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Biology Vocab, Semester 1 Exam


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nuceic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
amino acid
compound with an amino group (NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other end
the thrid phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes pairs seperate and move towards opposite poles
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
evidence, information gathered from observations
atom of an element that has a number of neutrons diffrent from that of other atoms of the same element
cell specialization
sperate roles fro each type of cell in multicellular organsims
ATP sythase
large protein that uses energy form H+ ions to bind ATP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
one of the principle chemical compounds that living things use to store energy
single sugar molecules
single-celled microorganisms that lacks a nuclei
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles serperate and take up postitions on the oppopsite sides od the nucleus
responding variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipuulated variable, also known as the dependant variable
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
cell fractionation
technique in which cells are broken into pieces adn the diffrent cell parts are seperated
network of protein filaments within some cells that help the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of the cell movement
negativly charged particle, located outside the atomic nucleus
selectively permeablity
property of biological membranes that allows only certain substances to pass through them
compound made of cabon, hydrogen adn oxygen atoms; major sources of energy
attraction between molecules of diffrent substances, in plants: attraction between unlike molecules
thread like structre within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the abilty to control growth
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to powere chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
light-dependant reactions
reactions of photosythesis that uses energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
cell wall
string layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae and some bacteria
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
smallest unit of most compounds
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
attraction between molecules of teh same substance
active transport
energy rewuireing process that moves material accross a cell membrane against a concentration diffrence
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or brakes down matterials as it brakes down or down materials as it carries out its life process
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
sexual reproduction
process by which two cells from diffrent parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes though protein channels
long, thin fiber functions in the movement and support of the cell
small unit that can be joined together with other small units to form polymers
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system in cells in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
light obsorbing colored molecule
group of tissue that work together to perform closely related functions
faciated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
material inside the cell membrane- but not including the nucleus
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
large compund formed from combinations of many monomers
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
lipid bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation od homologues chromosomes in a diploid cell
monomer of nucleic acids made up of 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
covalent bond
bond formed when one or meore electrons are transferred from one atom to another
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the solution are evenly distributed
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
science that seeks to understand the living world
process that requires oxygen
cell culture
group of cells grown in a nutrient soultion from a single organall cell
the center of the atom whcih contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, large structure inside some cells that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activieies
chemical reaction
process that charges one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
van der waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppostely charged regions of nearby molecules
amount if energy required to raise the temperture of 1 gram of water by 1 celsius degree
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
large molecules formed from monosacchardes
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled made of RNA and protein
area where the chromomes are attached
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in a definite proportions
compund that forms hydrogen ions (h+) in solution
material composed of two or more elements or sompounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combinded
saclike body on chloroplasts made of photosythentic membranes that contain photosystems
division of the cytoplasm during cell divsion
group of similar cells that performs a particular function
principal pigments of plants nad other photosythetic organisms, captures light energy
large structure inside some cells that contains the cells genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activities
compound light microscope
microscope that allows ligt to pass through a speciamin and uses two lenses to form an image
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of gluscose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
collection of living matter, enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surroundings, basic unit of all life forms
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surroundung; basic unit of life
organsim that obtains energy from the food it consumes, also called a consumer
krebs cycle
second stage if cellulare respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken inot carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions
term used ti refer to a cell that contains onlt a single set of chromosomes and there for only a single set of genes
element or compund produced by a chemical reaction
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during mitosis
controlled experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all the other variables the same
compound that produsses hydroxide ion (OH+) in soultion
cellular respiration
proces that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxigen; made up of glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
process by whicj a cell takes material into the cell by infolding if the cell membrane
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates
small, dense region in which the assembly of ribosomes begins
spontaneous generation
hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could rise form unliving matter
substance that is dissolved to form a solution
calvin cyle
term used by scientists to measure the energy stored in foods; 1000 calories
organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world, also the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using the process
change made in a kind of organism over time process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; is also called a producer
region outside tthe thylkoid membranes in chloroplasts
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in the eukaryotic cells
use of one or more of the senses- sight, sound, hearing, touch, smell and taste- to gather information
electron microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons on a microscope
metric system
decimal system of measurment based on certain physical standards and scaled on a multiple of 10
cell theory
idea that all liveing things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit if structure and function in living things and new cells are produced from existing cells
mocromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus
hollow tube of protein that mainatains cell shape and can also serve as a "track" along which organelles are moved
process by which molecules tend from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
single-celled microorgansims that lacks a nucleus
reactant of an enzyme- catalyzed reaction
device that produces magnified images of structures that are to small to see with the naked eye
pH scale
measurment system used to indicate the concentration of hydrigen ions (h+) in soultion; ranges from 0-14
basic unit of matter
process that does not require oxygen
cell division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
fanlike microtubule structure that helps serperate the chromosomes during mitosis
part of teh eukaryotic celll division during whcih the cell nucleus divides
substance in whicj a soulute is dissolced to form a soution
ionic bond
bond formed when one or more electrons are transfered from one atom to another
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-enegy electrons from chlorophyll to another molecule
manipulated variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to manipulated variable; also known as the dependant variable
process in which cells release energy in the absense of oxygen
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of an animal cell near the nuclear envelope
elemt or compound that enters inot a chemical reaction
atom that has a postive or negative charge
organelle found in cells of plants and some organisms that uses energy from sunlight to make energy rich food molecules by photosythesis
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair to make up enzymes
nuclear envelope
double-membrane layer that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
electron transport chain
a series of proteins in which the high enegy electrons form from the krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP
proceses by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal enviroment
activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
diffusion of water through a selcetively permeable membrane
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

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