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GRE Pocket Reference 2


undefined, object
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1 [usu. in sing. ] a thing that is helpful or beneficial : the navigation system will be a ~ to both civilian and military users.; 2 archaic a favor or request : may I have the inestimable ~ of a few minutes' conversation?; adj. (of a companion or friend) close; intimate; favorite : he debated the question with a few ~ companions in the barroom.
laugh in a breathy, gleeful way; chuckle : he ~ed at his own pun.; a breathy, gleeful laugh : Thomas gave a ~.
1 the authority to perform a task or certain duties. ; 2 a group of people officially charged with a particular function : the United Nations High ~ for Refugees. ; 3 an amount of money, typically a set percentage of the value involved, paid to an agent in a commercial transaction : foreign banks may charge a ~ | he sold cosmetics on ~ . ; 4 a warrant conferring the rank of officer in an army, navy, or air force : he has resigned his commission. ; 5 the action of committing a crime or offense : use of a deadly weapon in the commission of a felony.
adv. with an attitude or look of suspicion or disapproval : the reformers looked ~ at the mystical tradition | a waiter looked ~ at Charlie's jeans.
(of a fluid, esp. blood) change to a solid or semisolid state : blood had ~ed around the edges of the wound. ; • [ trans. ] cause (a fluid) to change to a solid or semisolid state : epinephrine coagulates the blood.
distress or embarrassment at having failed or been humiliated : Jeff, much to his ~, wasn't invited. verb (be ~ed) feel distressed or humiliated : he was chagrined when his friend poured scorn on him.
(in the Roman Catholic Church) officially declare (a dead person) to be a saint : he was the last English saint to be ~ed prior to the Reformation.; • figurative regard as being above reproach or of great significance : we have ~ed freedom of speech as an absolute value overriding all others.; • accept into the literary or artistic canon [as adj. ] : a familiar, ~ed writer.
a short thick stick used as a weapon.
v. 1 hesitate or be unwilling to accept an idea or undertaking : any gardener will at first ~ at enclosing the garden.; • [ trans. ] thwart or hinder (a plan or person) : the utmost of his influence will be invoked to ~ the law.; • [ trans. ] ( ~ someone of) prevent a person or animal from having (something) : the lions, fearing to be ~ed of their prey.; • (of a horse) refuse to go on.; n. 2 a roughly squared timber beam.; 3 any area on a pool or billiard table in which play is restricted in some way.; 4 a ridge left unplowed between furrows.
1 a strongbox or small chest for holding valuables. ; • ( coffers) the funds or financial reserves of a group or institution : the federal government's empty ~s. ; 2 a recessed panel in a ceiling.
1 a meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy.; • the members of such a body.; 2 a group of people with shared concerns within a political party or larger organization.; • a meeting of such a group.; v.hold or form such a group or meeting.
1 ( C-) historical a supporter of King Charles I in the English Civil War.; adj. showing a lack of proper concern; offhand : Anne was irritated by his ~ attitude.
a defensive wall.; • figurative a person, institution, or principle that acts as a defense : the security forces are a ~ against the breakdown of society.; • (usu. bulwarks) an extension of a ship's sides above the level of the deck.
lay siege to : he is leading a relief force to the aid of the ~ed city.; • beset with difficulties : the board is supporting the ~ed director amid calls for his resignation.
able to be communicated to others : the value of the product must be ~ to the potential consumers. ; • (of a disease) able to be transmitted from one sufferer to another; contagious or infectious.
a corpse. See note at body .; [from Latin, from cadere 'to fall.']
an exclamatory passage in a speech or poem addressed to a person (typically one who is dead or absent) or thing (typically one that is personified).
a group of islands.; • a sea or stretch of water containing many islands.; [from Italian arcipelago, from Greek arkhi- 'chief' + pelagos 'sea.' The word was originally used as a proper name ( the Archipelago [the Aegean Sea] ): the generalization of meaning occurred because the Aegean Sea is remarkable for its large numbers of islands.]
make amends or reparation : he was being helpful, to ~ for his past mistakes.
impudent or irreverent, typically in an endearing or amusing way : a ~ grin.
of, relating to, or affecting cattle : ~ tuberculosis | ~ tissue.; • (of a person) slow-moving and dull-witted : amiable ~ faces.; an animal of the cattle group, which also includes buffaloes and bisons.
a road or track not following a main route; a minor road or path.; • a little-known area or detail : ~s of Russian music.
secret or illegal cooperation or conspiracy, esp. in order to cheat or deceive others : the armed forces were working in collusion with drug traffickers | ~ between media owners and political leaders. ;
cheerful friendliness; geniality : he exuded good humor and ~.
a pithy observation that contains a general truth, such as, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." See note at saying .; • a concise statement of a scientific principle, typically by an ancient classical author.
the person or thing at which criticism or humor, typically unkind, is directed : his singing is the ~ of dozens of jokes.
(of a story or statement) of doubtful authenticity, although widely circulated as being true : an ~ story about a former president. See note at spurious .
given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behavior : a ~ and often brutal administration | a ~ climate.
extreme greed for wealth or material gain.
a situation or event that creates a sudden increase in wealth, good fortune, or profits : a bonanza in military sales | [as adj. ] ~ year for the computer industry.; • a large amount of something desirable : the festive feature film ~.;
reprimand (someone) severely : he was ~ed for not setting a good example.
severely critical of others : modest, charitable in his judgments, never ~, Jim carried tolerance almost too far. {the appointment of censorious watchdogs over the broadcasters hypercritical, overcritical, fault-finding, disapproving, condemnatory, denunciatory, deprecatory, disparaging, reproachful, reproving, censuring, captious, carping, sitting in judgment. antonym complimentary.}
having or showing an ability to accurately assess situations or people and turn this to one's advantage : an ~ businessman. See note at keen .
a place, usually a civilian's house or other nonmilitary facility, where soldiers are lodged temporarily.
be deprived of a loved one through a profound absence, esp. due to the loved one's death : the year after they had been ~ed | [as adj. ] ( ~ed) ~ed families | [as plural n. ] ( the ~ed) those who counsel the ~ed.
a thick stick with a heavy end, used as a weapon figurative : a rhetorical ~ in the war against liberalism.; v. beat (someone) repeatedly with a ~ or other heavy object.; • force or bully (someone) to do something : she was determined not to be ~ed into submission.; • ( ~ one's way) make one's way by brute force.
a person who collects or has a great love of books.
divide into two branches or forks : [ intrans. ] just below Cairo the river ~s | [ trans. ] the trail was ~ed by a mountain stream.
1 treat in an indulgent or overprotective way : I was ~ed and cosseted. ; 2 cook (an egg) in water below the boiling point.
(of a person) large and strong; heavily built.
splash small drops of a liquid substance all over (an object or surface) : his shoes were ~ed with mud.
swiftness of movement.[from Latin celeritas, from celer 'swift.']
1 in a state of pitiful or contemptible intellectual or moral ignorance, typically owing to a lack of opportunity : they saw themselves as bringers of culture to poor ~ed peoples.; 2 overtaken by darkness : a storm developed and we were forced to wait ~ed near the summit. [ORIGIN late 16th cent. (sense 2) : past participle of archaic benight [cover in the darkness of night, obscure] (see be- , night ).]
(in general use) a personal possession.; • Law an item of property other than real estate. See also goods and ~s .
rude in a mean-spirited and surly way : it seems ~ to complain.; {rude, ill-mannered, ill-bred, discourteous, impolite, unmannerly, uncivil, unchivalrous; inconsiderate, uncharitable, surly, sullen. antonym polite.}
1 munch or chew vigorously and noisily : he ~ed on his sandwich.; 2 fret impatiently : he waited, ~ing at her nonappearance.
(adj. -rical) 2 a thing that is hoped or wished for but in fact is illusory or impossible to achieve : the economic sovereignty you claim to defend is a ~.;
1 Music relating to or using notes not belonging to the diatonic scale of the key in which a passage is written.; 2 of, relating to, or produced by color.
1 Linguistics (of a word) having the same linguistic derivation as another; from the same original word or root (e.g., English is, German ist, Latin est from Indo-European esti). ; 2 formal related; connected : ~ subjects such as physics and chemistry. ; • related to or descended from a common ancestor. Compare with agnate .
an extra personal name given to an ancient Roman citizen, functioning rather like a nickname and typically passed down from father to son. , the name used to identify the members of a family (as distinguished from each member's given name)
make (something) greater by adding to it; increase : he ~ed his summer income by painting houses.
extremely stupid or foolish : Lydia ignored his ~ remark. See note at stupid . [~ is a harsher word(than stupid), implying asslike or foolish behavior rather than slow-wittedness (: a woman her age looked ~ in a miniskirt).]
talk in a loud, aggressive, or indignant way with little effect : you threaten and ~, but won't carry it through | [with direct speech ] "I don't care what he says," I ~ed | [as adj. ] ( ~ing) a ~ing bully.; • (of a storm, wind, or rain) blow or beat fiercely and noisily : a winter gale blustered against the sides of the house | [as adj. ] ( blustering) the ~ing wind.
jump or dance around excitedly : spider monkeys leap and ~ in the branches.; • informal apply oneself enthusiastically to sexual or disreputable pursuits : he spent his nights ~ing with the glitterati.; to frolic, frisk
1 a person who manages the financial affairs of a college or university.; 2 chiefly Scottish a student attending a college or university on a scholarship.
take or claim (something) for oneself without justification : they ~ to themselves the ability to divine the nation's true interests.
1 an appointment to meet someone in secret, typically one made by lovers : his ~ with an older woman.; 2 the allocation or attribution of someone or something as belonging to something.
support the cause of; defend : priests who ~ed human rights.
1 (esp. of food) of very good quality : he picked some ~ early plums.; 2 (of words, phrases, or language) rude and abusive : he had a few ~ words at his command.
1 obtain or withhold money from (someone) by deceit or without justification; cheat or defraud : government waste has ~ed the taxpayer of billions of dollars.; • obtain (money) fraudulently : some businesses ~ thousands of dollars from unsuspecting elderly consumers.; 2 archaic evade; elude : I ducked into the pantry, ~ing Edward for the third time this week.
a cause of great distress or annoyance : the bane of the decorator is the long, narrow hall | the depressions that were the the ~ of her existence.; (archaic) • archaic something, typically poison, that causes death.
• (also carom billiards) any of the billiard games played on a table without pockets.; make a ~; strike and rebound.
smear or cover with a greasy or sticky substance.
in poetry, the repetition of the sound of a vowel or diphthong in nonrhyming stressed syllables near enough to each other for the echo to be discernible (e.g., penitence, reticence). Compare with alliteration .
abrupt or offhand in speech or manner : she could be ~ and impatient.[Brusque, which comes from an Italian word meaning rude, describes an abruptness of speech or manner that is not necessarily meant to be rude (: a ~ handshake;: a ~ reply).]
a formal procession of people walking, on horseback, or riding in vehicles.[from Italian cavalcata, from cavalcare 'to ride,' based on caballus 'horse.']
the use of trickery to achieve a political, financial, or legal purpose : an underhanded person who schemes corruption and political ~ behind closed doors.
a ceasing; an end : the ~ of hostilities | a ~ of animal testing of cosmetics.; • a pause or interruption : a ~ of respiration requiring resuscitation.
injure with very hot liquid or steam : the tea scalded his tongue. See note at burn .
a bell tower or steeple housing bells, esp. one that is part of a church.; • a space for hanging bells in a church tower.
disgust or sicken (someone) with an excess of sweetness, richness, or sentiment : a romantic, rather ~ing story | a curious bittersweetness that ~ed her senses | [ intrans. ] the first long sip gives a malty taste that never ~s. {~ing, her romance novels are too cloying for my taste sickly, syrupy, saccharine, oversweet; sickening, nauseating; mawkish, sentimental, twee; informal over the top, mushy, slushy, sloppy, gooey, cheesy, corny, cornball, sappy.}
a huge or monstrous creature.; • something enormous, esp. a big and powerful organization : shoppers are now more loyal to their local stores than to faceless ~s | [as adj. ] ~ telephone companies.
1 causing the contraction of body tissues, typically of the skin : an ~ skin lotion.; 2 sharp or severe in manner or style : her ~ words had their effect.; • (of taste or smell) sharp or bitter : an ~ smell of rotting apples.
assert or confess openly : [with clause ] he ~ed that he had voted Republican in every election | [ trans. ] he ~ed his change of faith | [as adj. ] ( ~ed) an ~ed Marxist. CF dis-
a natural talent or inclination : a man of religious bent | she had no natural ~ for literature.
a projecting part of a fortification built at an angle to the line of a wall, so as to allow defensive fire in several directions.; • a natural rock formation resembling such a fortification.; • figurative an institution, place, or person strongly defending or upholding particular principles, attitudes, or activities : the last bastion of male privilege.;
2 a trite and unoriginal idea or remark, typically intended to soothe or placate : feel-good ~ create the illusion of problem solving.; {cliché, truism, commonplace, banality, old chestnut, ~, inanity, banal/trite/hackneyed/stock phrase.}
1 [ trans. ] make white or pale by extracting color; bleach : the cold light ~ed her face.; • [ trans. ] whiten (a plant) by depriving it of light : ~ endive by covering plants with large flowerpots.; • [ intrans. ] figurative (of a person) grow pale from shock, fear, or a similar emotion : many people blanch at the suggestion | their faces ~ed with fear.; 2 [ trans. ] prepare (vegetables) for freezing or further cooking by immersing briefly in boiling water.; • peel (almonds) by scalding them [as adj. ] ( blanched): ~ed almonds.
the point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet at which it is furthest from the sun : Mars is at ~. The opposite of perihelion .
an attack on the reputation or integrity of someone or something : I don't think anyone is casting ~s on you.
1 a modulation or inflection of the voice : the measured ~s that he employed in the Senate.; • such a modulation in reading aloud as implied by the structure and ordering of words and phrases in written text : the dry ~s of the essay.; • rhythm : the thumping cadence of the engines | try to vary your ~ during a run.; 2 Music a sequence of notes or chords comprising the close of a musical phrase : the final ~s of the Prelude.
approval or praise : the opera met with high approbation.
a member of a gang that ambushes and robs people in forests and mountains.
a sign of what will happen in the future; an omen : they heard the sound as an ~ of death. See note at sign .; • the work of an ~; the interpretation of omens. [you draw very blurry lines between what is coincidence and what is augury omen, portent, sign, foretoken. See note at sign .]
come together and form one mass or whole : the puddles had coalesced into shallow streams | the separate details ~ to form a single body of scientific thought. ; • [ trans. ] combine (elements) in a mass or whole : to help ~ the community, they established an office. [from Latin coalescere, from co- (from cum 'with' ) + alescere 'grow up' (from alere 'nourish' ).]
v. (formal) state or assert to be the case : [with clause ] he averred that he was innocent of the allegations | [with direct speech ] "You're the most beautiful girl in the world," he ~ed.
a concise saying or maxim; an aphorism.
a worker in a skilled trade, esp. one that involves making things by hand.
a large group of people or things of a particular kind : he was surrounded by a ~ of beautiful girls.; • a group of birds, particularly when closely gathered on the ground : a ~ of quail stayed through winter, feeding on our locust beans.
characterized by or suggesting the practice of severe self-discipline and abstention from all forms of indulgence, typically for religious reasons : an ~ life of prayer, fasting, and manual labor | a narrow, humorless, ~ face. See note at severe .
1 formal (esp. of furniture or a building) roomy and comfortable.
cautious; wary : most people are ~ of allowing themselves to be photographed.; • cautious about the amount one gives or reveals : he was ~ with specifics about the script.;
affected by or associated with nausea or vomiting : I had eaten something that didn't agree with me and I was a little ~.; • (of a color) lurid or sickly : a ~ olive hue.; • figurative spiteful; bad-tempered : outbursts of ~ misogyny.; • Physiology of or relating to bile. [from Latin biliosus, from bilis 'bile.']
the formal giving up of rights, property, or territory, esp. by a state : the ~ of twenty important towns.
a person who renounces a religious or political belief or principle. [from ecclesiastical Latin apostata, from Greek apostatēs 'apostate, runaway slave.']
make petty or unnecessary objections : they ~ed at the cost.
blissfully happy : a ~ smile.; angelic
1 (of an appearance) fail to give a true notion or impression of (something); disguise or contradict : his lively alert manner ~ed his years.; 2 fail to fulfill or justify (a claim or expectation); betray : the notebooks ~ Darwin's later recollection. {his eyes belied his words contradict, be at odds with, call into question, show/prove to be false, disprove, debunk, discredit, controvert, negate; formal confute. antonym testify to, reveal.}
cease to resist an opponent or an unwelcome demand; surrender : the patriots had to ~ to the enemy forces.
self-confidence or assurance, esp. when in a demanding situation : Diana passed the test with ~.

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