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AP Bio Chapters 4+5


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condensation/dehydration reactions
one monomer provides a --OH group and the other a --H to release a water moleule, and a covalent bonds between the monomers is formed;e nergy is required to join monomers, and the process is facilitated by enzymes
tertiary structure
contortions of proteins due to bonding and weak interactions between side chains (R groups); examples = hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar side groups in the center of the molecule, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds between negatively and positively charged side chains
branched starch
nitrogenous bases of adenine (A) and guanine (G); have a 5-membered ring in addition to the 6-membered ring
glucose polymer used for energy storage in plants (stored in plastids); animals have digestive enzymes to hydrolyze __
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed by a dehydration reaction between two monosaccharides
a polymer of amino acids
amino acids
monomers of polypeptides that consist of an asymetric carbon (aka the alpha carbon) bonded to a hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an amino group, and an R group (a variable side chain); thousands make up a polypeptide
an important steroid that is a common component of animal cell membranes and a precusor for other steroids, including many hormones
a compound whose carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
consists of a sulfur bonded to a hydrogen
small molecules that are linked together by dehydration/condensation rxns to make polymers
nitrogenous bases of cytosine (C), thymine (T) [only DNA], and uracil (U) [only RNA]; 6-membered ring
peptide bond
links the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; a polypeptide chain has a free carboxyl group at one end and free amino group at the other
carboxyl group
consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also attached to a hydroxyl group (--COOH)
fatty acid
a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end; hydrophobic
isomers that are left- and right-handed versions of each other and can differ in their biological activity (1 is usually biologically active and the other is not)
glucose polymer used for energy storage in animals (stored in muscles and liver); more branched than amylopectin
phosphodiester linkages
bonds that link the phosphate of one nucleotide with the sugar of the next to form polynucleotides
asymetric carbon
a carbon that is covalently bonded to 4 diff kinds of atoms or groups of atoms; tetrahedral shape
a compound whose carbonyl group is somewhere other than at the end of the carbon skeleton
R group
variable side chain of an amino acid that determines the physical and chemical properties of that amino acid; may be either nonpolar and hydrophobic or polor or charged (acidic or basic) and thus hydrophilic
carbonyl group
a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen (C=O)
phosphate groups
functional group bonded to the carbon skeleton by its oxygen attached to the phosphorous atom that is bonded to three other oxygen atoms (--OPO3^-2); this group is an anion due to the dissociation of hydrogen ions
storage or structural molecules made from a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides
secondary structure
coiling and folding of a protein's polypeptide backbone
chainlike moleules formed from the linking together of many similar or identical small molecules
unbranched starch
aka triacylglycerol/triglyceride; one glycerol and three fatty acids linked by a condensation reaction; made hydrophobic by the nonpolar hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids; ester bond forms between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group
simple sugars (monomers); ratio = CH2O; form polymers by condensation reactions
the breaking of bonds between monomers through the addition of water moleules; a --OH group is joined to one monomer, a --H to the other, and enzyme help catalyze the reaction
carboxylic acids
compounds containing a carboxyl group; aka organic acids because they tend to dissociate to release H+
saturated fatty acids
fatty acids with no double bonds in their carbon skeletons; solid at room temp; diets rich in these have been linked to cardiovascular disease
quaternary structure
occurs in proteins that are composed of more than one polypeptide chain; the individual polypeptide subunits are held together in a precise structural arrangement
macromolecules consisting of one or more polypeptide chains folded into a unique 3D shape/conformation
geometric isomers
isomers have the same sequence of covalently bonded atoms but differ in their spacial arrangement due to the inflexibility of double bonds
unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids with double bonds in their carbon skeletons; creates a kink in the shape of the molecule and prevent the fat molecules from packing closely together and becoming solidified at room temp; oils
a compound containing sulfydryl groups
organic molecules containing hydroxyl groups (names often ended in -ol)
structural isomers
isomers that differ in their arrangement of atoms and often in the location of double bonds
hydroxyl group
O and H (--OH) covalently bonded to the carbon skeleton (C--OH)
forms exoskeletons of arthropods and cell walls of some fungi
disaccharide consisting of a glucose and a fructose molecule, attached together by glycosidic linkage
monosaccharide that is broken to yiel energy in cellular respiration
monomers of nucleic acids made up of a phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar (pentose - deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA) and a nitrogenous base
hydrophobic macromolecules that do not form polymers; include fats, phosphlipids, and steroids
giant moleules composed of small organic moleules (monomers) by condensation/dehydration rxns; consist of carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids; composed of 40-50 common monomers with some rarer molecules
nucleic acids
macromolecules that carry and transmit genetic codes (DNA/RNA)
lipids distinguished by 4 connected carbon rings with various functional groups attached
compounds with the same molecular formula but diff structural arrangements, and thus, diff properties. 3 types: structural, geometric, and enantiomers
compound with an amino group that can act as a base; the nitrogen, with its pair of unshared electrons, can attract a hydrogen ion, becoming --NH3+
amino group
consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogens (--NH2)
functional groups
groups of atoms that bond to the carbon skeleton and behave consistently from one carbon-based moleule to another; hydrophilic functional groups increase the solubility of organic compounds in water
glucose polymer that is the major component of plant cell walls/most abudant organic compound on earth; differs from starch by the configuration of the ring form of glucose and the resulting geometry of the glycosidic bonds; few organisms can digest this compound
consist of a glycerol linked to two fatty acids a negatively charged phosphate group to which other small moleules may be attached
primary structure
the unique, genetically coded sequence of amino acids within a protein
units of inheritance that determine the primary structure of proteins

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