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American Studies Midterm


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Joseph Stalin
leader of soviet union. 1924-1953
form of fascism shaped by Hitler's idea about germany. nationalism. on racial superiority
Twenty-First Amendment
repealing Prohibition
consumer economy
US became this, when you depend on large amounts of consumer spending :buying now paying later:
Election of 1932
FDR won by landslide. Thought he could end depression with his sense of hope
final solution
Nazi idea of getting rid of all the Jewish people
Klu Klux Klan, hated blacks and wanted to eliminate them
Scopes Trial
John Scopes was put on trial defended by Clarence
Douglas MacArthur
American General retreated, vowed "I Shall Return"
Hoover's policy of recovery
Insisted that all conditions would improve soon. Recovery, Relief, Reform
Teapot Dome Scandal
Hardings security of Interior, secretely gave oil-drilling rights to 2 private oil companies in return
Battle of the Bulge
German forces launched a final counter attack on the west
Opposition to Treaty of Versailles
many did not like it. Opposed to treaty
Battle of Midway
turning point in Pacific, Japan lost hundreds of planes and 4 aircraft carriers
Winston Churchill
leader of Great Britain before and during wwII powerful speech maker who rallied Allied morale
Lend-lease Act
law that authorized Pres. to aid any nation whose defense was vital to American security
Battles of Iwo Jima/ Okinawa
2 of the worst battles. Americans moved closer to Japan, Japan put up an even stronger resistance
France, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, Us
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR - we need to help Europe and latin America
15 nations not to use the threat of war in dealing with each other
military power in Japan
military becamore more important in government
Harlem Renaissance
moving from inner cities to Suburbs. Had their own history. Causes great migration and segregation
Stimson Doctrine
US would not recognize any territory gained by force
Henry Ford
created the automobile
germany paid payment for economic injury after war
Second New Deal
2nd hundred days. FDR's response to ppl saying it was not doing enough for ordinary Americans. More social welfare benefits
Nineteenth Amendment
Women can vote
December 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor 180 Japanese warplanes bombed pearharbor
Stock Market Crash
when the stock purchases decreased great amounts
Fourteen Points
president Wilson's plan for a lasting peace in war
Japanese internment
camps made to house japanese kept them contained because of fear. Trained them to fight for US
national culture
Americans had mass media- Radio
bank holiday
authorized by govn't to inspect the financial health of all banks
Neville Chamberlain
prime minister who promoted appeasement and tried to make a deal with Hitler "peace in our time"
Causes of the Great Depression
an uneven distribution of wealth. People using credit, using money they didnt have
giving into a competitors demands in order to keep the peace
Japanese suicide planes
New Weapons
result of WWI and new warfare, airplanes, machine guns, submarines, tanks, poinsonous gas
Adolph Hitler
german leader of Nazi Party. 1933-1945. rose to power by promoting racist and national views
Red Scare
intense fear of communism and other political radicals. Soviet revolution. Increased immigration. bombs discovered through mail
French and British retreat spot when Germany was advancing
Bonus Army
WWI veterans wanted immediate pay of a pension bonus that had been promised to them
Benito Mussolini
Italian fascist leader who took power in the 20's. Known for brutal policies
New Deal
refers to recovery, relief, and reform programs of FDR's administration that were aimed to help GD
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany went back to this and would sink boats with out warning
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: tried to raise farm prices by paying subsidies. govn't financial assistance to farmers
bombed by America
British ship sunk by german u-boats, changed by american publics
Nazi Germany's systematic attempt to murder all European Jews
June 6, 1944
Selective Service Act
authorizing draft of goung men for military service
Charles Lindbergh
piloted a plane from NY to Paris
cease fire, November 1918
Warren Harding/ Calvin Coolidge
Republican presidents in 20's. Favored business, felt govn't job was to keep nose out of economy. Favored small govnt
Franz Ferdinand
the ruler of Austria, Hungary suffered threw terrorist attacks from Bosnia. Asassinated
code talkers
coded messages in diff. languages unknown to others. Native American language was only used in US
warfare emphasizing rapid and mechanized movements; used by Germany in WWII
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: Insure bank deposits
The great Migration
Moved A-A from southern to northen cities
Tennessee Valley Authority: helped farmers and created jobs in one of the country's least developed region
Court packing controversy
when FDR wanted to add another jusitce for every Justice that was over 70 to get more cooperation
Manhattan Project
secret american program during WWII to develop an atomic bomb
Hundred Days
roosevelt pushed program after program through congress to provide relief, create jobs, and stimulate economic recovery
became popular music of the time, many AA performers became popular to white audiences
Francisco Franco
spanish dictator, general that led rebels against republican govn't. Nationalists
ended all alcohol production, sales, and transportation
Charles DeGaulle
leader of the Free French. exiled govn't group in London
Casablanca Conference
allied powers seekd unconditional surrender of Germany. No deals when they surrender
October 29, 1929
Black Tuesday- a recored 16.4 million shares were sold, compared to 4 million
Germany, changed the results of warfare, hit merchant ships without warning
Cash and Carry
WWII policy requiring nations at war to pay cash for nonmilitary goods and to be responsible for transporting the goods from the US
May 8, 1945
September 1, 1939
Hitler invades Poland
symbolized revolution, new fashion style for women in 1920's
brain trust
FDR's group of intellectual's who advise him
John J. Pershing
sent to Europe to help fight off German army. leader of American forces
govn't owned all land and property. A political party controlled the govn't. The need of the country always came before the right of an individual
Neutrality Acts
made US neutral keep us out of war. Couldnt sell weapons to countries at war, then coulnt sell nonmilitary things, cash & carry
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Otoman Empire
August 15, 1942
Victory in Japan Day. When japan agrees to surrender
island hopping
military strategy of selectively attacking specific enemy held islands
Yalta Conference
decided hat to do with Germany when war was over. Germany would become 4 pieces, each allied force would get a piece. Leaders of the countries would be put on trial
Vladimir Lenin
leader of Russia. 1st leader of Soviet Union. Pulled Russia out of war
Battle of Stalingrad
when Russia defeats Germany
Sussex pledge
the german government promised to warn ships before sinking them
AA soldiers
in military but worked as cooks, truck drivers, and grave diggers
the U.S. staying out of war
Treaty of Versailles
treaty that ended the fighting with germany. U.S. to league of Nations
U.S. foreign policy after WW1
government does not interfere with economy
Dust Bowl
1931-1946 when so much soil blew out of Central plains
Stimson Doctrine
Policy of U.S. not to recognize any territory gained by force
"He kept us out of war"
Wilson's campaign for President
Al Capone
gangster, major bootlegger
code name for the allied powers invasion of France
impacts on the homefront
americans conserve resources, grow victory gardens, buy war bonds, anti German prejudice, civil rights were restricted
Battle of the Coral Sea
naval battle carried out by airplanes. stopped japanese advance toward Australia
demographic changes
movements away from country side, many moved from rural to urban to suburban
Wagner Act
legalized union practices as collective bargaining and closed shops (work places only opened to union workers)
resons for U.S. involvement
Zimmerman note, submarine warfare
buying on credit
US could now charge things causing greater debt and making the installment plan
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Atlantic Charter
Agreement signed by FDR and churchhill in 1941 listing their goals in war
League of Nations
Organizations that would try to create peace between countries
Civilian Conservation Corps: put more than 2.5 million young unmarried men to work maintaining forests, beaches, and parks
emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group and the supreme authority of the leader. 1 Political party 1 leader
Causes of the war
imperialism, militarism, nationalism, alliances

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