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Neering Biology - Chapter 1, part of 2

Terms

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Adhesion
Molecules of different substances stick together.
Resolving Power
Ability of compound m-scope to distinguish detail
Ingestion
Taking in food from the environment
Cohesion
Molecules of same substance stick together
Hydrogen bonds
Attraction of the hydrogen atom on one molecule, and the oxygen on another
Organism
Living thing
Regulation
Maintaining a stable internal environment in a changing external environment
Polarity
Unequal distribution of charges
Adaptation
A structure or behavior that allows survival in a particular environment
Catabolism
The breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances that result in the release of energy
Anabolism
Using energy to create complex substances from simpler substances
pH Scale
Indicates the concentration of H+ (hydrogen) ions in solution
Independent variable
Manipulated during experiment (X-AXIS)
Protons
Positively charged particles, nucleus
Synthesis
Combining simple substances chemically to form complex substances, amino acid chains
Anaerobic Respiration
Does not require oxygen, glucose is partially oxidized
Tissue Culture
Growing cells outside of body in culture medium
Autotrophs
Organisms that can make their own food
Objective
Lower lens above specimen
Stain
Chemical used to highlight cells under microscope (METHYLENE BLUE, LUGOL'S SOLN. OR IODINE, AND WRIGHT'S STAIN OR BLOOD)
Electron Microscope
Electron beam that allows greater magnifications/resolutions
Abiogenesis
Idea that living things can arise from nonliving things (SPONTANEOUS GENERATION)
Solute
Substance that is dissolved
Weight
Pull of gravity on the mass
Stereo Microscope
Two oculars allow 3-D imaging (DISSECTING)
Solution
All components evenly distributed thorughout
Scientific method
Problem, Hypothesis, Experimenting, Recording, Conclusion, Replicating Work
Asexual Reproduction
One parent produces offspring
Mass
Amount of matter in an object
Ionic Bonds
Electrons are given away to another atom to balance shells (NaCl)
Theory
Tested hypothesis that is confirmed and unlikely to be disproved
Nutrient
Any substance that can be used in metabolism for energy, growth, repair, or regulation.
Stimulus
Any change in the surroundings that causes a response in an organism
Egestion
Elimination of indigestible material from the digestive tract (BACTERIA, CELLULOSE)
Micro Dissection
Using small tools to dissect cells
Response
The reaction of an organism to a stimulus
Molecule
Atoms joined by covalent bonds
Characteristics of Life
Reproduction, One or more cells, Growth and Development, Responding to Environment, Respiration
Multicellular Organism
Organisms made up of many cells
Differentiation
Unspecialized cells become specialized for certain body functions
Assimilation
Incorporation of synthesized materials into body structure, amino acid chains added to body
Micron
1/1000 of a millimeter
Element
Pure, one type of atom
Data
Information collected in an experiment
Controlled experiment
Only one factor is changed, others remain the same
Variable
Any factor that can change or be changed
Isotopes
Same element, differing numbers of neutrons in each atom
Experiment
A way to test a hypothesis
Metabolism
The sum total of all chemical reactions in the body
Van der Waals forces
Holds multiple molecules together
Acids
Compounds that form H+ (hydrogen) ions in solution and have pH values below 7
Electrons
Negatively charged particles, clouds around nucleus
Incomplete Metamorphism
Egg, nymph, adult
Covalent bonds
Electrons are shared between atoms to balance shells (H2O)
Nutrition
Materials are taken in by all organisms and turned into usable forms
Growth
Organism increases in size
Homeostasis
The process by which organisms respond to stimuli in ways that keep conditions in their body suitable for life
Suspensions
Mixtures of water, and non-dissolved materials
Buffers
Weak acids/bases that can react with strong acids/bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
Aerobic Respiration
Requires oxygen, glucose is oxidized to CO2 and H2O
Solvent
Substance in which a solute dissolves
Respiration
Process by which organisms obtain energy by releasing chemical energy stored in nutrients
Complete metamorphism
Egg, larva, pupa, adult
Bases
Compounds that produce Hydroxide ions (OH-) and have pH values above seven
Compound Microscope
Two lenses
Ocular
Eyepiece (USUALLY 10X)
Neutrons
Neutrally charged particles, nucleus
Dependent variable
Measured for results of experiment (Y-AXIS)
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Reproduction
Organism produces new organisms of there own kind (ASEXUAL, SEXUAL)
Centrifuge
Machine that separates materials into layers by density
Unicellular organism
Organism made up of one cell
Excretion
Removal of metabolic wastes
Simple Microscope
One lense
Digestion
Breakdown of complex food materials into simpler forms that can be used by an organism
Heterotrophs
Organisms that cannot make their own food
Pasteur
Scientist, disproved idea of spontaneous generation, special flask that let in air but kept microorganisms out
Transport
Distributing substances throughout an organism
Environment
All the living and nonliving things that make up the surroundings of the organism
Sexual Reproduction
2 parents produce offspring
Metamorphism
Change over time (COMPLETE, INCOMPLETE)

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