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Biology midterm review

Terms

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golgi apparatus
organelle that modifies, packages, and ships proteins
Organ
Many groups of tissues that work together
as glucose is oxidized NAD+ is...
converted into NADH
Macromolecule
A large molecule made of many smalles molecules.
immigration
the number of organisms moving into an ecosystem.
Atomic Mass
This is equal to the number of protons and neutrons
Hypotonic
Less concentrated solution
where pyruvic acid goes if there's no oxygen
fermentation
type of reaction that occurs in muscles during exercise
lactic acid fermentation
organism
an individual living thing
photosynthesis
the process in which autotrophs convert light energy into chemical energy
polymer
a bunch of monomers connect to each other
neutrons
= atomic mass - atomic #
step four glycolysis
all phosphate groups are removed from the molecule to make two molecules of pyruvic acid, the four released phosphates convert four ADP to four ATP
Stoma
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
how NAD+ becomes NADH
electrons released through glycolysis attach to NAD+
Pinocytosis
Tiny pockets form along the cell memebrane and pich off to form vacuoles within the cell
cytoplasm
fluid portion of the cell
chemical formula
shows the kind and proportions of each type of atom
nuclear envelope
surrounds the nucleus
Calvin cycle
parts of photosynthesis that don't need light
total ATP produced in glycolysis
4 ATP
cytokinesis
mitosis is now complete, but two nuclei still lie in the same cytoplasm.
Non-Polar Covalent Bonds
Even sharing of electrons.
chemistry
the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
efficiency of cellular respiration=
energy required to make ATP/energy released by oxidation of glucose
which types of organisms undergo cellular respiration
both autotrophs and heterotrophs
Isotonic
When the concentraion of water and sugar will be the same on both sides of the membrane
acidic
hydrogen ions (H+) are in greater concentration than the hydroxide ions (OH-)
Covalent Bond
A link between two atoms that share a pair or more than one pairs of electrons.
structure of chloroplasts
3 membranes, grana, thylakoid, stroma, chlorophyll
Lysosome
Small organelles filled with enzymes
Equilibrium
When the concenrtration of the solute is the same throughout a system
where the Krebs cycle takes place (prokaryotic)
the cytosol
Amino acids
The building blocks of proteins which can be electrically charged.
Hypertonic
More concentrated solution
Saturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid were bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms, that can store a lot of energy. They are also Relatively straight molecules such as animal fats,butter, lard and grease that are solid at room temprature.
reactants in photosynthesis
CO2, water, sunlight energy, chlorophyll and other light absorbing pigments
three physical states of matter
solids, liquids, and gases
Diffusion
When particles move from an area that is more concentrated to less concentrated
cell membrane
organelle that controls what enters and leaves the cell
cytoskeleton
organelle that helps the cell keep its shape; made of microtubules and microfilaments
nucleotide
nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate
equilibrium
when an ecosystem's population is balanced. there are no drastic changes in the population
thymine
T
Light reactions
parts of photosynthesis that need light
Monosaccharides
The building blocks of carbohydrates are single sugars such as glucose and fructose.
Isotopes
Two or more forms of an element differing in terms by the numbers of neutrons in the nuclei of their atoms.
chemical reactions & ATP
involved in cell membrane transport and protein synthesis, only a small amt of ATP ina cell at one time, not useful for long-term storage, energy storage in sugars and starches
two stages of aerobic respiration
the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain
species
a group of organisms associated according to attributes or properties determined by scientific observations
facilitated diffusion
process that moves materials from high to low concentration with the help of protein channels; does not require energy
Ionic Bonds
This is force of attraction between atoms based on opposite charges.
Fatty Acid
A long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms bonded to them.
lipid
macromolecule made from carbon and hydrogen; fats and oils are examples
Cell theory
Fundamental concept of biology
metaphase plate
the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell with sister chromatids
ADP
adenosine diphosphate (2 phosphate groups)
what affects the rate of photosynthesis?
light intensity, temperature, concentration of CO2, concentration of O2
Double Covalent Bond
A link between atoms that share two pair of electron- two electrons from each element are shared.
compound
the bonding of one or more elements in a fixed ratio
smooth er
organelle involved with lipid synthesis and drug detoxification
Fleming Walter
german scientist first observed cell division
chloroplast
organelle that helps plants convert sunlight into glucose
Enzymes
Substances that increase the speed of chemical reactions.
light
a form of electromagnetic energy or radiation
Chromosomes
Cell divides chromatin condenses to form
Endocytosis
Taking material into the cell by means of infolding of the cell membrane
Electron
Negatively charged; found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus; each with an atomic weight value of 0.
Photosynthesis
light+H20+CO2 = C6H12O6+O2
protein
macromolecule needed by the body for growth and repair
Chemical Bonds
Attraction, sharing or transfer of outer shell electrons from one atom to another.
enzyme
biological catalyst
Protein
linked amino acids.
final electron acceptor of ETC
oxygen
the products of cellular respiration (3)
CO2, water, and ATP
Solution
A mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance.
Photosystems
structures in light reaction
prokaryote
single celled oraganism, does not have a nucleus and does not have membrane bound organelles
formula for photosynthesis:
6H2O + 6CO2+ Light Energy ----> C6H12O6+ 6O2
Protein Synthesis
Making of a protein with two sub-processes
photosynthesis
the chemical process which changes chemicals, nutrients & sunlight into food (green plants)
chemical bond
the force holding atoms together that occurs when electrons of the outermost orbital of one atom are either transferred (ionic bond) or shared (covalent bond) with the outermost orbital of another atom
anaerobic
does not require the presence of oxygen
eukaryote
multicellular organism, has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
somatic cell
body cell
Phospholipids
Make up the lipid bilayer of cell membranes.
Cohesion
An attraction between substances of the same kind.
vacuole
organelle that stores materials (water, salts, proteins)
what type of energy is photosynthesis?
chemical --> electrical
Organ system
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
leaf structure
cuticle, vascular tissue, epidermis, mesophyll cells, guard cells, stomata
Ion
An atom, radical or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge.
hydrogen
bonds bases together
Lipid bilayer
Composition of nearly all cell membrane is a double-layered sheet
what is the major energy transfer molecule?
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
autotrophs
use inorganic materials to produce food (bacteria, all algae, plants)
how many carbons in lactic acid
3
lipid bilayer
double layered structure of the cell membrane
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Chemical instructions for protein
Nitrogenous bases
adnine,guanine,cytosine,thymine
covalent bond
shared electrons that create a strong bond between atoms
solution
a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed
Four Nitrogen Bases in RNA
Guanine and Cytosine, Adenine and Uracil
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit.
1st phase of mitosis
prophase
sister chromatids
DNA and proteins condense into observable chromosomes. One half is the original chromosome, the other half in the copy that was made during Synthesis.
Fats
Lipids that store energy.
reaction:
CO2 +H2O and sunlight --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Ribosomes
Small particles of RNA and protein found throughtout the cytoplasm
Disaccharides
Are double sugars formed when two monosaccharides are joined.
fertilization
union/joining of the egg and sperm
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Carries amino acids to ribosomes
subtrate
a substance on which and enzyme acts during a chemical reaction.
thermal energy
converts matter from one state to another
Cytoplasm
Material inside the cell membrane, not including the nucleus
Stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast
active site
The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.
synthesis
DNA is replicated in preparation for cell division
mitosis
neuclear division
amino acid
monomer of a protein
lysosome
organelle that digests bacteria and old parts of the cell
pigments
substances that absorb and reflect light
herbivore
heterotrophs that feed only on plants
step one glycolysis
two phosphate groups are attached to one molecule of glucose, ATP converted to ADP
Acetyl CoA
formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
predator
an organism that hunts for food (another organism)
where the reactions of glycolysis take place
cytosol
what pyruvic acid undergoes with no oxygen present
fermentation
nucleotide
monomer of a nucleic acid
cuticle
helps protect against water loss
chromosomes
as the spindle pull in opposite directions, this ends up in the very middle of the cell.
Glycolysis
1st step in cellular respiration
gas particles
particles move around freely
cell
basic unit of life
Proton
Positively charged particle; found in the nucleus; each with an atomic weight value of 1.
type of reaction in cellular respiration
redox
Lactic acid fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
carbohydrate
major source of energy for humans; macromolecule made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; sugar is an example
osmosis
diffusion of water; moves from high to low concentration; does not require energy
autosomal chromosome
non sex chromosomes
Chromatin
Granular material you see on nucleus
Neutron
Neutrally charged; found in the nucleus; each with an atom weight value of 1.
4th(last) phase of mitosis
telophase
anaphase
the sister chromatids are pulled apart at their centiomeres by the mitotic spindle/kinetochore complex.
step three glycolysis
G3P molecules lose electrons and receive another phosphate group, two molecules of NAD+ converted into NADH
Atom
The smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means.
Cell Wall
Strong supporting layers around the membrane
Polar Covalent Bonds
Uneven sharing of electrons.
gametogenesis
process by which gametes develope
cytosine
C
step two glycolysis
6-carbon molecule split into two 3-carbon molecules of G3P
how photosynthesis and cellular respiration depend on each other
the products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration, and the reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration
Atomic Number
This is equal to the number of protons.
efficiency of glycolysis=
energy required to make ATP/energy released by oxidation of glucose
gametes
sex cells
biotic
all living organisms of an organism's environment.
polymerase
attaches nucleotides
Alcohol fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
uracil
U (RNA)
food chain
a simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
carbon atoms are linked by a "double" covalent bond each with only one hydrogen atom such as olive oil, fish and vegetable oils. liquid at room temprature.
RNA
Consists of a single strand of nucleotides
series of reactions
1. light absorption, 2. light dependent reactions in thylakoid, 3. light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) in stroma
Carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
carbon cycle
the continuous process by which carbon is exchanged between organisms & the environment
ATP --> ADP
adding a phosphate group to ADP stores a small amt of energy. removal of a phosphate group releases a small amt of energy.
carnivore
heterotroph that feeds only on other animals.
active transport
process that moves materials from low concentration to high concentration; requires energy
aerobic respiration
pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make lots of ATP
3rd phase of mitosis
anaphase
what fermentation does not produce
ATP
nucleolus
small, dense region in the center of the nuclei
pH
power of hydrogen
Aerobic
process that requires oxygen.
trophic level
a feeding step representing the passage of energy and materials in a food chain, each level/step represents an organism in the food chain
ADP + P --> ATP
adding phosphate group
where the Krebs cycle takes place (eukaryotes)
the mitochondria
DNA
Consists of two strands of nucleotides that spiral around each other.
Molecule
The smallest unit of a substance
products in photosynthesis
glucose, oxygen
liquid particles
particles flow and are not as tightly packed as solid particles
glycolysis
a biochemical pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid
three subatomic particles
electron, proton, and neutron
Compound
A substance made up of the joined atoms of two or more different elements.
omnivore
heterotroph that eats both plant & animal material.
types of energy
chemical, potential, mechanical, kinetic, electric
Bases
Compoundes that reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution are called...
decomposer
organisms that break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms
in the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid reacts with ? to form ?, and releases a ?
CoA, acetyl CoA, CO2 molecule
phloelm
carries nutrient material
why is cell division important?
growth & development =stem cells and mutation & disease = dwarfism & cancer
Energy
The ability to move or change matter.
Major Types of RNA
Ribosomal, Transfer, Messenger
ATP
adenine, 5-carbon sugar, 3 phosphate groups which carry a negative charge and are easily separated. this releases energy.
the Krebs cycle, function
breaks down acetyl CoA
Cell specialization
Cells that develope in different ways to perform different tasks
ribosome
organelle that makes proteins
thylakoid
one stack
Thylakoid
discs inside chloroplast
Element
A substance that can not be broken down into other substances except by extraordinary means (radioactive decay).
Cellulose
A polysaccharide that prvides structural suppost for plants.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Used to make ribosomes
organ where lactic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid
liver
ATP
a single nucleotide with two extra energy storing phosphate groups.
chemical energy is stored where?
in energy bonds between carbon and hydrogen
homologous chromosomes
teh human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes
ribose
sugar in RNA
Acids
Compounds that form hydrgen ions when dissolved in water are called...
Prokaryote
Cells that does not contain nuclei
Fermentation
glucose broken down, releasing alcohol or lactate
food web
expresses all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community; more realistic than a food chain as most organisms depend on more than one species for food
Cellular respiration
opposite of photosynthesis
what fermentation regenerates
NAD+
2nd phase of mitosis
metaphase
Active transport
1. Requires energy 2. Goes up the concentraion gradient
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
adhesion
the attractive force between unlike substances
cell theory
all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from preexisting cells
meiosis
the type of cell division that produces new combinations of chromosomes and genes. the daughter cell contain only half the number chromosomes found in the original cell
Wavelength
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
community
a collection of interacting populations
two stages of cellular respiration
glycolysis and aerobic respiration
basic
hydrogen ions (H+) are in lower concentration than the hydroxide ions (OH-)
Activation energy
The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called...
atomic mass
= # of protons + # of neutrons
2
the number of identical parts that chromosomes divide into
Enzyme catalase
Assists in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
why do leaves need pores?
to let CO2 inside
mitotic spindle
each of the resulting chromosomes is pulled towards this oppositve side of the cell.
electrons
# of protons
meiosis
reduction division
Carbon fixation
carbon from CO2 attached to other molecules
Cell
Basic unit of life
Reactants
The starting materials for chemical reactions.
Krebs cycle
eight step cycle, 2nd step in cellular respiration, 2 turns of cycle, 2 ATP
Nucleolus
Where the assembly of ribosomes begins
heterotrophs
energy comes from the food they eat
what is the energy released by the organic compound mostly used to do
produce ATP
chromosomes
this lines up in the center or the cell with sister chromatids.
atom
the smallest particle of an element that can combine with other elements
sex chromosome
the x and y pairs of chromosomes, xx female xy male
what does light intensity do?
increases rate of photosynthesis until light reactions are saturated, then the rates levels off
how various fermentation pathways differ (2)
enzymes and products
cellular respiration
the process of burning glucose to generate energy. all cells undergo this
characteristics of living things
cellular, reproduction, organized, growth, respond to stimuli, evolve/adapt,use energy, inheritance
Organelle
Little organs
chromosomes
what we call the sister chromatids once they are separated.
chromosomes
when the cell prepares to divide,this chromatin condenses into X-shaped structures
lactic acid fermentation
pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid
Exocytosis
The removal of large amounts of material from a cell
catalyst
something that speeds up the rate of a reaction
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefitted.
helicase
unzips DNA
energy
the ability to do work or cause change
Autotroph
organism that makes its own food
process of alcoholic fermentation (2 steps)
CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid, two hydrogen atoms added
Element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
cellular respiration equation
C6H12O6+6O2---> 6CO2+6H2O+ATP
telephase
two new nuclei are organized at each end of the cell
Golgi apparatus
Proteins are produced in rough ER and is moved into a stack of membrane called
what is regenerated in alcoholic fermentation
NAD+
where pyruvic acid goes when oxygen is available
aerobic respiration
Eukaryote
Cells that contain nuclei
chromatin
DNA tightly coiled with proteins
Phagocytosis
Extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package in within a food vacuole
greenhouse effect
when the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation by allowing incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from earth's surface.
consumer
an organism that eats producers or other consumers to obtain its energy.
what happens to NADH in lactic acid fermentation
it is oxidized and converted to NAD+
Single Covalent Bond
A link between atoms that share one pair of electrons- one electron from each element are shared.
molecule
a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces; smallest part of a compound
Ions
Atoms or groups of atoms that have become electrically charged when the individual atom or groups of atoms has lost or gained one or more electrons.
gene
section of bases
what happens in photosynthesis?
clusters of chlorophyll molecules and accessory pigments, these pigments are excited by light and energy is funneled to a reaction center, electrons in the chlorophyll molecules are excited, boosted away from the molecule and passed from one carrier molecule to another in an electron transport chain, the electrons lost by the chlorophyll are replaced by some from the splitting of a water molecule, must replace electrons to stabilize molecule, get replacement electrons from the splitting of water (2H2O --> 4e- + 4H+ + O2 gas), electrons are picked up by the electron carrier NADP+ to from NADPH (hydrogen ion carrier, electron carrier), chemiosmosis
alcoholic fermentation
pyruvic acid is converted into ethyl alcohol
grana
stacks of sacs
xylhem
carries water
the two common fermentation pathways products
lactic acid and ethyl alcohol
nitrogen cycle
the circulation of nitrogen in nature, bacteria is needed to convert nitrogen for most organisms to use
microfilaments
In animal cells, a ring of this forms around the center of the cell and begin to squeeze.
Heterotroph
organism that gets its food from other organisms
organisms that use alcoholic fermentation
plant cells and unicellular organisms
Mesophyll
Chloroplast loaded cells
ER
Eukaryotic cells also contain an internal membrane system
Peptide Bond
The bond between the amino acids; the P room puts together by dehydration synthesis
how many NADH molecules produced in glycolysis
2 NADH
Vacuoles
Kinds of cells contain saclike structures and stores materials
capillarity or capillary action
the movement of water upward against gravity
elements
the basic building blocks of matter
Activation Energy
Start up energy required to get the chemical reaction to occur.
Chloroplast
Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
heirarchy of life
atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
Products
The newly formed substances.
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplast
producer
an organism that uses photosynthesis to obtain its energy.
aerobic respiration produces ?x as much ATP as glycolysis
20
stroma
fluid in chloroplast (like cytoplasm)
Mitochondria
Organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compunds that are more convenient for the cell to use
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule
cell
the basic unit of structure and function
net yield of ATP in glycolysis
2 ATP
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape, also involved in movements
cell wall
organelle that supports and protects the cell; only found in plant cells
solid particles
particles are tightly packed
mitosis
the process of replicating a cell. two new cells are produced with the exact same number of chrosomes as the original cell
cellular respiration
the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
Nucleus
Large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material
interphase
the time period between neuclear division
organelle
specialized structure that performs certain functions in a cell
chromosomes
unravel into masses of tangled chromatin
zygote
fertile egg
what happens when organic compounds are broken down into simpler compounds
energy is released
Nucleotide
Is made up of a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group
Visible light
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
mitochondria
organelle that provides the cell with energy; powerhouse of the cell; breaks down glucose and carbs into usable energy for the organism
chromatin
storage form of DNA in non-dividing cell
Nucleic Acid
A long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
monomer
a single subunit
nucleus
composed of protons and neutrons
chromation
when the cell is not in the process of replicating the DNA and protein complexes are spread throughout the nucleus
buffer
a chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting or donating H+ ions to solutions
Lipids
Nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. They include fats, phospholipds, steroids, and waxes.
Atomic Weight
This is equal to the number of protons and neutrons, but it is not always a whole number
Adhesion
An attraction between different substances.
when pigments absorb light...
electrons are excited to a higher energy level
nuclear envelope
This breaks apart and disappears. The nucleoulus also disappears at this point.
energy
the ability to do work or make something happen
prey
organisms eaten by a predator
electron cloud
the electrons orbiting around the nucleus, always moving in and out of various energy levels
Triple Covalent Bond
A link between atoms that share three pair of electrons- three electrons from each element are shared.
chemiosmosis
the hydrogen ions from water build up inside the thylakoid space creating a concentration gradient and a charge gradient (potential energy), these hydrogen ions move out of the thylakoid through an enzyme pore (ATP synthase) and the energy generated adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP: at the end of the light reactions, the cell has stored energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, released oxygen gas
Anaerobic
process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
mitosis
nucleus and cytoplasm divide to form new cells
isotope
a form of an atom with the same # of protons and a different number of neutrons
Cell Membrane
Thin, flexible barrier (two-layers of lipids)
guanine
G
ecosystem
interactions among the populations in a community and the community's physical surroundings
Calvin Cycle
calvin cycle takes place in stroma, regenerate RuBP ---how? count carbon atoms, RuBP - 5 carbons, cycle needs to go 6 times, so 6CO2 needed to keep reaction going, need enough carbons
Chemical Reaction
Change in chemical bonds that produce on or more new substances.
abiotic
non-living parts of an organism's environment
centriole
organelle that helps with cell division
Polysaccharides
Such as starch, are chains of three or more monysaccharides.
ecology
a branch of biology developed from natural history; scientific study of interaction among organisms and their environments.
diffusion
movement of particles from high to low concentration; does not require energy
Facilitated diffusion
1. Doesn't require energy 2. Goes down the concentraion gradient
ionic bonds
the bonds formed when charged particles attract each other
importance of meiosis
in animals, meiosis results in the production of gametes. In the plants meiosis results in the production of spores without meiosis the fertilized egg would twice the number of chromosomes
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another
what is used to make lactic acid
one hydrogen atom from NADH and one free hydrogen proton
organism
a living thing
glucose breakdown releases...
over 600 kcals of energy (36-38 ATP molecules)
fermentation
the breakdown of pyruvic acid by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
polar covalent bond
bonds formed between water molecules with unequally shared electrons
sex cells only have 2 chromosomes to the body cells 4 chromosomes
what makes the sex cells different from the body cells
population
group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same area.
Centrioles
Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division
Catalysts
Substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction.
heterotroph
organism that cannot make its own food and must feed on other organisms
nucleus
control center of the cell; contains DNA
Chlorophyll
green pigment that aids in photosynthesis
Tissue
Group of similar cells that perform a particular function
hydrogen bond
a bond formed when the hydrogen portion of one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen portion of another water molecule
autotroph
organisms that use energy from the sun to manufacture their own nutrients.
daughter cells
The two cell that will eventually pinch off into two of this.
Concentraion
Mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
Nuclear envelope
Composed of two membranes
products of the Krebs cycle (3)
CO2, hydrogen atoms, and ATP
ATP --> ADP + P and energy
removing phosphate group
chemiosmosis
process by which ATP is made using the energy released as protons move across a memrbrane
chromosome
threadlike structure where genes are located
the liver
where lactic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorous; DNA and RNA are examples
adenine
A
mitosis
the process that a plant or animal cell goes through to duplicate itself
nitrogen fixation
the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds by natural agencies or various indistrial processes.
saturated solution
a solution in which no more solute will dissolve in the solvent
Chemical Reaction
A process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed.

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