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Kapital 11: Vokabeln


undefined, object
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Der Arbeitgeber/die Arbeitgeberin
Das Arbeitsamt,:er
employment office
Der Arbeitplatz
Die Ausbildung
employment counselor
die Bewerbung
das Bu:ro
der Chef
die erfahrung
die firma
das gehalt
der lebenslauf
die stelle
das vorstellungsgesprach
job interview
im Freien
im Ausland
der Arzt/die Arztin
der schauspieler/die schauspielerin
der dolmetscher/die dolmetscherin
der Mechaniker/die Mechanikerin
der Musiker/ die Musikerin
der Architek/ die Architekerin
der Informatiker/die Informatikerin
computer scientist
der Kaufmann/die Kaufleute
when is "nicht" used, where does it go in the sentence?
comes at the end when it negatifies a whole sentence, when it negatifies only one thing it is right before.
Nicht procedes was?
predicate adjectives, nouns, verbal compliments, prepositional phrases
noch nicht
not yet
noch kein
not yet
noch or immer noch
nicht mehr
no longer
kein mehr
no longer,any longer
die ausgabe
die Miete
die Nebenkosten
die Ernahrung
die Studiengebuhren
tuition, fees
pleite sein
broke, out of money
sich argern uber
to be annoyed about
aus geben
to spend money
to build
bitten um
to ask for
denken an
to think about
sich freuen auf
to look forward to
sich freuen uber
to be glad about
warten auf
to wait for
sich interessieren fur
to be interested in
after that
about it
at it
from there
das Nachricten
das Programm
station, tv channel
Wirtschaft und Borse
economy and stock market
current events
die Sendung
tv or radio programs
die Unterhaltung
der Spielfilm
feature film
der Sender
das Haushaltunggerat
household appliance
die Erfindung
das Videogerat
video unit
das Waschetrockner
der Aufbeantworter
anwsering machine
das Faxgerat
Fax machine
das Handy
der Dvd-spieler
dvd player
der Fernseher
what are some infinitive clauses
ohne,weil,naemlich, fuer,denn,um,zu
Differences between respiration and photosynthesis
In Photosynthesis, glucose is formed, CO2,H20, sun is used, glucose is produced
In Respiration, glucose is broken down, glucose is used, CO2, energy and glucose is formed
What is ATP Synthasis?
formation of ATP, protein gradient formed by splitting water
What happens in light dependent reactions?
produce ATP, Reduce NADP+ into NADPH, Oxidise H2O, Release O2
What happens in the light harvesting pigment protein complex?
They each have a reaction center and the antenae absorbs differents types of pigments in different areas.
How do pigments absorb light? What is given off when you give up energy?
Electrons move to an excited state, given off through heat, flurescent, photochemistry
What are the names of the pigments in photosynthesis?
Chrophyll a and b, xanthophylls, Karotene
How much energy is in light such as in long wavelengths and short wavelengths?
Long wavelengths=Low energy
Short wavelenths=High energy
Where does photosynthesis take place?
In the mesophyll in the chloroplast
What are the two phases in photosynthesis and what happens in each?
Light dependent reactions-light energy required and ATP and NADPH produced
Light independent reactions- ATP and NADPH used, carbon fixation
What happens in photosythesis that is like respiration?
Step 1-5 run backwards,only 2 phases in photosynthesis and 3 in respiration
What happens in photosynthesis?
sunlight is the source of energy, redox reaction, water is split and electrons are transfered from water to CO2, making it sugar
What happens in Animal and Plant Cytokinesis?
Animals,cleavage furrow forms in cells pinched into two, Plant, New wall cell plate emerges,plate enlarges
What happens in Telophase (Mitosis)?
Non-kinetochore microtubules elongate cell, nuclear envelope begins to reform,nucleoli reappear, chromosomes uncoil, cytokinesis is underway
What happens in Anaphase (Mitosis)?
paired centromeres seperate from each other, microtubules pull chromosomes to opposite ends, each pole receives complete compliment of chromosomes
What happens in Metaphase(Mitosis)?
Centrosomes are at opposite sides of the poles, chromosomes aligned along the metaphase plate
What happens in prometaphase (Mitosis)?
Nuclear envelope breaks down,spindle apparatus becomes associated with chromosomes, chromosomes move toward metaphase plate
What happens in prophase (Mitosis)?
Nucleoli disappear,chromatin fibers condense, mitotic spindle begins to form
What happens in Interphase (mitosis)?
chromosomes are duplicated, centrosomes are duplicated and are starting to pull apart
What are the 5 phases in Mitosis?
Prophase, Prometaphase,Metaphase,Anaphase,Telophase
what is the goal of cell division?
to distribute genome equally
What are sister chromatids,chromatin, mitosis, and centromere?
sister chromatids-unreplicated chromosome
mitosis-seperate sister chromatids
chromatin-loose,undeveloped protein,centromere-attached between two sister chromatids
What is the role of cell reproduction?
What is independent assortment?
random orientation of tetrads contributes to genetic variability
What is crossing over?
Chiosmata, new combination of alleles
Meiosis II is like what?
What are the 3 things that contribute to genetic variation?
Crossing over,Independent Assortment, Random Fertilization
What happens in Telophase (Meiosis)?
Each plate of the cell has a haploid compliment of chromosomes,Each chromosome has a linked sister chromatid
What happens in Anaphase (Meiosis)?
Seperation of homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids remain together and attach at centromeres
What happens in Metaphase (Meiosis)?
Tetrads aline along metaphase plate, Kinetochore microtubules attach to each homologue in tetrad
What happens in Prophase (Meiosis)?
Chromosomes condense, homologous pairs, chiamata form, spindle apparatus forms to move tetrads
What are the 4 phases in Meiosis 1? what happens in interphase?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase,Telophase
Interphase-chromosomes replicate, centrosomes replicate
What are the 2 nuclear divisions in Meiosis? What happens in them?
Meoisis 1-seperate homologous chromosomes/cytokinesis
Meiosis 2-seperate sister chromatids/cytokinesis,get 4 daughter cells
What are somatic cells, gametes,fertilization, Meiosis?
Somatic-all other cells but gametes,gametes-haploid,egg and sperm, -fertilization-fusion of the egg and sperm, Meiosis- nuclear division process in reproducing organisms,half the chromosomes of the original cell
What are homologous chromosomes, sex chromosomes, and autosomes?
Homo-pairs of chromosomes that possess genes for the same characteristic at the same loci
Sex chrom-involved in determining the sex of a chromosome
Autosome-everything not envolved in sex determination
What is a gene, allele, chromosome and locus?
gene-sequence of DNA codes for a protein
allele-alternate form of a gene
chromosome-long thread like assocation of genes
locus-location on the chromosome
What are some alterations of chromosome structure?
Crossover,Deletion,duplication,mobile portions, point mutation
What is polygenic inheritance?
additive effects of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype color
What happens in Epitasis?
A gene on 1 locus effects the gene of another expression at a 2nd locus
ex:locus 1-color deposition
locus 2-black dominant over brown
What is pleiotrophy?
genes with mutiple phenotypes
ex>sickle cell anemia
What is complete dominance,codominance,and incomplete dominance?
complete-one is dominant over another
co-neither dominant
incomplete-one allele doesn't dominant over another
Punnett Square for two characteristics? YyRr x YyRr
What is law of segregation?
seperation of an allele into seperate gametes
What is hybridization?
selection for a particular trait
What is the lagging strand in DNA replication?
copied in Osaki fragments
DNA sythesized way from the processing replication fork
What happens in DNA synthesis?/
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3' end and the daughter strand uses the 5' to 3' direction as a template
passive or active transport, binds to solute, protein undergoes change, slower then channels
membrane bound,not part of the endomembrane system, produces H2O2 used for detoxifying in liver
Passive transport, facilated diffusion, size specific, charge specific, transports the most
3 Classes of transport proteins
channels, gated channels (carriers), pumps
3 different types of solute concentrations
hypertonice solution-higher solutes
hypotonic solution-lower solutes
isotonic solutions-equal solutes
solution=solvent (water) + solute (particles)
high to low concentration until system reaches equilibrium
measurement of disorder, maximum randomness
water moving thru a membrane
sugar bound to proteins in a membrane/cell
carbs(sugars) that are bound to lipids in a cell/membrane
active transport, pump against concentration gradient, essential for small molecules
Membranes what are they?
selectively permable, hydrophillic/hydrophobic regiions, h20 moves freely across, ions can't go through freely
What are the two types of proteins in the membrane and where are they?
Integral protein- hydrophobic embedded in the fatty acid
Peripheral protein- not embedded attached to surface membrane
What is the triplet code? What happens in the 3rd position?
triplet codes have a table to illustrate what amino acid they are, triple codes only represent one amino acid, the 3rd position (wobbles/varies)
How do 4 nucleotides specify 20 amino acids?
DNA nucleotides (A,G,T,C) are grouped into 3's (codons) and each codon is translated into amino acid.
Feedback Inhibition
negative feedback loop
product inhibits enzyme activity
spontaneous reactions
occur when system gives up energy (H) and gives up order (s)
What are the 3 parts needed in a nucleic acid?
phosphate group, 5-c sugar (pentase), nitrogenious base
polymers of nucleotides synthesized by connecting of one nucleotide to the phosphate of the next one
Phosopodiester link
linked covalent bonds, between a phosphate of one nucleotide to the next
Catabolic Metabolic Pathways
Break down complex molecules to a simplier compound
more free energy and also release ATP
Anabolic Metabolic Pathway
consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpiler ones
Ribulose 1,5 Biphosphate Carboxylase Oxygonase
What binds with Rubisco to produce the 5-C sugar Rubisco?
3 phosphate glycerate
(2) 3-C-Sugar
Exergonic Reaction
releases free energy spontenously (breakdown of sugar)
Endergonic reaction
gains free energy not spontaneous (synthesis of sugar)
Endocytosis and 3 types
transport of large molecules
vesicles formed from cell membrane
Pinocytosis-cell drinking
Phagocytosis-cell eating
Receptor mediated-selective uptake
What is carbohydrate and what is it's function?
sugar that does cell to cell recognition and identification
Rubosome structure and function in translation?
facilitate coupling of tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons
large, small subunits
rRNA and protein
3 binding sites A,P and E
What binds amino acids in translation?
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
What is a tRNA structure and function? What is an anti-codon?
Folds via H bonds, 3'bonds bottom loop-anticodon anticodon recognizes codons
base pair of amino acid at each end in the site
What is translation and what are the components?
interprets mRNA and sytheizes protein
How are introns removed?
splicing signals are sent to the end of the introns, snRNPs recognizes sites and binds
spliceosome cuts RNA transcripts and splices exons
What is a spliceosome and it's function?
Its variety of proteins and some nuclear RNA molecule (snRNA) and recognizes where to splice at the ends of introns
What is RNA splicing? What are introns and exons?
removes introns and joins exons creating an mRNA molecules with a continuous coding sequence
Intron= don't know function
Exons=express protein
What is involved in pre mRNA and why is it modifyed?
addition of a guanine/phosphate cap, addition long adenine nucleotides on 3' end
What happens in termination in the transcription?
transcription proceeds until RNA termination site
What is elongation in transcription? what happens in it?
RNA polymerase works 5' to 3' untwists DNA double helix
RNA nucleotides are added on the 3' end
What is initiation in transcription?
RNA polymerase binds to promotor region with aid of proteins
What is the promotor, transcription unit and terminator?
promotor-upstream gene
transcription unit-DNA section
terminator-signal end of transcription
What are some functions of RNA polymerase?
binds and seperates DNA strands at approriate point, initates RNA synthesis and bounds RNA molecules on DNA templets
What is transcription and what are the 3 stages?
conversion of a transcription unit (dna gene) in mRNA
Initation, elongation,termination
3 differences in DNA replication and RNA (transcription/translation)?
end product isn't double stranded,no t's=u's, not replication of an entire chromsome only DNA gene
What happens in the priming replication?
Primase creates a RNA primer which DNA polymerase can add nucleotides to the 3'end
What are the events in DNA replication?
Unwinding of double helix,stabilize single stranded DNA
What are the proteins required for replication?
Helicase, Primase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase, Single stranded binding protein
Where does DNA replication take place?
In a replication fork with a parent and a daughter strand
What is DNA replication?
Duplication of a DNA polmer, a newly formed template
How is H-bonding determined in the DNA ring ladder?
size of the base, must have a purine and pyrimidine
What makes up the DNa double helix structure?
2 anti-parellels with a sugar phosphate backbone, 5 carbon linked to #3 carbon, nitrogenous base towards inside
What are the two classes of DNA nitrogenous bases? What nucleotides do what?
1 ring pyrimidines (c-cytosine,t-thymine)
2 ring Purine (a-adenine, g-guanine)
What are the 3 parts of nucleic acid and DNA structure?
phosphate group,5-c sugar, nitrogenous bases
What are the 3 steps to get from a gene to a protein?
Transcription,mRNA processing, translation
What happens in termination in translation?
Occurs what stop codons reach A site, protein binds to site A, ribosome disassembles
What happens in Elongation in translation? What are the 3 steps in elongation?
amino acid are added to the preceding, protein elongation factors needed
GTP spent
3 steps- codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation
What happens in initiation in translation?
small subunit binds with mRNA and special tRNA intator , Large subunit binds intitator occupies P site of assembled ribosome
What are the 3 steps in translation?
Initiation, elongation, termination
What are the 3 sites in a ribosome in translation?
A site-entrance for tRNA
P site-holds tRNA carrying the chain
E site-tRNA exit
What are the 3 classes of electron carriers?
cytochrome, non heme Iron-sulfur,quinones
Where is the ETC?
a protein in the inner mitochondria membrane
How is the protein gradient produced? What are the two types of gradients?
by the electron movement along the ETC
electrical, chemical
What is Electron Transport Chain and what is being produced?
E' transferred to H20
What is chemiosmosis?
couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthase
What is ATP synthase?
allow h+ to diffuse boack to the matrix
-an exergonic flow of h+ used by the enzyme to generate ATP
What is the protein motive force?
the concentration of h+
maintains enzymes shape, activator binds to an active site but works only with mutiple active sites
primary structure
held together by peptide bonds, one side is aminoacid
taking things out of cell membrane
Vacuoles and the 3 types
food vacuole,contractile vacuole, centro vacuole
rRNA is synthesized and assembled with proteins to form ribosomes
Regulation of enzyme activity?
tempurature, PH and cofactors, Inhibitors
Enzyme substraight complex
When enzyme and substrate form to produce a product
2nd law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer of transformation increases the entropy of the universe
firt law of thermodynamics
energy can neither be created nor destroyed rather can be transferred
couples transport 2 solutes via pump and carriers
single membrane orgenelles
endoplasmic reticulum (er), golgi apparatus, lyzosome, peroxisome, vacuole
endosymbiotic theory
phagocytic uptake of a bacterial cell
endomembrane concept
a continious dynamic system in the cell
Nuclear membrane>ER>Golgi ap>Lysozome>cell membrane
nucleic acid
store and transmit heredity information
quaternary structure
2 or more polypeptides that come together
tertiary structure
globular protein, side chain interactions
secondary structure
beta and alpha sheets, held by hydrogen bonds
what are the 4 levels of protein structures?
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
3 classes of carriers
uniport, one solute, one direction
symport, two solutes +/-, some direction
antiport, two solutes +/+, opposite direction
double membrane orgenelles
nucleus,chloroplast, mitochondria
bodies within cytosol with a specialized function
energy transformation in a collection of matter
potential energy
an object not moving may still pocess energy
kinetic energy
energy and the relative motion of an object
speed up a reaction by catalizing chemical reactions they are proteins
Energy Coupling
the use of a exergonic process to drive a endergonic one
the reactants an enzyme reacts on
How are substrates attracted to enzymes?
Through weak bonds and slight charged attractions
What are the two types of inhibitors for enzymes?
competitive-compete for the active site with substrates
non-competitive-seek an alternative site on the enzyme
Allosteric Activator
Activator binds to a secondary site so that the enzyme won't switch to an inactive form
What are the functions of membrane proteins?
transport,enzymatic activity, cell to cell recognition
produced by golgi apparatus, single membrane bound,enzyme for digestion
Golgi Apparatus
single membrane bound, transport vesicle travel from ER, synthesis of cell water matter, packaging and modification
manager of cell structure and function, stores blueprint of cell, proteins made, protein synthesis in mRNA, nucleolus, double membrane bound
cytosol (cell sap), organelles
Plama membrane (cell membrane)
delimits cells, binds whole cell together
similarity between prokaryotic and eurkaryotic cells
All cells have plasma membrane and semi-fluid cytosol,DNA
cell is membrane bound with a nucleus,found in plants and animals
bacteria, archea with no membrane bound nucleus
basic unit of life
No bound membrane,protein factories, my be free or bound in the ER,float in the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)and the two types
single membrane bound, building endomembrane system
smooth-lack ribosomes,lipid synthesis
rough-ribosome surface makes membranes,protein synthesis
site of respiration,2 cellelar membranes
site of photosynthesis-making sugar and starch, 2 phospolipid bi-layers
Nuclear Envelope
inner layer-structural support,pores perferate membrane entrance and exit of macromolecules
What is the Krebs Cycle? What is being produced in the beginning and end?
produce 6 moles of CO2, electrons go to the 3rd step
What happens in the Kreb cycle?
generates ATP and electrons carriers for ETC, one cycle produces 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and this happens twice
What are two ananaerobic pathways?
Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid
What is respration?
controlled transfer of chemical energy of carbs to ATP
What happens in aerobic respiration?
respiration in the prescence of oxygen, all sugar is converted to O2
How is respiration regulated?
Feedback mechanisms
What type of energy is made in each step in respiration?
glycolysis- 2 ATP/2 NADPH
Krebs Cycle-2 ATP/6 NADPH
What is the difference between oxidate and reduce?
oxidate-give up electrons
reduce-accept electrons
What are the 3 phases in respiration?
glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain

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