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Food Science 120 Chapters 31-40


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What is allergy?
an untoward reaction produced by immune mechanisms that primarily exist for protection
What is our immune system and what is its function?
a system that consists of cells, proteins and molecules in our body that function to prevent, control and combat infection and uncontrolled proliferation of mutant or altered self cells

It must function to "protect" w/o causing harm and must distinguish "self" from "nonself adn harmful" and from "nonself and not harmful"
What is an adverse reaction to food?
any reaction to a food that is unexpected whether mediated by the immune system or not
What is a food allergy?
an abnormal response of the mucosal immune system to antigens deliverd through the oral route
What is the prevelance of food allergies?
About 25% of Americans alter their diet due to suspicion of a food allergy, but only about a 1/3 of these cases actually have them.

Allergies are more prevelant in children than adults
What are three adverse reactions to food?
1. Toxic
2. Nontoxic: Food allergy vs. Food intolerance
3. Food Aversion (preference)
What are differnt toxic food intolerances?
Metabolic effects: Enzyme deficiency (Lactase)

Pharmacologic Effect: Caffine

Idiosyncratic effect: Enzyme deficiency
What is IgE?
An antibody produced by the B Cell of the immune system which binds to the Mast cell which releases histomine in the body and facilitates an allergic reaction; is most important reaction b/c can lead to death
What foods cause IgE mediated allergies?
1. Cow's milk
2. Soy or other legumes
3. Peanuts
4. Tree nuts
5. Egg
6. Fish and shellfish
7. Wheat
What foods can be outgrown and which cannot?
Milk, Soy, Egg, and Wheat

Not usually Outgrown:
peanuts and tree nuts
If you are allergic to dustmites, whats a possible allergic reaction that may also be present?
What is Pollen Food Syndrome?
Also known as Oral allergy syndrom, that have an allergy to pollen and is causative by fruits and veggies

The reaction can be noted by pruritus and angioedema of lips, tongue and palate soon after eating

Patients usually tolerate same food when cooked
Why are children more suceptible to food allergies?
Because during formation of the stomach, its lining is more poreous and allows certain proteins in that the body recognizes as foreign

Also acid production is not as great

Finally Protective antibodies such as IgA are not present in large quantities
What are linear/sequential vs. conformation epitopes?
They are forms of an allergy that can be outgrown by maturity when a ball conformation is split into a more linear form
How do we diagnose food allergy?
Get the story from people

Is is it IgE mediated?

1. skin testing (not always accurate but a negative test def. indicates no allergy)
2. Blood test (also not perfect)
3. Food Challenge
What can be done about a food allergy?
Avoid the food causeing this allergy by reading labels and by aware of synanyms for ingredients and be careful when eating out or eating something produced in an area that also produces the confirmed allergen causing food.
What can cure an allergic reaction?
Epinephren; EpiPens
What are some new methods for preventing allergies?
1. Anti-IgE
2. Early life modifications (hygiene hypothesis and CPG introduction)
3. Genetically Modified foods
4. Immunotherapy: immunization such as susblingual therapy (under tounge)
Drinking mild causes me and my child to produce more mucus: fact or myth?
I am allergic to sodium benzoate and dyes: fact or myth
Exima is an indication of allergy: fact or myth
List other ingredients that indicate that milk is in a product
List soy-based ingredients that can cause an allergic reaction
hydrolized veggie protein
shoyu sauce
textured veggie protein
What does it mean to be in Poverty?

What is poverty line for 2005?
Its based on the poverty line: in concept: minimum income required to meet basic needs. Below that income line means being in poverty

IN PRACTICE: 3 times cost of low budget diet

19,350 for a family of 4
What is a poverty rate; how is this calculated?

What is the poverty rate in WI? what is the most affected county?
based on reported income, a poverty rate indicates how many people are in poverty

8.7% (about 1/2 million) Menomenee County has largest % in poverty
What is the Self sufficiency standard?
A different measure of poverty thats based on a variety of costs: Basic diet, Housing, Child care, Transportation, Health Care, Misc. (based on real figures and an alternative to the poverty line)
Whats wrong with the poverty line?
Based on out-dated assumptions about spending (1/5-1/6 income on food vs 1/3); same for all locations regardless of COL
Food Security
Acess by all people at all tiems to enough food for an active, healthy life
Food Insecurity:

How does WI fare?
Uncertain or limited access to enough food for an active healthy lifestyle (worry and reduce quality of diet)

Below the national average
The uneasy or painful sensation caused by a lack of food. The recurrent and involuntary lack of access to food. (Food insecurity with hunger = reduced food intake)
What is a food security measurement?
a questionairre is taken to help det. the % of people in each food security category
What are the current trends in food security in the US?
Food insecurity and hunger rates increased between 99-04

Relative to other states, WI households have become more food insecure and hungry

Increase in emergency food and nutritional assistance programs

(Could be reaching more people who need help and can affect rate of poeple using food programs)
What are challenges to obtaining food?

Stores with higher prices

Low variety

Barriars to participation in nutrition assistance programs:
Confusion or lack of awareness
Difficulties applying
Lack of programs
Do food Pantries help? (3 reasons)
What is typical of a household using this program
Can play a key role in deterring hunger

Often depend on volunteers and donations from community

Use of pantries has become chronic

Households tend to have 1 person working full-time
What are some of the challenges that remain regarding food insecurities?
Increase the availability and use of nutrition assistance programs

Reduce need to rely on emergency food sources (pantries)

Address broader issue (poverty)
Who is the average person "In Line"?
An average American who is working full time but has children to support or has been laid off recently, and cant make ends meet by current financial status
What are the politics of food?
An abundant food supply

An 'eat more' mentality

The political power of big business (buy our business)
Trends in the US Food industry are:
1. Vertical integration: ownership by one corp. of all stages of production, processing, and marketing

Huge multi-national corporations
ex. Pillip Morris, Conagra, Nabisco

Dramatic growth in the food service sectors
Food Sales and Advertising Expenditures, how do they relate?
Advertising leads to sales
To sell more food...
Taste: Make foods sweet, fat and salty
-Is it good?
-Is it familiar?
-Does it add variety?
-Does it fit me? (cultural)
Cost: add value by keep prices low
-value added through processing (fat, ect)

The 'problem' of overabundance
-Am. payless than 10% of their income on food
-how many extra calories can you afford?

Convenience: Make eating fast
-changing demographics
-Nearly 50% of all meals are consumed outside the home

Confusion: keep public puzzled
-Eating advice can be inconsistent
-Focusing on single nutrients (just fiber, Vitamin B, not combo)
-Food companies promote their own nutrition
What are Hyper-convenient foods?
Prepackaged, or ready to eat.
How do companies promote eating more?
1. Advertising using:
-direct marketing (print and visual ads)
-discount incentives
2. Introduce new products (not always the best things for us nutritionally)
3. Serve Larger portions
Politics versus the Science; Describe this debate
Diet is a political issue

Struggle against corporate and individual interests

Policy decisions are made in light of competing influences
From the video "The Bigger the Better" answer the following questions:

1. Why does the food industry provide big portions?
2. Why do we eat so much?
3. What is making the problem worse?
1. Big portions lead to big sales
-we are genetically programed to eat more and prefer fat
-dont realize how much we are eating b/c of thrown off visual cues
3. We want to get the most for our money and the food industry provides financial incentive to eat more than we should by offering larger sizes for minimal increases in price
What is science telling us about food consumption?

1. What motivates food intake
2. What contradictions are there in this
3. What environmental influences are there?
4. How is this research relevant to the obesity epidemic?
-homeostatically controlled behavior; we need energy
-controlled, non-homeostatically in a cultural way, or pleasure directed way (reward)
2. we are no longer deprived of food due to scarcity and there is now an obesity epidemic; our eating surpasses homeostatically monitored levels due to environment and cultural cues which lead to brain cues that make us feel good and want to eat more in a reward seeking mannar again relating to the obesity epidemic
What cues influence how much we eat?

What can you do to take charge of your eating patterns?
Cues such as eating with friends (eating more) or with a significant other (eating less) fast/slow music, bright lights, ect are all around us.

To take control of our own eating habits, the best defense is awareness, and knowing what causes us to eat more.
What are the trends of the Obesity Epidemic?
-65% of adults are overweight or obese
-15% of children are overweight or ar risk
-billions$ in direct and indirect economic costs
-a changing society (eating more and on the run)
-More calories are available then ever before
-affluent are doing better than less fortunate (have access to more nutritional foods)
What are Functional Foods?
A food product that has been clinically shown to promote health and can fall into the categories:
-Plant-based foods
-Animal-based foods
What are Plant Based Products? and the benefits of each?
1. Sulfur Containing compounds: GARLIC, ONIONS,(sulfur amino acids from plants of the Allium family)BROCCOLI(sulforaphane as cancer fighting agent)
Benefits: Inhibit cancer cells, lower cholesterol, protect against heart disease

2. Soy: Phytoestrogens and Isoflavones (mimic estrogen)
Benefits: decreased breast and ovarian cancer, decreased atherosclerosis, lower blood cholesterol

3. Tea (White, Green, Oolong Tea, Black): Catechins (also found in dark chocolate)
Benefits: Catechin antioxidants help prevent heart disease and DNA damage, Fluoride too!

4. Tomatoe Products (lycopene)
Benefits: Protection against breast cancer adn cancer of the GI tract, Protection against skin cancer and cardiovascular disease

5. Spinach and Kale (lutein)
Benefits: lutein is an antioxidant that filters UV rays, protects agains macular degeneration

6. Cranberries (Anthocyanins-purple/deep red color)
Benefits: Protect against heart disease and other age related mental decline

7. 'Miracle' Margarines (Grey area: not quite plant based)Phytosterols- resemble and act as cholesterol
Benefits: compete with cholesterol and absorb phytosterols and reduces amt. of cholesterol in our blood
Which of the following does not include only cancer fighting foods and beverages?

1. Broccoli, chocolate, whole milk
2. Salmon, cheese, garlic
3. Tomatoes, tea, coffee
4. Soybeans, yogurt, water
4. Soybeans, yogurt, WATER
List the levels of Phytoestrogens in the following soy products:

1. Green beans, fresh, raw
2. Green split peas, dry
3. Soybeans
4. Tofu
5. Soy Flour
1. 2mg/kg
2. 73mg/kg
3. 340mg/kg
4. 150mg/kg
5. 230mg/kg

*Green split peas best source
What type of tomatoe product contains the highest level of lycopene content? Why is this?
Lycopene is stable in processing and as we concentrate products like sauce or paste the lycopene color indicates a better source of this compound
Which of the following foods is not correctly paired with a functional ingredient?

1. Tomatoes: lycopene
2. Broccoli: Sulforaphane
3. Chocolate: lutein
4. Yogurt: probiotics
3. Chocolate: LUTEIN
Which of the following is not correctly paired with a functional ingredient?

1. Garlic: sulfur amino acids
2. Soy foods: isoflavones
3. Cranberries: anthoxanthins
4. Cheese: conjugated linoleic acid
3. Cranberries: anthoxanthins
What are Phytochemicals?
Medicinal agents from plants
-25% of pharmaceutical agents
-primary source of medicine
Describe Sulforaphane which can be found in Broccoli:
-Carcinogens can damage DNA
-Sulforaphane triggers enzymes that block carcinogen damage
-very high levels in sprouts (but have ability to cause food born illness)
List the 4 types of healthy tea and the processing of each that attributes to the different levels of Catechins in each:
White: unfermented buds or young leaves; highest in catechins

Green: slight fermentaion and enzyme activity (polyphenol oxidase); rich in catechins

Oolong (red): partially fermented leaves; intermediate in catechins

Black: leaves are fully fermented; low in catechins

*less fermentation = more catechins
What does LDL and HDL stand for and what do they relate to?
Blood Cholesterol

LDL: bad cholesterol
HDL: Good Cholesterol
What provides the red color in tomato products and also provides for cancer protection?
List the Animal based functional products and the benefits of each
1. Yogurt (Powerhouse of health)

2. Probiotics: bacteria that ferment yogurt by producing Lactic Acid, good source of calcium and protein

3. Lactic Acid Bacteria: product of Probiotic bacteria fermentation

Benefits: promote health by slowing or preventing the initiation of tumors

4. Conjugated Linolic Acid CLA: a healthful trans fatty acid
-found in meat and full-fat dairy products
Benefits: suppresses heart disease and cancer, a re-partitioning agent
What are the Physiological effects of CLA?
Can change the way the body lays down muscle mass at the expense of fat; more muscle and less fat with high levels
What is the downside risk to CLA?
-Natural trans fatty acid
1. Associated with fatty foods
2. Link to Cholesterol
3. Association of some fats and cancer
What are 4 Research trends regarding Functional foods?
1. Amplify phytochemicals in plants: increaseing lycopene in tomatoes
2. Improved bioavailability of lutein: mixing wiht comounds such as olive oil or egg yolk improves uptake
3. Enhancing mineral and amino acid content
-SunActive Iron
-Calcium more bioavailable
-Whey protein isolates:
-Glycomacropeptide for PKU babies
-a Lactalbumin enhances absortion
-Lactoferrin iron binding protein and infection fighter

4. Exploring the role of Phytoestrogens
a. bitter, beany flavor
b. reduced bioavailability of minerals
c. affect nutritional value of proteins
d. inhibit growth of human cancer cells
e. alleviation of vasomotor symptoms (decrease of hotflashes)
f. Fractionation of components
What is on the horizon for functional foods?
Foods formulated for maximum vitamin and mineral interactions

Eggs, milk and meat that meet human nutritional needs

Altered fruits, grains and veggies at harvest
Which statement does not correctly define gene expression?

1. A copy of DNA is made, mRNA
2. mRNA is translated on the ribosome
3. t-RNA transfers building blocks (sugars, amino acids or fatty acids) to the ribosomes
4. Buildin
3. t-RNA transfers building blocks to the ribosomes (only amino acids)
Which of the following associations is NOT correct?

1. Digestible fiber: 2Cal/g
2. Carbs: 4Cal/g
3. Protein: 4Cal/g
4. Lipid 9Cal/g
1. Digestible fiber does not have any calories associated with it
Which of the following foods is NOT linked with the correct component?

1. Green Tea: catechins
2. Black Tea: theaflavins (from fermentation)
3. Cranberries: anthocyanins
4. Tomatoes: Lutein
4. Tomatoes: lycopene



an organism's genetic material

the relationship of food, as nutrition, to gene regulation

the clinical response of individuals to specific nutrients (will vary on individual basis)
Biologically active Chemicals in food: List two types and subgroups of these
Nutritive Chemicals:
Fatty Acids

Non-nutritive chemicals
Looking at targeted nutrition, what is the ultimate goal?
Yesterday: General Diet
Today: Functional Foods
Tommorrow: Personal Nutrition and finally Community Nutrition
Describe the steps of protein synthesis (Gene Expression)
1. DNA unwinds and exposes genetic information for a specific protein
2. Copies of DNA (m-RNA) are made
3. m-RNA leaves the nucleus via nuclear poresadn enters the cytoplasm
4. m-RNA binds to a ribosome so that code can be read
5. Each piece of code (3 base pairs) translates into one specific amino acid
6. t-RNA moves the amino acid into the correct place on the ribosome
7. Amino acids are joined into proteins via peptide bonds
8. completed polypetide chain folds into final conformation and is released
What are the Controls or Regulation of Gene Expression?
1. Physical Structure of DNA: can regulate the ability of RNA and transcription factors to access specific genes

2. Transcription Initiation:
-Promoter elements in DNA structure can turn on DNA synthesis
-Enhancer sequences enhance activity of RNA at a given site
-Interaction of activator/inhibitor proteins

3. Transcript Processing: controlling the rate of DNA transcription into m-RNA

4. RNA Transport: reulating m-RNA transport from nucleus to cytoplasm

5. Translational Initiation: the ability of ribosomes to recognize and begin translation

6. Post-translational Modification: formation of secondary and tertiary structure
Why is diet important and how does this relate in the context of gene expression?
Diet is an important factor in the onset or proliferation of human disease

Diet is an important factor in disease prevention

Chemicals in food can elicit specific reactions

Nutrients in the diet are involved in gene regulation
What nutrients are involved in Gene regulation?
Nutrient: Gene Impact; Disease

Fatty Acids: bind to transcription factors; Obesity

Folic Acid: control DNA methylation (processed); Cancer

Vitamin D: mRNA stability; Kidney disease

Flavones: Increase mRNA synthesis; Cancer

Theaflavins: Decrease m-RNA synthesis; Arthritis
What is the Key Mechanism of Action in Gene expression?
1. Nutrients bind to transcription factors
2. Transcriptoin factors bind DNA promoter regions
3. Gene expression is regulated
What is the effect of diet on lipid metabolism?
High fat vs. High carb

Short term high fat diets cause muscles to burn more lipid as fuel

High fat diet in rats increased mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism

Short term, high-fat diets sig. increased expression of:
Genes involved in fatty acid transport
Genes involved in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle

Increases in dietary fat can increase activity of genes necessary for fatty acid transport and oxidation
Effects of a diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids?
beneficial (veggie oil, fish, and fish oils)
Nutrigenomics to Nutrigenetics
Not everyone's body reacts the same way to nutrients and using Nutrigenomics we can move toward the idea of individualized dietary considerations
Ethical issues of Nutrigenomics are:
1. Who decides which diseases to target
2. What about applications not related to health (athletic advances)
3. Will genetic testing become too prolific (genetic profile?)
4. Who will control the information (gov't or us?)
How much candy do we eat in a year? and what are our primary outlets? And Who are the Big players?
25lbs per person!

Supermarkets, Retailers and Vending Machines

M&M/Mars, Hershey, Nestle, and Kellogg
What are the two types of confections?
Sugar based: hard candy, gums and jellies, marshmallows, caramels, tableted candy

Chocolate and Coatings:
'true' chocolate, confectionery coatings
What are the key ingredients of confections?
Water: solvent and does not mix with oil or fat so emulsifier is needed to bridge; content may start out high, but most is boiled off

Sweetners: sweetness and texture

Protein and Fat
Protein: provides structure and texture (milk protein, veggie protein, gelatin)
Fat: provides texture, melting profile (Milk fat, vegetable fat)

Stabalizers: provide structure and texture (starch, pectin, gelatin)

Other ingredients: emulsifiers, flavors and colors, orgainc acids (tartness)
Describe the different sweetners used in confections
Sugar (sucrose, and lactose)
Corn syrup or HFCS (starch converted to glucose units)
Invert sugar (Sucrose converted to glucose and fructose)
Honey (natural)
Artificial sweetners (sugar alcohols, synthetics)
How are sugar based confections made?
A mix of Sucrose, Corn syrup, Water and flavor are heated. Water is boiled off to 2-3%, and rapid cooling forms a sugar glass
How are sugar based fondants made?
Mix, sucrose, cornsyrup, water and flavor, heat with rapid concentration to 10% water and agitation while cooling to promote small crystal formation (cool w mixing) ex. Peppermint patty
The strange case of chocolate covered cherries; how does the gel get in there?
Cherry on top of a fondant; Invertase is key!
Marshmellow Foam: how do we make it?
Mix Sucrose and Corn syrup; heat and cool; add gelatin to cooled sugar syrup; whippign introduces air and produces a protein stabilized foam
Caramel and Fudge: how do we make it?
Key ingredients: sugar, milk and fat

What allows for color? Reducing sugar + milk protein = Maillard Browning

What stabalizes the fat in water: Lecithin (emulsifier)
mono and diglycerides too
The story of Chocolate
Cocoa beans are seperated from dried pods and fermented

cocoa beans are roasted

Beans are shelled = nibs

Grinding of nibs releases cocoa powder and cocoa butter

Mix chocolate liquor, cocoa butter adn sugar

Refining to improve texture

conching for flavor development (add milk)

Tempering to control bloom (defect)
How do you make a confectionary coating and what seperates this from 'real' chocolate?
Cocoa butter is replaced with veggie fat

Steps of refining, conching and tempering still important

Lower cost fat source

Increased stability/functionality
Which of the following terms is correctly associated?

1. Refining: smaller particle size
2. Conching: preventing fat bloom
3. Tempering: flavor development
4. Enrobing: blending flavors
1. Refining: smaller particle size
Which statement is not true of confectionary ingredients?

1. Water: solvent for other ingredients
2. Sweetners: sucrose and starch
3. Protein: texture and browning
4. Fat: melting profile
2. Sweetners: sucrose not(starch)
Which statement is correct regarding chocolate?

1. at the plantation, cocoa beans are fermetned in a controlled reaction using bacteria
2. roasting of cocoa beans of similar sizes produces a superior product
3. Nibs are ground to pro
2. Roasting of similar sizes
More on Chocolate: White chocolate and types

Fat Bloom:
lacks cocoa solids

sugar content varies (Dark, Bittersweet, semi-sweet, sweet)

white haze on real chocolate
What are New Horizons for the Candy Industry?
Confectionary coatings for food 'bars'

Chocolate for health

Low-carb chocolates

Confectionary products as medicine
What are some guidelines for meat consumption?
5.5-6.5 ounces per day of meat

Choose lean or lowfat

Select fish rich in Omega-3 fatty acids more often

choose dry beans as a meat alternative
What are meat consumption trends?
Beef consumption has dropped, and Poultry consumption has increased; Pork has remained almost steady w/ slight increase (same with fish and shellfish)
Meat Color:
Myoglobin (purple red): binds O2 in muscle; contains Fe; binding O2 to Fe and results in color

(cherry red) oxymyoglobin = presence of air

Oxidation of Iron (brown-red)Metamyoglobin; prolonged exposure

Cooked; Denatured Globin hemichrome (gray-brown) from Oxymyoblobin (cherry red)

Nitrite added = pink
What are beef quality grades? (For young animals)


Pridict eating quality
Based on marbling and animal maturity

For young animals:
highly marbled=prime
moderatly marbled=chioce
slightly marbled=select

Marbling: the presence of intramuscular fat

Maturity: muscle fibers toughen with age of animal
List the four lean cuts of beef along with the three minor cuts
-Chuck (near head), rib, loin/sirloin, round (near back)

-foreshank & brisket, plate, flank
How many ounces of lean meat is one serving and list its positive and negative nutrients

high quality protein
100% Vit. B12
Heme Iron (absorbed better)
High in Zinc
Saturated fatty acids
How does cost relate to %fat of meat?
meat that is lower in fat is more expensive
Can you reduce fat in meat?
yes, by rinsing cooked beef crumbles; this often reduces cost if you buy the fattier cut.
What are some saftey points to remember for meat handling?
Meat begins as a sterile tissue

Incidence of pathogens is higher in ground meat

Safe handling instructions are on packaged meat

Cook to proper temperature
Which of these statements is not true of ground beef?

1. 80/20 ground beef contains 80%fat and 20%lean tissue
2. Ground chuck is meat ground from a chuck roast
3. The fat content of ground beef crumbels can be lowerd by rinsing meat
4. nutrition facts does not always appear but also the % of fat
Which meat pigment is correctly paired with its color?

1. Myoglobin: purple red
2. Metmyoglobin: cherry red
3. Oxymyoglobin: brown red
4. Nitrite: brown red
1. myoglobin: purple red
Which of the following phrases is correct?

1. A steak high in marbling will be jucier due to higher external fat
2. For a steak to be labeled 'organic' the beef animal must have eaten natural food all its life
3. Irradiated organic h
4. will be more tender

(natural has no standards)
How many dairy servings should we get a day? (get that calcium)
3 cups a day
1cup of milk or yogurt
1.5 oz hard cheese
What are the health benefits of Dairy foods?
Vital nutrients: calcium, vit. D, protein

Reduced risk of osteoporosis

Improved bone health
What are the basis steps of milk processing?
1. Receiving:
incoming milk tested for quality
2. Homogenization:
-milk is forced under pressure through very fine holes that reduce the size of the fat globules
-small fat globules are emulsified and remain in solution

3. Pasteurization:
-HTST 161C for 15sec (destroys pathogens and enzymes)

4. Fortification: added vitamin A&D
What are some specialty milk products?
1. Cream, half-half, flavored milk

2. Lactose free milk
(lactose -- glucose + Galactose)
-Enzymatic breakdown of lactose (often sweeter)
-ideal for persons with lactose intolerance
Fermented Milk Products/Cultured Dairy Products Process:
Lactose -- Lactic Acid + CO2
-Bacterial fermentation
-Proteins gel as acid is produced
-Chymosin/rennet (coagulant) is added to ensure gel formation
-ripening or aging allows flavor developing
Why is Cheddar cheese different from Brie?
Milk source-cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo

Type of bacteria included in starter

Ripening org. may be added (mold species)

Aging (length of time)

Some cheese is directly acidified (cottage cheese)
How do you make processed cheese food?
Natural cheese, grated
-Milk solids, fat, then, blend and heat.
What are the basic ingredients in ice cream?
1. Cream or Milkfat:
-Whole milk, cream, butter
-flavor and creamy texture
2. Milk Solids
-Nonfat milk powder or condensed skim milk
-protein and carbohydrate (texture)
3. Sugar:
-Lowers the freezing point
4. Minor ingredients
What are the 3 Basic steps in the manufacture of ice cream?
1. Preparing the Mix
-Mix cream/milk, milk solids, sugar and minor ingredients
-Pasteurize to ensure saftey and dissolve solids

-Emulsifiers: lecithin, MG, DG
-Stabilizers: gelatin, gums
-Flavoring agents and colorants

2. Freezing the mix
-mix is frozen in a barrel freezer
-air is incorp (over-run)
-large number of small ice crystals are formed (rapid)
(Ice cream is a protein foam stabilized by cold)

3. Hardening: solid freezing sets ice crystals adn firms the product (-20C)
How can you tell between a high quality ice cream product and the other?
The amount of air is tightly controlled
-Lighter: lower fat, and higher air
-Heavier: higher fat, and lower air (50%)

(Ice Cream is sold by volume, not by weight)
Which statement is not correct of the manufacture of cheese?

1. Cheese is preserved due to acid and low Aw
2. Process cheese can be made from any hard cheese
3. Bacteria that produce kactic acid create an environment favorable for th
4. Blue cheese is not a surface mold, its throughout the cheese
Which of the following phrases is not correct regarding ice cream?

1. High over-run equals high fat
2. Low over-run equals high fat
3. High over-run equal high air
4. Low over-run equals low air
1. High over-run equal low fat
Which of the following statements is not true regarding cheese?

1. Cheese is a protein gel
2. Cheese is produced via a mixed fermentation reaction (mix of fermenting agents)
3. Bacteria ferment lactose to lactic acid
4. During a
2. Cheese is fermented only by bacteria
What is the recommended daily intake of fruits and veggies?
Fruit: 2 cups per day (we arnt quite getting this amt)
Veggies: 2.5-3 cups per day
What are the important Nutrients in F &V?
-Naturally low in fat and cal.
-Source of K, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folate

-most low in fat and cal
-no cholesterol
-source of K, dietary fiber, folate, vitamins A,E,C
Describe the plant tissues of F&V
Fruit: A seed and its covering (cherries, apples, pears, tomatoes, avacodo)

Veggie: plant cultivated for an edible part
-seeds and pods (peas and beans)
-bulb, roots and tubers (onions, carrots, potatoes)
-flowers, buds, stems, leaves (broccoli, lettuce, celery, spinach)
Is it a fruit or a veggie? How can you tell?
Fruits are most commonly consumed as if they were veggies: cucumber, tomatoe, peas, beans, eggplant, avacado

And rhubarb, a vegetable, is most commonly consumed as if it were a fruit

What are the 4 stages of plant development?
Growth: cell division and enlargement

Maturation: metabolic changes

Ripening: late maturity, harvest

Senescence: aging and death (begins to decay)

*overlap of growth and maturation in life continueum and also between ripening and senescence
Maturation of plant: Major components; %Weight; Importance: List Minor as well
1. Water 70-95%; Succulence, metabolism
2. Carbohydrate 2-40%; Structure, sweetness, energy reserve
3. Protein 1-2%; Enzymes, texture
4. Lipid <1%; cell structure, cuticle (waxy layer on surface)

1. Organic acids <3%; Turgor, tartness
2. Vitamins and Minerals <1%; Vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate
3. Phenolic acids (tannins) <1%; Astringency (pucker up)
4. Volatiles; aroma and flavor
What is the consumption pattern of F&V in America?
We dont necessarily consume the F&V's that are most beneficial to our health
What is the Fruit ripening process?
1. Color changes:
-chlorophyll (green)content in the skin drops
-Yellow and red pigments (carotenoids) are synthesized (tomatoe) or revealed (banana)
-Purple red (anthocyanins) remain
2. Changes in Carbohydrates
-Conversion of starch to sugar (alters taste and texture)
-breakdown of polymeric carbohydrates (pectin and hemicellulose)(softening)
3. Change in pH
-Org. acids decline and pH rises (no longer as sour)
4. Volatile compounds produced
-Synthesis is initiated
5. Development of a waxy Cuticle:
-affording protection to the tissue
-conserving water
6. Changes in Respiration: differs for climacteric vs. non-climacteric fruit
What is the process of respiration?
Glucose +O2 --> CO2 + H2O + heat
What are the two processes that still occur after harvesting fruits and veggies?
1. Respiration
2. Transpiration (lose water as they breath)
What are climacteric fruits vs. non-climacteric fruits; examples?
Climactic: slight rise in the decline of respiration pattern when ethylene (ripening hormone) is released right before senescence
(apple, pear, peach, tomatoe, avocado, banana)

Non-climactic: general decline in respiration through ripening and senescence
(all veggies, cherries, cucumbers, melons, berries, citrus, pineapple)
How can quality of F&V be maintained?
Slow respiration and enzymatic reactions by keeping temperatures low

Preserve quality: starch sugar balance

Prevent Chill injury
What is starch-sugar balance and how can it be affected in Sweet Corn/Peas, and Potatoes?
Sweet Corn/Peas
Sugar is desired, but w/ heat:
Sugar --> Starch

Starch is desired but w/ cold:
Starch --> Sugar
What is chill injury?
Seen in fruits and veggies of tropical and subtropical origin (tomatoes, sweet potatoes, bananas)
-an imbalance in metabolism
-toxic products accumulate
-cells colapse
-Necrosis (browning)
Maintaining quality: Control water loss; How is this done?
-Protect natural waxy cuticle on tissue surface
-Increase humidity of air (misters in grocerty store)
-Package to maintain moisture
-Reduce respiration by lowering temperature (reduces water loss)
Maintaining quality: modified atmosphere
Controlling respiration:
-Decrease O2 available
-Increase CO2
What are the three ways the quality can be maintained in F&V?
1. Lower Temperature
2. Prevent H20 Loss
3. Modify the Atmosphere
How can we induce ripening?
Climacteric fruits will 'ripen' if exposed to ethylene

Avocados, banans pears and other fruits can be foreced to go through some changes if gased with ethylene.

* most climacteric fruits are harvested and shipped 'green' (paper bag)
Which statement describes the current dietary guidelines?

1. Current guidelines recommend consuming 3 cups of fruits each day
2. Current guidelines recommend consuming 2 cups of veggies daily
3. Current guidelines recommend consuming
3. get a wide varitey of brightly colored F&V
Which one of the following foods contains cholesterol?

peanut butter
potato chips
Which component in fruits and veggies is not correctly associated?

1. Water: succulence
2. Carbohydrate: sweetness and structure
3. Protein: energy reserves
4. Lipid: cuticle
3. Protein: enzymes
A premium ice cream has the following composition per 1 cup serving: 26 grams saturated fat, 6 grams unsaturated fat, 25 grams total carbohydrate (24 grams sugar, 1 gram soluble fiber), 29 grams protein, 200 mg calcium. What is the the calorie content of
Climacteric and non climacteric fruits can be distinguised by thier pattern of...

1. Transpiration
2. Respiration
3. Ripening
4. Transduction
2. Respiration
What are grains and what is the daily recommended serving?

What whole grain options do we have?
Bread, cereal, rice and pasta
-6 to 8 oz equiv. per day
-make half whole grain

Whole grains: popcorn, 100% whole wheat bread, brown rice
What is the percentage of calories from fat for the premium ice cream in question 2? (round to the nearest whole number, if necessary)*496 cal; 32g fat

Which of the following foods would most likely contain partially hydrogenated fats?

peanut butter
cream cheese
Match the following foods with the appropriate functional ingredient:



conjugated linoleic acid




1. Tomatoes: lycopene
2. Cranberries: anthocyanin
3. Kale: Lutein
4. Butter: CLA
5. Soy: phytoestrogen
6. Broccoli: sulforaphane
7. Yogurt: probiotics
8. Green Tea: catechins
What are the important nutrients in grains?
1. Dietary fiber
2. B Vitamins (folate, niacin, ribolfavin)
3. Minerals (iron, Mg, selenium)
5. Protein and Energy
Why are grains the foundation of our diet?
-Low fat energy
-Fiber source
-Protein source

-lack some vitamins and amino acids
-Gluten (protein) a problem for some
Which one of the following describes benefits uniquely associated with soy foods?

increased body protein and decreased body fat
decreased breast and ovarian cancer
lowered cholesterol and protection against heart disease
decreased breast and ovarian cancer
corn, oats, adn other grains are often fed to animals. Why dont we eath them instead?
Protein Quality:
-meat is high quality protein source
-grains are incomplete, low in lysine
-Complementary proteins are key to grains as a protein source
Larger serving sizes result in more calories being consumed.

Which of the following cues would NOT encourage people to eat more?

eating under bright lights and with loud music playing
bigger plates
seeing leftovers such as chicken bones at the table
bigger serving sizes
seeing leftover chicken bones cues us to how much we have eaten
Which of the following foods is NOT a primary allergen in children?

What is the structure of cereal grain?
Bran: outermost layer of cells (testa)

Aleurone: seperates bran from rest of the grain

Endosperm: cells packed with starch granules surrounded by a protein matrix

Germ (embryo): rich in B vitamins, oil, vitamin E
According to the popcorn studies described in the Food Psychology lecture, people would over-eat even when the food quality was poor.

False: people overate when container size was larger
The label on a confectionary product reads: sugar, corn syrup, cocoa butter, water, chocolate liquor, high fructose corn syrup, soy lecithin, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, artificial flavors, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate, FD
this product contains a trans-fat
An allergic response to food is the result of an adverse reaction to a protein in that food.

Match the following meat pigment with the appropriate color:

purple red


bright red

brownish red

1. metmyoglobin
2. oxymyoglobin
3. myoglobin
4. de
metmyoglobin: brown red
oxymyoglobin: cherry red
myoglobin: purple red
denatured globin: gray brown
How is grain processed into flour?
1. Milling: seperate endosperm from bran and germ; grinding endosperm into flour-sized particles

2. Bleaching and Aging: remove natural carotenoids, improve baking quality
For the highest quality, freshest steak, you would choose a highly marbeled prime steak that is purple red in color.

Define: Enriched and Fortified
Enriched: replacing nutrients removed during processing (iron, B vitamins)

Fortified: cereals as carriers of nutrients that may be deficient in the diet (folate, B12, vitamins A &D, calcium)
Which one of the following statements is true?

E. coli O157:H7 is present in about 50% of feedlots
cattle can carry E. coli O157:H7 but not appear sick
chances for cross-contaimination are low in a meat fabrication environment <
cattle can carry E. coli but not appear sick
Name some specialty converted products?
Converted rice: soak rice to drive vitamins and mineral from bran into endosperm

Rolled oats: steam groats then drum-dry

Flaked-cereals: cook endosperm with other ingredients then flake and bake
Which one of the following types of ground beef has the most fat?

ground round
ground beef
ground chuck
ground sirloin
ground beef???
What makes popcorn pop?
1. Water: converts to steam
2. Starch: endosperm cooks and gelatinizes
3. Protein: protein matrix stabilizes starch
What is the secret to great popcorn?
1. Start w/ corn kernels w/ 10% to 14% moisture
2. Have the temp of the pan just right
3. Allow moisture to escape while poping
Chocolate covered cherries have a cherry surrounded by a liquid center and are enrobed in chocolate. What is NOT a key step in manufacturing chocolate covered cherries?

fondant is changed into syrup
a cherry-flavored syrup is injected
A cherry flavored syrup is NOT injected into the center
Which of the following associations is NOT correct?

endosperm: starch granules
germ: bacteria-rich region
alerone: separates bran and endosperm
bran: outermost cells
Germ: B vitamins
Senescence is the stage in the life of a plant that is characterized by death. Maturation is best characterized by:

death of plant tissue
edibility index
metabolic changes
increased growth
Metabolic changes
Match the following physiological characteristics of fruits and vegetables with the component that provides that characteristic:



phenolic acids


Water: succulence
Carbohydrates: structure, sweetness
Phenolic acids: astringency
Aromatic: volatiles
lipids: cellular membranes
Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits and vegetables can be differentiated by patterns of:

Beans and rice would be described as which type of proteins?

high quality
Which of the following is correct regarding the manufacture of ice cream?

plate freezer whips air into the mix
higher overrun: lower quality
freezing stabilizes a protein gel
mixture of fat, milk solids and sugar is paste
Higher overrun: lower quality
A family of 3 living in Madison earning $8.50 per hour and headed by a single woman would likely experience food insecurity.

Which of the following associations is NOT correct?

Campylobacter: chicken
E. coli O157:H7: ground beef
Salmonella: ham
Listeria: deli meats
Salmonella: egg
Chocolate, candy and other sweets are a major culprit in causing hyperactivity and other behavioral problems in children.

Which of the following foods does not contain fiber?

oreo cookies
Match the food with the appropriate food group according to MyPyramid:






1. orange juice
2. popcorn
3. corn
Orange juice: fruit
Popcorn: grains
Corn: veggie
Cheese: dairy
Peanut Butter: meat
Which one factor does NOT influence microbial growth?

Fat free food allows you to eat all you want without gaining weight.

Match the additive with its associated use.


artificial sweetener

cure meat


flavor enhancer


natural color
Sweetner: HFCS
Artificial Sweetner: aspertame
Cure Meat: Nitrite
Preservative: sulfite
Flavor enhancer: MSG
Emulsifier: lecithin
Natural color: caramel
Syn. water insol. color: lake
Syn. sol. color: red #40
Match the food component with the number of calories per gram it provides.

7 calories per gram

9 calories per gram

4 calories per gram

0 calories per gram

1. protein
Protein: 4
Fat: 9
Alcohol: 7
Fiber: 0
Match the food component with the number of calories per gram it provides.

0 calories per gam

9 calories per gram

4 calories per gram

1. starch
2. oil
3. water
Starch: 4
Oil: 9
Water: 0
Match the confectionery ingredient with the purpose.

melting point





1. water
2. sugar
3. protein
4. gelat
Water: solvent
Sugar: sweetness
Protein: texture
Gelatin: stabilizer
Fat: melting point
How many calories are in 1 pound?

Which of the following statements is not correct regarding gene expression?

the primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids
each segment of genetic code (3 base pairs) translates into one protein molecule
in ea
Each segment of genetic code (3base pairs) translates into an amino acid
Which phrase is correct regarding gene expression?

a copy of DNA is made, c-DNA
t-RNA transfer building blocks (monosaccharides, amino acids, or fatty acids) into position
multiple copies of c-DNA leave the nucleus for translati
Which of the following foods is not correctly paired with its starting material?

1. Wine: vinegar
2. Grapes: wine
3. Milk: cheese
4. Corn: beer
Which statement is not correct regarding cheese?

1. cheese making was into. 1890
2. cheese can be made from the milk of cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, and yak
3. there is more process cheese sold than 'natural' cheese
4. Cheese is p
1. Cheese making is ancient
Cheddar is Am.'s fav cheese. What is #2?
What does the fermentation process benefit?
Preserving food (acid or alcohol)

adds varitey to diet

inhibits pathogens

Increases nutritional value
What is the fermentation reaction?
C6H12O6--> 2CO2 + acid/alcoh
What is the difference between natural and controlled fermentation?
Natural: existing microorg (sauerkraut)
Controlled: added microorg
What species is used in fermentation of:

1. Sauerkraut
2. Cheese
1. bacteria -->acid
2. bacteria -->acid
Describe cheese fermentation
Lactose--> lactic acid + CO2

Extended shelf life due to lower Aw and lower pH
What are the steps in the manufacture of cheddar cheese?
1. mix: milk and bacterial starter
2. add: coagulant (cymosin)
3. Cut/Ceddar: curd form
4. Form/Age: blocks of cheese aged
What is rennet?
rennet is the enzyme involved in the formation of cheese curds (like cymosin)
What types of starters are involved in the following fermentations and what major product is associated:

Yogurt (protein gel forms)
Vinegar (sour wine) & Sausage
Kifir (carbonated yogurt
1. mixed bacterial-->acid
2. yeast-->alcohol
3. yeast-->alcohol
4. yeast-->acid
5. bacteria-->acid
6. mold-->
7. yeast + bacteria (mixed)
According to lecture and the reading, which of the following does NOT accurately describe the manufacture of cheese?

in the manufacture of cheese, milk is preserved by acid and dehydration
yeast culture is added to produce the acid nee
a bacterial starter (lactose) is used
Which of the following associations is not correct re allergen testing?

challenge:food diary
skin test:food extract placed on scratch
RAST:blood test
Challenge: food eating
Which statement is true?

lactose intolerance involves milk protein
lactose free milk is a product of bacteria fermentation
lactose-free milk is sweeter than regular milk
lactose intolerance is a common food allergy in chi
lactose free milk is sweeter than regular milk
Which phrase is correct?

in white chocolate, cocoa butter is replaced by vegetable oils
chocolate liquor contains cholesterol and alcohol
marshmallows are an example of a protein foam
confectionary coatings are differenti
protein foam
What are the steps in the manufacture of beer?
1. Malting: allow barley to sprout; enzymes convert starch to maltose (amylase)
2. Mashing: mix malted barley with water; heat to 152F (activates glucoamylase = 2 glucose); hops and adjuncts add flavor
3. Heating: boil mash to remove water and stop enzymes; filter wort through grain mass (lautering: gran mass and sparging: adding water)
4. Fermentation: add yeast; Glucose-->Ethanol +CO2
5. Aging: pasturize (heat to stop yeast), bottle, carbonate
Match the following terms associated with beer with the appropriate definition or phrase:

preparation of the wort

ingredient added to beer as a bittering agent, preservative and an aromatic

Mashing: prep wort
Hops: added as a bittering agent, preservative and aromatic
Fermentation: alcohol + CO2
Yeast: begin fermentation
Match the following terms associated with beer with the appropriate definition or phrase:

golden color with a flowery aroma, lots of malt flavor and a dry finish with a bitter taste

German-style dark beer
1. Pale Ale: Golden color w/flowery aroma, lots of malt flavor and dry finish
2. Bock: German style dark beer
3. Doppelbock: stronger than regular bock, high in alcohol
4. Pilsner: lightly roasted malt gives a light color
What is the % DV for fat in one serving of premium ice cream with 32 grams of fat, 25 grams of total carbohydrate, 29 grams of protein, and 200 mg calcium? (round to the nearest whole number, if necessary)

According to the reading and lecture material, from 1999 to 2001, as the economy entered a recession, food insecurity and hunger increased.

What do Omega 3's (third C in has double bond) and Omega 6's do?
highly unsaturated fats that protect vision, immune system and cell function

(fish, flax, canola oil, nuts, wheat germ)
Enova Oil?
not stored as fat; diglyceride; research 1-2 lbs
The ice cream that you are planning for lunch has 300 cal and 23g fat. What % of cal. from fat
On a 2000 cal. diet an ice cream cone w/ 300 cal and 23g fat is what % of fat budget?
Which of the following nutrients is not correctly associated with an excellent food source?

1. Vitamin A: carrots
2. Vitamin C: strawberries
3. Vitamin D: fish oil
4. Vitamin B12: tofu
Vitamin B12: Animal products only
Which of the following is not paired correctly:

1. Folate: spinach
2. Calcium: oj
3. Iron: meat
4. Vitamin K: leafy greens
Calcium: milk

organic comp vital to life needed in small amts.

inorganic molecules, needed in small amts
What are fat soluble vitamins?
A,D, E & K

Carried in the blood on lipid

Can store these in our body
Fat soluble vitamins function and source?
Vitamin A (B Carotene): antioxidant (red/orange/yellow veggeis)

D (sunshine): helps bones absorb calcium (fortified milk and cereal, sunlight)

E (tocopherol): antioxidant, helps support healthy immune system and cardi system (Peanut butter, wheat germ, nuts, oil)

K: vital for blood clotting, bone strength and maintenance (made internally, leafy greens, broccoli)
List Water Soluable vitamins
B-complex vitamins and Vitamin C; not stored in body and regular intake is important
What is Folate? (folic acid)
water sol. vitamin; vital for growth and metabolism, presence in utero reduces the risk of spina bifida (leafy greens, oj, fortified cereals/supplement)
What is the function of B12 and sources?
helps from red blood cells, and helps the body utilize fatty acids adn amino acids (animal products only; supplements for vegetarians)
Function and Sources of Vitamin C?
Antioxidant, aids in the absorbtion of plant based iron, vital for tissue integrity and wound healing (Citrus fruits, green peppers, and strawberries)
What are the classes of minerals and what are examples of these?
Major minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Mg

Electrolytes (fluid balance): sodium, chloride, Potassium

Trace Minerals: Iron, Iodine, Zinc, Chromium, Copper, F, Mn, Molybdenum, Selenium
What is calciums function and sources?
Dev. of healthy bones and teeth (milk and dairy, leafy greens and bones of fish)
What is Sodiums function and source?
Helps reg. body fluids and transmit nerve impulses (most foods contain, but excess is usually added in processing)
What is the function and source of Iron?
Delivers oxygen to cells; Anemia (Meats, Legumes)
How are supplements regulated?
The label must be in FDA format

The label must be truthful and not misleading

Registration or approval are not required
Why might the elderly need a supplement/women/low calorie?
Vitamin D, Calcium
General supplement
What are the three types of food related hazards?
List three important scientists related to the study of microorganisms and what they discovered?
Van Leeuwnhoek: 1st microscope

Pasteur: Swan neck flask; spontaneous generation

Koch: germ thoery of disease (a particular microbe causes a particular disease)
What are the two types of cell structure?
Eukaryote: membrane bound DNA

Prokaryote: DNA is free
-single cell prokaryote
-single cell eukaryote
-multicellular eukaryote
-obligate intracellular parasite

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