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Chapter 3 Vocab

Chapter 3 - Chemistry Basics

Terms

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Peptidoglycan
A polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria.
Polymer
A chemical compound formed by polymerization and consisting of repeating units of monomers.
Racemase
These catlyze the stereochemical inversion around the asymmetric carbon atom in a substrate having only one center of asymmetry.
Phospholipid
A class of lipid that helps form the biological membrane.
Quaternary Structure
In proteins, the number and types of individual polypeptides in the final protein molecule.
Monomer
A small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.
Amino Group
An organic compound and type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom.
van der Waals Forces
A synonym for the totality of intermolecular forces.
Purine
One type of nitrogenous base in DNA. The two are adenine and guanine.
Hydrophilic
The type of molecule that is water-loving
Nonpolar
Possessing hydrophobic (water-repelling) characteristics and not easily dissolved in water.
R Group
A generic label for a side chain, which can be anything.
Macromolecule
Polymer of covalently linked monomeric units.
Pentose
A monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.
tRNA
A small RNA chain that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation.
Molecule
Two or more atoms chemically bonded to one another.
Peptide Bond
A type of covalent bond linking amino acids in a polypeptide.
Hydrogen Bond
A weak chemical bond between a hydrogen atom and a second, more electronegative element, usually an oxygen or nitrogen atom.
Functional Groups
Specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Primary Structure
In an informational macromolecule, such as a polypeptide, the precise sequence of monomeric units.
Valence
The term given to the outermost shell of an atom in an uncombined state, which contains the electrons most likely to account for the nature of any reactions and bonding interactions an atom has with others.
Atom
The smallest particle characterizing a chemical element.
Dehydration Synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small water molecule.
mRNA
Transcribed from a DNA template, this type of RNA is a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product.
RNA
Involved in translation of genetic information from DNA, this polymer is made of nitrogenous bases, ribose sugar, and phosphates.
Pyrimidine
One type of nitrogenous base in DNA. The three are cytosine, thymine, and uracil (RNA only).
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond in which electrons are shared between two atoms.
Glycolipid
These carbohydrate-attached lipids provide energy and also serve as markers for cellular respiration.
Triglyceride
A glyceride compound in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids.
Catalytic Protein
Another word for "enzyme".
Alpha helix
A common form of secondary protein structure; this is a right-handed coiled formation.
Tertiary Structure
The final folded structure of a polypeptide that has previously attained secondary structure.
Amphipathic
A chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
ATP
A multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a "molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
Ionic Bond
A type of chemical bond formed by the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
N-acetylglucosamine
A monosaccharide derivative of glucose and is part of a biopolymer in the bacterial cell wall.
DNA
Containing the genetic information used in development and function of all known living organisms, these contain nucleotides, deoxyribose sugar, and phosphates.
Hexose
A six carbon atom, C6H12O6, and is a common sugar
Denaturation
Destruction of the folding properties of a protein leading (usually) to loss of biological activity.
Carboxyl Group
-COOH; A functional group present in amino acids and carboxylic acids.
Phosphodiester
A type of covalent bond linking nucleotides together in a polynucleotide.
Enantiomer
One form of a molecule that is the mirror image of another form of the same molecule.
Disulfide Linkage
A single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol (R-SH) groups.
rRNA
A type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus and is the central component of the ribosome.
Glycoprotein
Proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains covalently attached to their polypeptide.
Beta Sheet
The second form of secondary protein structure, consists of almost fully extended peptide backbones connected by hydrogen bonds.
Polar
Possessing hydrophilic characteristics and generally water-soluble.
Hydrophobic
The type of molecule that is water-repelling
Nucleotide
A monomer of a nucleic acid containing a nitrogen base, a molecule of phosphate, and a sugar, either ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA).

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