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Biology terms

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carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
what are 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things?
element
pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
cohesion
attraction b/w molecules of same substances
6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H12O6 + 6CO2
photosynthesis equation
endocytosis
process of taking material into cell by pockets of cell membrane
store energy
what's the function of lipids?
6CO2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
cellular respiration equation
uneven distribution of electrons between oxygen and hydrogen atoms
why are water molecules polar?
observation
process of gathering info about events and processes
endoplasmic reticulum
site where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled; along w/ proteins and other materials exported from cell
pyruvic acid + NADH --> alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Alcoholic Fermentation equation
Spallanzi
concluded that nonliving gravy didn't produce living things; same thing as Needham except BOILED
stroma
region outside thylakoid membranes (place where Calvin Cycle's in)
cell theory
all living thing composed of cells, cells are basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced by existing cells
golgi apparatus
modify, sort + package proteins/other materials from ER for storage in cell or secretion outside cell
inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge/experience
ATP
"full-charged battery"; adesonine triphosphate
pinocytosis
process by which cell takes in liquid from surroundings
ATP and NADH to produce 2 pyruvic acid
what does glycolysis break down?
phagocytosis
extensions of cytoplasm surround particle and package with food vacuole
Kreb's Cycle
pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in series of energy-extracting reactions
hypertonic
"above strength"
lysosomes
structure in cell that removes junk + cell and breaks down organelles that aren't useful
cytoplasm
where does glycolysis take place?
mitochondrion
where does the Krebs cycle and ETC take place inside?
pyruvic acid + NADH --> lactic acid + NAD+
Lactic Acid Fermentation equation
mixture
material composed of 2+ elements; physically but not chemically combined
Van der Waals Forces
intermolecular forces of attraction (ex. lizard)
chemical compound
substance formed by chemical combination of 2+ elements in definite proportions
vacuoles
stores materials like water, proteins, carbs, etc.
growth and development, reproductions, made up of cells, use materials and energy, responding to environment, evolution, homeostasis, universal genetic code
what are the characteristics of life?
theory
well-tested explanation that unifies broad range of observations
glycolysis
first step releasing energy of glucose
electron
negatively charged particle; constantly moving
Electron Transport Chain
uses high-energy electrons from Kreb's Cycle to convert ADP into ATP
covalent bond
electrons that are shared b/w atoms (ex. H20)
exocytosis
cell releases large amounts of material
mitochondria
convert chemical energy stored in food; compounds convenient for cell to use
diffusion
process where particles tend to move from area of high concentration to an area of less concentration
isotonic
"same strength"
photosystems
light-collecting units of chloroplast
atom
basic unit of matter
aerobic
require oxygen
Pasteur
created a flask that had a long curved neck that remained open to the air, but microorganisms from air didn't make their way to the neck into the flask. broke the flask = broth became filled quickly filled with microorganisms = spontaneous generation did not exist
ADP
"half-charged battery"; adesonine diphosphate + phosphate
ribosomes
proteins assembled on ribosomes; small particles of RNA found throughout cytoplasm
protons, neutrons, electrons
3 subatomic particles that make up atoms
chromosomes
contain genetic info = passed from 1 generation to next
isotopes
atoms of the same element that differ in # of neutrons
thylakoids
arranged stacks = grana
ion
positively/negatively charged atoms
hypotonic
"below strength"
equilibrium
when concentration of solute is same throughout a system
main source of energy
what's the function of carbohydrates?
store/transmit genetic information
what's the function of nucleic acids?
Needham
hypothesized that spontaneous generation could occur under the right conditions; HEATED gravy with one bottle open and one bottle closed
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
adhesion
attraction b/w molecules of different substances
control rate of reactions, regulate cell processes, grow, transport substances, fight diseases
what's the function of proteins?
chromatin
non-condensed form of chromosomes
nuclear envelope
dotted w/ thousands of nuclear pore = allows materials to move in and out of nucleus
Redi
hypothesized that flies produce maggots = spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur
active transport
cells move materials in opposite directions
biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, groups of cells, cells, molecules
Levels of Organization
ionic bonds, covalent bonds
main types of chemical bonds
osmosis
diffusion of water through selectively permeable membrane
chloroplasts
capture energy from sunlight and converts to chemical energy in process = photosynthesis
ionic bond
when 1+ electrons are transferred from one atom 2 another (ex. NaCl)
chloroplasts
where does photosynthesis occur in?

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