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Viruses, Bacteria, and Cell Theory

This is my marking period two study list for my science course. The set includes info on types of viruses, bacteria, and the immune system.

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
stage clip
holds slides in place
cytoplasm
the material within a cell apart from the nucleus
antibodies
proteins that destroy pathogens
antigens
molecules that the immune system recognizes either as part of your body or as coming from outside your body
inflammatory response
when fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues then white blood cells fight the bacteria
flagella
the plural form of flagellum (more than one flagellum)
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
nosepiece
holds objective lenses
objective lenses (4x, 10x, 40x)
magnification from 4x to 40x
Robert Hooke
created the first microscope
aerobic
bacterial cells that need oxygen to survive
conjugation
the process in which a unicellular organism transfers some of its genetic material to another unicellular organism
host
a living thing that provides a source of energy for a virus or organism
active virus
viruses that enter cells and immediately begin to multiply- the cell dies quickly
flagellum
a long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
pasteurization
a process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
Matthais Schleiden
discovered that all plants are made of cells (1838)
electron microscope
uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce a magnified image
B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
produce proteins that help destroy pathogens
Robert Koch
German bacteriologist who isolated the anthrax bacillus and the tubercle bacillus and the cholera bacillus (1843-1910)
compound microscope
has two convex lenses. can magnify an object more than one lens by itself
stage
supports slides
bacteriophage
a.k.a "bacteria eater", it is a robot shaped virus that infects bacteria
Rudolf Virchow
discovered that new cells only come from the cells that already exist (1855)
light
illuminates specimen/slide
hidden virus
viruses that "hide" in host cells before becoming active- becomes part of cells DNA
respiration
the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain
coarse adjustment knob
raises and lowers stage or objective lenses
asexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
diaphragm
adjusts amount of light passing through the hole in the stage
base
handle, supports microscope
sexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
resolution
another term for "sharpness of image"
receptor
the place where a virus connects to a cell in the body- like a key fitting into a lock. If the _____ is the same shape on the cell as it is on the virus, the virus enters it
cell membrane
the outside cell boundary that controls which substances can enter or leave a cell
lymphocytes
white blood cells that distinguish between different types of pathogens/bacteria
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in which a cell divides to form two identical cells
Theodor Schwann
discovered that all animals are made of cells, and concluded from his discovery and Schleiden's work that all living things are made of cells
virus
a tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then multiplies inside a living cell
T-lymphocytes (T-cells)
indentify pathogens by marker molecules (receptors)
fine adjustment knob
for exact focusing
arm
supports upper part of microscope handle
cell wall
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch pioneer microscopist who was among the first to recognize cells in animals
eyepiece
magnifies 10x
parasite
viruses that live on or in a host and cause it harm
phagocytes
engulfs bacteria and destroys them by breaking them down
ribosomes
a small, grain-like structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made
decomposer
an organism that breaks down chemicals from wastes and dead organisms and returns important materials to the soil and water
anaerobic
bacterial cells that don't need oxygen to survive
endospore
a small, rounded, thick-walled resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell

Deck Info

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