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Organic Brain Biopsychology Chapter 4


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a chemical similar to an amino acid; a neurotransmitter
Alzheimer's disease
condition characterized by memory loss, confusion, depression, restlessness, hallucinations, delusions, sleeplessness, and loss of appetite.
toward the front end.
Anterior commissure
set of axons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres; smaller than the corpus callosum.
Autonomic nervous system
set of neurons that regulate funcioning of the internal organs.
Basal forebrain
the forebrain area anterior and dorsal to the hypothalamus; includes cell clusters that promote wakefulness and other cell clusters that promote sleep.
Basal ganglia
set of subcortical forebrain structures lateral to the hypothalamus including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
Bell-Magendie law
observation that the dorsal roots of the spinal cord carry sensory information and that the ventral roots carry motor information toward the muscles and glands.
binding problem
question of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object.
hindbrain, midbrain, and posterior central structures of the forebrain.
caudate nucleus
large subcortical structure, one part of the basal ganglia.
central canal
fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord.
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord.
central sulcus
large groove in the surface of the primate cerebral cortex, separating frontal from parietal cortex.
the large, highly convoluted structure in the hindbrain.
cerebral cortex
the layer of cells on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres of the forebrain.
cerebrospinal flud (CSF)
liquid similar to blood serum, found in the ventricles of the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord.
collection of cells having similar properties, arranged perpendicular to the laminae.
on the opposite side of the body (left or right).
coronal plane
the plane that shows brain structures as they would be seen from the front.
corpus callosum
the large set of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
cranial nerves
part of a set of nerves controlling sensory and motor information of the head, connecting to nuclei in the medulla, pons, midbrain, or forebrain.
delayed-response task
an assignment in which an animal must respond on the basis of a signal that it remembers but that is no longer present.
located more distant from the point of origin or attachment.
toward the back, away from the ventral (stomach) side.
dorsal root ganglia
set of sensory neuron somas on the dorsal side of the spinal cord.
a long, deep sulcus.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
anterior pituitary hormone that promotes the growth of follicles in the ovary.
most anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and other structures See also Cerebral cortex; Hypothalamus.
frontal lobe
section of cerebral cortex extending from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the brain, containing the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
a modified version of MRI that measures energies released by hemoglobin molecules in an MRI scan, and then determines the brain areas receiving the greatest supply of blood and oxygen.
gamma waves
repetitive activity in neurons at a rhythm of 30 to 80 action potentials per second.
cluster of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS.
gene-knockout approach
use of biochemical methods to direct a mutation to a particular gene that is important for certain types of cells, transmitters, or receptors.
globus pallidus
large subcortical structure, one part of the basal ganglia.
gray matter
areas of the nervous system with a high density of cell bodies and dendrites, with few myelinated axons.
gyrus (pl: gyri)
a protuberance or elevation of the brain, separated from another gyrus by a sulcus.
most posterior part of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
large forebrain structure between the thalamus and cortex.
horizontal plane
the plane that shows brain structures as they would be seen from above.
Huntington's disease
an inherited disorder characterized initially by jerky arm movements and facial twitches, later by tremors, writhing movements, and psychological symptoms, including depression, memory impairment, hallucinations, and delusions.
forebrain structure near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus.
below another part.
inferior colliculus
swelling on each side of the tectum in the midbrain.
on the same side of the body (left or right).
Kluüver-Bucy syndrome
the condition in which monkeys with damaged temporal lobes fail to display normal fears and anxieties.
lamina (plural: laminae)
layer of cell bodies parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from other laminae by layers of fibers.
toward the side, away from the midline.
limbic system
set of forebrain areas traditionally regarded as critical for emotion, which form a border around the brainstem, including the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex, and several other smaller structures.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
method of imaging a living brain by using a magnetic field and a radio frequency field to make atoms with odd atomic weights all rotate in the same direction and then removing those fields and measuring the energy that the atoms release.
toward the midline, away from the side.
hindbrain structure located just above the spinal cord; the medulla could be regarded as an enlarged, elaborated extension of the spinal cord.
membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
middle part of the brain, including superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, tectum, and tegmentum.
motor neuron
a neuron that receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses from its soma in the spinal cord to muscle or gland cells.
Myelinated axon
an axon covered with a myelin sheath.
sets of axons in the periphery, either from the CNS to a muscle or gland or from a sensory organ to the CNS.
the anatomy of the nervous system.
a neurotransmitter.
(a) structure within a cell that contains the chromosomes (b) cluster of neuron cell bodies within the CNS.
nucleus basalis
the area on the dorsal surface of the forebrain; a major source of axons that release acetylcholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex.
occipital lobe
the posterior (caudal) section of the cerebral cortex.
optic nerve (or optic tract)
the bundle of axons that travel from the ganglion cells of the retina to the brain.
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)
the system of nerves that facilitate vegetative, nonemergency responses by the body's organs.
parietal lobe
the section of the cerebral cortex between the occipital lobe and the central sulcus.
Parkinson's disease
malady caused by damage to a dopamine pathway, resulting in slow movements, difficulty initiating movements, rigidity of the muscles, and tremors.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
the pseudoscience that claimed a relationship between skull anatomy and behavioral capacities.
pituitary gland
endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus.
hindbrain structure, anterior and ventral to the medulla.
positron emission tomography (PET)
a method of mapping activity in a living brain by recording the emission of radioactivity from injected chemicals.
postcentral gyrus
a gyrus of the cerebral cortex just posterior to the central gyrus; a primary projection site for touch and other body sensations.
toward the rear end.
precentral gyrus
the gyrus of the cerebral cortex just anterior to the central sulcus, site of the primary motor cortex.
prefrontal cortex
the anterior portion of the frontal lobe of the cortex, which responds mostly to the sensory stimuli that signal the need for a movement.
prefrontal lobotomy
the surgical disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain.
primary motor cortex
area of the frontal cortex just anterior to the central sulcus; a primary point of origin for axons conveying messages to the spinal cord.
primary visual cortex (V1)
the area of the cortex responsible for the first stage of visual processing.
located close (approximate) to the point of origin or attachment.
a large subcortical structure, one part of the basal ganglia.
Raphe system
a group of neurons in the pons and medulla whose axons extend throughout much of the forebrain.
a consistent, automatic response to a stimulus.
regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)
method of estimating activity of different areas of the brain by dissolving a radioactive chemical such as xenon in the blood and measuring radioactivity from different brain areas.
reticular formation
a network of neurons in the medulla and other parts of the brainstem; the descending portion controls motor areas of the spinal cord; the ascending portion selectively increases arousal and attention in various forebrain areas.
sagittal plane
the plane that shows brain structures as they would be seen from the side.
somatic nervous system
nerves that convey messages from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to muscles and glands.
spinal cord
the part of the CNS found within the spinal column; it communicates with the sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.
substantia nigra
the midbrain area that gives rise to a dopamine-containing pathway.
sulcus (plural: sulci)
a fold or groove that separates one gyrus from another.
above another part.
superior colliculus
the swelling on each side of the tectum in the midbrain.
sympathetic nervous system
the network of nerves that prepare the body's organs for vigorous activity.
the roof of the midbrain.
the intermediate level of the midbrain.
temporal lobe
the lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples.
a structure in the center of the forebrain.
a set of axons within the CNS.
vagus nerve
the tenth cranial nerve, which has branches to and from the stomach and several other organs; it conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls.
toward the stomach, away from the dorsal (back) side.
any of the four fluid-filled cavities in the brain.
white matter
area of the nervous system consisting mostly of myelinated axons.
working memory
the temporary storage of memories while we are working with them or attending to them.

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