This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Biotest

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
eukaryote
single-celled microorganisms that lacks a nuclei
prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles serperate and take up postitions on the oppopsite sides od the nucleus
homologous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
electron
negativly charged particle, located outside the atomic nucleus
chemical reaction
process that charges one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
element
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane- but not including the nucleus
NADP+
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-enegy electrons from chlorophyll to another molecule
krebs cycle
second stage if cellulare respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken inot carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions
suspension
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
fermentaion
process in which cells release energy in the absense of oxygen
exocytosis
the membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
vacuoles
store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
enzyme
proteins that act as a biological catalyst
thylakoid
saclike body on chloroplasts made of photosythentic membranes that contain photosystems
carbohydrate
compound made of cabon, hydrogen adn oxygen atoms; major sources of energy
cell
collection of living matter, enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surroundings, basic unit of all life forms
micropscope
device that produces magnified images of structures that are to small to see with the naked eye
nucleus
large structure inside some cells that contains the cells genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activities
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system in cells in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
polymer
large compund formed from combinations of many monomers
calvin cyle
term used by scientists to measure the energy stored in foods; 1000 calories
electron microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons on a microscope
prokaryote
single-celled microorgansims that lacks a nucleus
acid
compund that forms hydrogen ions (h+) in solution
selectively permeablity
property of biological membranes that allows only certain substances to pass through them
solute
substance that is dissolved to form a solution
NAD+
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
endoplasmic reticulum
lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled here
transcription
RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands.
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to powere chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
glycoloysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of gluscose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
cancer
disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the abilty to control growth
ionic bond
formed when one or more electrons are tranferred from one atoms to another
ATP sythase
large protein that uses energy form H+ ions to bind ATP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
cell culture
group of cells grown in a nutrient soultion from a single organall cell
solution
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the solution are evenly distributed
spontaneous generation
hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could rise form unliving matter
nucleus
the center of the atom whcih contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, large structure inside some cells that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activieies
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some organisms that uses energy from sunlight to make energy rich food molecules by photosythesis
active transport
energy rewuireing process that moves material accross a cell membrane against a concentration diffrence
ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled made of RNA and protein
exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
cyclin
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in the eukaryotic cells
science
organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world, also the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using the process
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell divsion
light-dependant reactions
reactions of photosythesis that uses energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
chloroplhyll
principal pigments of plants nad other photosythetic organisms, captures light energy
nucleus
center of the atom where protons and neutrons are bound
solvent
substance in whicj a soulute is dissolced to form a soution
solute
the substance that is dissolved
lipid
mocromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus
mitochondria
convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
lipids
fats, oils, or waxes, used to store energy
anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen
calorie
amount if energy required to raise the temperture of 1 gram of water by 1 celsius degree
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
haploid
term used ti refer to a cell that contains onlt a single set of chromosomes and there for only a single set of genes
evolution
change made in a kind of organism over time process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
electron transport chain
uses the high energy electrons from the krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
cellular respiration
proces that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxigen; made up of glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
base
compound that produsses hydroxide ion (OH+) in soultion
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
microfilament
long, thin fiber functions in the movement and support of the cell
isotope
atom of an element that has a number of neutrons diffrent from that of other atoms of the same element
golgi apparatus
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
nuclear envelope
double-membrane layer that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
ATP
one of the principle chemical compounds that living things use to store energy
krebs cycle
pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a seires of energy extracting reactions
lysosome
small organells filled with enzymes
atom
basic unit of matter
covalent bond
formed when electrons are shared between atoms
faciated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
photosytems
light-collecting units of the chloroplast
inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
covalent bond
bond formed when one or meore electrons are transferred from one atom to another
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
anaphase
sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes
monomer
small unit that can be joined together with other small units to form polymers
cell specialization
sperate roles fro each type of cell in multicellular organsims
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
sexual reproduction
process by which two cells from diffrent parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
telophase
chromosome gather at opposite ends and the cell loses its distinct shape
lipid bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surroundung; basic unit of life
cytokinesis
second stage, division of the cytoplasm
substance
reactant of an enzyme- catalyzed reaction
controlled experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all the other variables the same
reactant
elemt or compound that enters inot a chemical reaction
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
ionic bond
bond formed when one or more electrons are transfered from one atom to another
pH scale
measurment system used to indicate the concentration of hydrigen ions (h+) in soultion; ranges from 0-14
DNA
nuceic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
cell cycle
a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
compound light microscope
microscope that allows ligt to pass through a speciamin and uses two lenses to form an image
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes though protein channels
electron transport chain
a series of proteins in which the high enegy electrons form from the krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP
atom
basic unit of matter
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that help the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of the cell movement
replication
DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands
polysaccharide
large molecules formed from monosacchardes
metric system
decimal system of measurment based on certain physical standards and scaled on a multiple of 10
telophase
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
heterotrouph
organsim that obtains energy from the food it consumes, also called a consumer
spindle
fanlike microtubule structure that helps serperate the chromosomes during mitosis
chromosomes
thread like structre within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
cohesion
attraction between molecules of teh same substance
cell division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
diffusion
process by which molecules tend from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
cell theory
idea that all liveing things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit if structure and function in living things and new cells are produced from existing cells
theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
electron
negatively charged particle surrounding the nucleus
crossing-over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
isotope
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons that contain
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during mitosis
diffusion
particles tend to move from an area where they are mroe concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or brakes down matterials as it brakes down or down materials as it carries out its life process
anticodon
three unpaired bases
endocytosis
taking meterial into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets of the cell membrane
mixture
material composed of two or more elements or sompounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combinded
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; is also called a producer
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates
photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water --> carbohydrates + oxygen
microtubule
hollow tube of protein that mainatains cell shape and can also serve as a "track" along which organelles are moved
amino acid
compound with an amino group (NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other end
data
evidence, information gathered from observations
adhesion
attraction between molecules of diffrent substances, in plants: attraction between unlike molecules
solvent
the substance in which the solute dissolves
mitochondrian
cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules
compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in a definite proportions
activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
organ
group of tissue that work together to perform closely related functions
biology
science that seeks to understand the living world
mitosis
first stage of cell division; division of the cell nucleus
endocytosis
process by whicj a cell takes material into the cell by infolding if the cell membrane
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selcetively permeable membrane
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair to make up enzymes
ribosomes
small particles found in cytoplasm that produce proteins
facilitated diffusion
molecules move through protein channels instead of a membrane
centromere
area where the chromomes are attached
chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
cell wall
string layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae and some bacteria
enzyme
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
monosacharide
single sugar molecules
lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
meiosis
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation od homologues chromosomes in a diploid cell
chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
biosphere
contains combined portions of the planet, including land, water, air, atmosphere, and living things
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
homeostasis
proceses by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal enviroment
codon
three consecutive nucleotides
calvin cycle
plants use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high energy compounds that can be stored for a long time
buffer
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
glycolysis
releases a small amount of energy, and first step in the chemical pathway
mitosis
part of teh eukaryotic celll division during whcih the cell nucleus divides
pigment
light obsorbing colored molecule
prophase
chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelope breaks down
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of an animal cell near the nuclear envelope
interphase
the long period before mitosis and cytokinesis, cell grows and replicates its DNA
thylakoids
photosynthetic membranes
tissue
group of similar cells that performs a particular function
van der waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppostely charged regions of nearby molecules
observation
use of one or more of the senses- sight, sound, hearing, touch, smell and taste- to gather information
active transport
moving materials in the opposite direction, against a concentration difference
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
anaphase
the thrid phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes pairs seperate and move towards opposite poles
cell fractionation
technique in which cells are broken into pieces adn the diffrent cell parts are seperated
ion
atom that has a postive or negative charge
organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
metaphase
chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
base
a compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution, pH levels above 7
cellular respiration
process that release energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
product
element or compund produced by a chemical reaction
responding variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipuulated variable, also known as the dependant variable
nucleolus
small, dense region in which the assembly of ribosomes begins
meiosis
a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half
aerobic
process that requires oxygen
stroma
region outside tthe thylkoid membranes in chloroplasts
manipulated variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to manipulated variable; also known as the dependant variable

Deck Info

187

permalink