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Ap Euro Section 5


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a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, stressing established institutions, and preferring gradual development to abrupt change
Modern Conservatism in rooted in the Writings of Edmund Burke; wrote "Reflections on the Revolution in France", Joseph de Maistre had more extreme conservatism methods
Based on the idea that all people's identitiesare defined by their connection with a nation and it is to that nation that they owe their primary loyalty
national conscription
the calling of all young men into military service
Foundations can be found in the writings of the philosophers of the enlightenment, emphasises idividual's natural rights, limitations on political authorities and formation of parliamentary bodies
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
Liberal who began yo question some of the liber orthodoxies; began as a desciple of Jeremy Bentham, wrote "Principles of Political Economy" in which he stated that the state should intervene and help workers achieve economic justice.
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
"liberalist" who gave justification for an expanded role for governments by suggesting that governments should seek to provied "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"; his views are given the label of unitarianism
a number of radical Jacobins took the idea of political equality for all and then went further by adding economic equality for all through the common ownership of all property
Utopian socialists
phrase coined by Karl Marx; label given to early socialist writers, they belived that expansive possibilites were available to mankind; they thought Capitalism over-emphasized production and under-emphasized distribution, and created too much unemployment
Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)
Argued that society neededd to be organized on a scientific basis; he argued for the creation of a hierarchial society led by an intellectual class that improved society; he envisioned a Europe that shared a common currency, transportation, and parliament
Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
Utopian Socialist who created a blueprint for a cooperative community: a self-contained group of precisely 1,620 people living on 5,000 acres of land
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
created his own society blueprint, but actually built it; New Lanark, a mill town in Scotland
Charter of 1814
France's hastily written constitution when the Burbon's retook the throne after Napolean's final defeat
Charles X
Younger brother of Louis XVIII who came to the throne and introduced the Law of Sacrilege, and appointed the Prince of Polignac has his chief minister.
July Ordinances
Issued by Polignac; dissolved the newly elected assembly, took away the right to vote from the upper bourgeoisie, and imposed rigid censorship
Revolutions of 1830
Revolutions first broke out in France when Parisians rioted against the liberals who feared the creation of a republic.
A secret nationalistic society in Italy that helped Neapolitan army officers and bourgeoisie revolt against the King of Naples
Troppau Protocol
Created when Metternich called together the leaders of Austria, Prussia, Russia, to the Austrian town of troppau; the protocol states that the European powers have the right to intervene in revolutionary situations.
Greek revolt of 1821 & the Eastern Question
Liberals hopefully watched the Greek revolt against the Ottoman Empire, the Greek revolt is tied to the eastern Question: What should be done regarding the increasing weakness of the Ottoman Empire?
Nicholas I (r.1825-1855) & the Decembrist Revolt
Whan Alexander I died, the older of his brothers, Constantine, turned down the throne so Nicholas stepped up. A small group of military officers who favored Constantine started the Decembrist Revolt which was quickly put down.
Peterloo massacre
In England, 60,000 people gathered in St. Peter's field in Manchester demanding universal male suffrage and annual parliaments, soldiers shot 11 members of the crowd.
Combination Acts
banned union activity in England
Reform Bill of 1832
although it expanded the electorate to include those who had become wealthy as a result of industrialization, only 1 in 5 men could vote in Great Britain; it also greatly reduced the number of rotten boroughs
Poor Law of 1834
foced the destitute of Great Britain to enter workhouses that had coditions that were purposely miserable
Factory Act of 1833
reduced the number of hours that children could work in factories and established government inspectors to ensure adequate working conditions
Corn Laws & their repeal
The Corn laws imposed high tariffs on imported grain to support domestic farmers; they were repealed in 1846
Irish potato famine
In 1846 the famine led to the death of 1 million individuals and an additional million immigrating out of Ireland
Francoise Guizot and King Louis Phillipe
Louis Phillipe was the king of France and Francoise was his chief minister. During the time the opponents of the regime whould hold banquets thinly disguised as political meetings; Guizot banned one of these banquets which was in honor of George Washington. The poeple rioted, Phillipe was force to fire Guizot and himself flee to England.
Louis Blanc (1811-1882) & the national workshops
Blanc was a socialist journalist who spoke of a need for social and economic change. His supporters pressured the government into creating national workshops to provide jobs for the unemployed.
June Days
A voilent class struggle in the streets of Paris as a result of the termination of the national workshops; 10,000 died
French Second Republic
created by the moderate republicans; it was headed by a President who was elected by a universal adult male body of voters and would not be responsible to the legislature.
Revolutions of 1848
On January 12, 1848 there was a rebellion in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies against King Ferdinand II. This was to be the first of 50 revolts that convulsed Europe in the first 4 months of that year.
Louis Napolean/ Napolean III (1808-1873)
Nephew of Napolean Bonaparte, was elected President of the French Second republic, created a rather conservative government. During a constitutional crisis in 1851 he assumed dictatorial powers and Crowned himself Emperor Napolean III in 1852.
Frederick William IV (r. 1804-1861)
King of Prussia during the Revolutions of 1848, who promised to make moderate reforms but never did. eventually after a riot, the king ordered his army to leave, then later called them back when he drew up a new constitution.
Prussian Constitution
Allowed personal rights such as freedom of the press and created a two house legislature with adult male universal suffrage for the lower house.
Frankfurt Parliament
On May 18, 1848 representatives from all the German states gathered in Frankfurt to try and create a unified German nation; however problems arose such as wether it should be a monarchy or a republic.
Chartism- People's Charter of 1838
Chartism was a belief in Great Britain that the problems of the working class could be corected by changes in the political organization of the country; brought about the People's Charter of 1838, which had six points: 1.universal adult male suffrage 2.the secret ballot 3.Abolition of property requirements for members of parliament 4.Payment to members of parliament 5.equal electoral districts 6.Annual parliaments w/ yearly elections
Industrial Revolution (1760-1850)/ end of domestic system
In 1760 a group of inventors came out of nowhere and began to develop factories putting an end to the domestic system of production
Reasons why Britain industrialized first
1.Political Stability and relative tolerance towrd religious minorities 2.Britain had a national banking system 3.Availability of natural resources such as coal and iron expanding population
John Kay (1704-1764)
In 1733 he invented the flying shuttle, which greatly increased the speed at which weavers could make cloth.
James Hargreaves
Invented the spinning jenny in 1765, it was a machine that initially spun 16 spindles of thread at one time; by the end of the century in was inproved to up to 120 spindeles at once
Richard Arkwright
invented the water frame: a huge apparatus that combined spindels and rollers to create a spinning machine to spin cloth; employed200 individuals under 1 roof in what came to be known as the first modern factory
James Watt
studied the steam pump to invent the steam engine. Later he invented an engine that turned a wheel making factories independant of flowing water power
Abraham Darby (1677-1717)
discovered a way to smelt iron using coal vs. the previous way of smelting it via hot ovens fueled by charcoal
Created by Prussia; its a customs union which abolished the tariffs between the German states which were indering industrialization
Sadler Committee
In Great Britian; exposed that children were being beaten in factories.
a term given to people who refuse to embrace new technology
Scientific socialism
most significant strand in socialist thought; offered by Karl Marx
Karl Marx (1818-1883) & Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Colleagues who together organized a Communist League to link the far-flung German socialists who were living in exile
Communist Manifesto: bourgeoisie & proletariat
A document created by the Communist League; it portrayed Marx's and Engels' views on how from the beginnings of time there has been a struggle between the bourgeoisie (upper class) and the proletariat (lower class)
First International
Organized by Marx in 1864; was created to "afford a central medium of communication and cooperation" for those organizations whose aim was the protection,advancement, and complete emacipation of the working classes"; it was dissolved in 1876
Second International
After Marx's death, Engels organized the Second International: a loose federation of the world's socialist parties heavily influenced by Marxism
Crimean War (1854-1856)
Conflict between Great Britain, France, Russia, and the Ottoman empire. Great Britain and France feared that Ottoman weakness was encouraging Russian adventurism and the Russians might gain control of the Mediterranean by occupying Istanbul. Russia reluctantly quit when Austria threatend to enter on the side of G.B. and France if Russia didn't accept the peace terms.
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
A nurse who was inspired from the number of deaths due to disease in fithy hospitals, to revolutionize the nursing prfession.
Italian term for the unification of Italy
Victor Emmanuel (r.1849-1878)
The King of Piedmont-Sardinia
Count Carmillo di Cavour (1810-1861)
Chief minister for Victor Emmanuel and the true architect of the Risorgimento
Giuseppe Mazzini
Early Italian nationalist who saw state-building in romanticized terms
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
A link to the old romantic tradition of Italian nationalism; Encouraged by Cavour to invade the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. After conquering the southern Italian Kingdom with only 1,000 men, he turned on the Papal states and to make Rome the capital of a unified Italy.
Unification Of Germany
A unified German state arose in 1871 due to the actions of Otto von Bismark in Prussia. Bismarck quickly expanded Prussian lands through several alliances and wars(first with Austria, then France) until a unified German state was formed.
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Prussian statesman who was the key leader in creating a unified German state. Through a series of alliances and battles he expanded Prussian control and later convinced other independant German states to join a unified Germany under Prussian control.
William I (Wilhelm I) (r.1861-1888)
Upon taking the throne of Prussia he made Bismarck his chief minister, and later on January 18, 1871 he was declared German emperor.
The first stage of Bismarck's plan to unite germany was tofor an alliance with Austria against Denmark over the disputed territories of Schleswig and Holstein. After defeating the Danes, Schleswig went under Prussian control and Holstein went to the Austrians
Seven Weeks War (with Austria)
After securing an alliance with Italy and a promise of non-participation from the French, Prussia declared war on Austria and defeated it in seven weeks.
North German Confederation
After defeating the Austrians Bismarck annexed the small German states in the North that had supported Austria. Other northern German states were convinced to join Prussia in becoming the North German Confederation
Ems Dispatch (Franco-Prussian War)
A telegram sent by the Prussian king to Bismarck informing him of what had transpired ina the conversation between the king and the French ambassador. Bismarck re-wrote it to make it appear as if the king had insulted France. This provoked the French into starting the Franco-Prussian War
3 ways German Unification changed direction of European Histroy
1.The New German state created a bitter enemy of France 2.The economic power of the new German state created rising tensions with Great Britain and set into motion a rush to build colonial empires in the last quarter of the 19 century 3.All European nations tried to create overseas empires to further their economical and political interests in a Europe adjusting to the tensions created by the new powerful German state.
Bismarck's attack on the Catholics whom he feared would be an internal threat to the Reich;he insisted on controlling all church appointments and complete supervision over Catholic education
Second French Empire (liberal empire)
In 1848 Louis Napolean became the first and only president of the Second Republic. In 1859 he took a gamble and declared a creation of a liberal empire, making his state a constitutional monarchy.
Georges Haussmann (1809-1891)
Guided the transition of Paris from a medieval city into a modern one by clearing many of the slums and built wide avenues in their place
Paris Commune
A radical government created out of the anarchy brought about by the Franco-Prussian war.
Third French Republic (1870-1940)
Created after the fall of the Second Empire and had to put down a revolt in Paris which resulted in the rise of the Paris Commune. The republican government restoreed order and by 1875 the republic was firmly established and consisted of a 2-house parliamentary body, and a president.
Great Exhibition of 1851 & the Crystal Palace
During the second half of the 19 century, Great Britain enjoyed remarkable stability and prosperity. During the Great Exhibition of 1851 13,000 exhibitors diplayed a variety of British goods. The Crystal Palace was created by John Paxton to house the exhibits and the millions of visitors.
Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) & Reform Bill of 1867
Disraeli was the Prime Minister who Passed the Second Reform Bill in 1867, which extended the vote to urban heads of households.
William Gladstone (1809-1898)
Prime Minister who, in 1884, expanded the vote to the heads of households in the countryside
Queen Victoria (r.1837-1901)
Queen of England who's reign saw a continous deterioration of the political power of the monarchy.
district assemblies introduced by Alenxander II that had mandates to deal with local issues such as education and social services.
Austro-Hungarian Empire
The 19century was not kind to Austria who found itself a multinational empire in a age of growing nationalist sentiment. In 1867 the government in Vienna signed an agreement with the Magyars in Hungary to create a dual empire. Each state would be independant but united under mutual leadership.
Young Turks
A group of liberal itellectuals that was formed significantly by the introduction of Western education into the Ottoman Empire. They eventually able to push reform further than the government had ever planned and in 1876 helped establish the the Ottoman state as a constitutional monarchy.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) & natural selection
An English naturalist who studied in the Galapagos islands. He studied evolution and produced his theory of "natural selection" in his book "The Origin of Species" and in "the Descent of Man" he stated that humans were not exempt from the evolutionary process
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) & "survival of the fittest"
One of Darwin's followers who "survival of the fittest" idea, when applied to government and politics, is given the label of "Social Darwinism"
Social Darwinism
Idea sparked by Spancer's "survival of the fittest" that provided justification for governments to abandon the poor, giving them aid would upset the natural order of survival. Social Darwinism was used to justify the idea that Europeans were superior to Africans and Asians
Second Industrial Revolution
Term given to when, in the middle of the 19 century, Europe underwent a dramatic process of economic expansions.
Henry Bessemer (1813-1898)
Englishman who intoduced a new method for producing steel in far greater quantities without increasing costs; became known as the Bessemer Process
19th Century Transportation changes
1.Europe's rail network expanded dramatically: over 100,000 miles of track had been laid 2.In 1869 the French Built the suez Canal 3.Clipper ships where replaced with steamships 4.Ice-making machines allowed the transportation of perishables 5.1885 Karl Benz invented an internal combustion engine 6.The Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903
19th Century Communication and Eduaction
1.development of universal public education 2.1830-invention of the telegraph 3.1876 Alexander Gram Bell invented the telephone
Alfred Nobel (1833-1896)
Swedish Chemist who invented dynamite. He was horrified by the potential destructiveness of his invention and, in his will, intrusted money for a prize given in his name to those who served the cause of peace.
"Middle Class"
term that referred to a group that didn't exist in the pre-industrial world: a lass of people such a layers, doctors, engineers, and teachers
moral standards, attitudes, or conduct that were considered stuffy, prudish, or hypocritical
Edward Bernstein (1850-1932) & revisionist socialism
Bernstein was a German intellectual who challenged some of Marx's views on socialism, like capitalism was not about to collapse; his ideas became known as revisionist socialism
Karl Kautsky (1854-1938)
One of many German Centrist who held firm to Marx's laws and who were harsh towards the revisionists
Ideology started by Juseph Proudhon that the true laws of society had little to do with authority, but came from the nature of society itself
Syllabus of Errors
In 1848 Pope Pius IX was forced to flee due to riots. When he was restored to the city with the help of French troops he listed what he thought were the errors of modern life; liberalsim was listed as one
Rerum novarum (Of New Things) & catholic socialist movement
Rerum Novarum was issude by Pope Leo XIII, it said that Christians in general and the Church specifically had a responsibility to the poor; this led to the Catholic socialist movement
Karl Lueger & Anti-Semitism
Anit-semitism grew increasingly during the last quarter of the 19th century, jews were blamed for new and troubeling trends in economic life. Karl Lueger was elected govenor of Vienna on an openly anti-semitic platform
The idea that Jews could only live in peace if they had a Jewish homeland
"Cult of Domesticity"
referring to a time in the Victorian period where the man's place was in the workforce and the woman's place was in the household; women were also expected to exhibit certain traits such as submissiveness
women who worked peacefully for the vote
Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)
Formed the Women's Social and Political Union; she and her followers pursued a militant campaign by heckling political speakers, breaking church windows, and committing arson
Emergence of Social Sciences
(Anthropology, Sociology, Archeology)
ANTHROPOLOGY:the science of human beings; especially : the study of human beings and their ancestors through time and space and in relation to physical character, environmental and social relations, and culture. In Europe it came out of the sudden expansion of European Dominance over other areas of the world
SOCIOLOGY: the study of human social behavior; inspired by the growing tendency of governments to keep statistics on the conditions of their citizens
ARCHEOLOGY: the scientific study of material remains (as fossil relics, artifacts, and monuments) of past human life and activities
Began in the second half of the 18th century, characterized chiefly by a reaction against neoclassicism and an emphasis and placed amuch higher emphasis on emotions and feelings
Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
arguably the most important of the Early Romantic writers; wrote "Sorrows of Young Werthe" and was the greatest figure of the Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) generation of German romanitc writers
William Wordsworth (1770-1850) & Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)
English poets who jointly wrote "Lyrical Ballads", in which they completly ignoreed the rules of punctuation, revealing their rejection of classical poetic forms
Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) & Victor Hugo (1802-1885)
Together they , in many ways, invented the popular image of the Middle Ages in novels such as "Ivanhoe" and "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1827)
English Romantic Poet who rebelled against conservative values found in his country, and to reject the traditional political order; this can be seen in his works "Prometheus Unbound" and "Mask of Anarchy" a political protest after the Peterloo massacre
Lord Byron (1788-1824)
Romantic writer who challenged the political status quo and ended up dying in Greece fighting in the rebellion against the Ottoman Turks.
George Sand
pseudonym of Amandine-Aurore Dupin (1804-1892), woman wroter who challenged the oppression on women and broke stereotypes by dressing like men, smoking cigars, and having affairs with married men
Beethovan (1770-1827)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
Innovative composers during the 19 century who all challenged the musical tradition, such as adding vocals to musical compositions.
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
Guiseppi Verdi (1813-1901)
Chopin and Liszt were composers who created off of native folksongs or tales, while Verdi was the main operatic composer of the age
Realists and Realism
Artists who sought to paint the world around them without any illusions
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Novelist influenced by realism; he wrote "Hard Times" which revealed many hardships of working-class life.
Artists who took Edouard Manet's techniques; they wanted to capture everyday scenes and the effects of light so they began painting outside. Some artists: Monet, Renoir, Degas
(Post Impressionists) Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)
Artists who pushed impressionism even further and laid the foundations for 20th century art by emphasizing color and emotion

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