orginization, reproduction, metabolism, homeostasis, responsivness, heredity, growth and development, evolution, interdependence
the movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle
light absorbing molecules
ionic compounds
a compound made of oppositely charged ions
rough endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
A primitive kind of cell containing no nucleus or organelles. All of these cells are organisms called bacteria.
charged particles that form during chemical changes when one or more valence electrons transfer from one atom to another
energy rich organic compounds made up of the elements carbon hydrogen and oxygen
German physiologist and histologist who in 1838 formulated the cell theory (1804-1881), all plants are made of cells
a phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate
The part of the atom's mass that has a positive charge
the regrowth of missing tissues or organs
How acidic or basic a substanceis, measured on a on a scale of 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic).
In an experiment, the standard used for comparison.
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
cell plate
forms in the middle of cells that have a cell wall; it contains the materials for the new cell membranes and the new cell walls that seperate the new cells
a fatty substance that does not disolve in water
adenosine diphosphate, an organic molecule that is involved in energy metabolism; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and two phosphate groups
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms; a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces
large central vacuole
stores material and makes it possible for plants to store weight
concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a space
lactic acid
a clear odorless hygroscopic syrupy carboxylic acid found in sour milk and in many fruits
light dependent reactions
the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis
light independent reactions
ATP, NADPH, and CO2 come into the Kreb cycle and glucose comes out
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
exports material out of cells vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and open up
lysosome (vacuole)
the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolosis reactions that break down fats

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