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GRE Pocket Reference 1


undefined, object
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1 (esp. of a comment or style of speaking) sharp and forthright : his ~ wit. 2 archaic or technical tasting sour or bitter.
2 informal cheat or swindle (someone) out of something : he's ~ed me out of my dues.
(esp. in Greek and Roman architecture) a round building, typically unroofed, with a central space for the presentation of dramatic or sporting events. Tiers of seats for spectators surround the central space. ;• a sloping, semicircular seating gallery : I was permitted to attend a lecture in the ~ of the hospital. ;• a large circular hollow in rocks or hills : that vast ~ chiseled out of the mountain.
unsociable, aloof; shy, timid
not disordered or disarranged : the ~ waters of the lake. ;• (of a person) not agitated or disturbed; calm.
spoil or impair the quality or efficiency of : development programs have been ~ed by the rise in population. ; • destroy or impair the legal validity of. ; [from Latin vitiat- 'impaired,' from the verb vitiare, from vitium (see vice 1 ).]
not able to be doubted, questioned, or criticized; entirely trustworthy : an ~ witness.
the time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).
a slight wind (usually refreshing); 2 historical a fine cotton gingham.; • a very light article of clothing.
become pale and sickly
unceasing, continuing; lasting; (of a feeling or a memory) lasting a long time; enduring : he had an ~ respect for her.
[ attrib. ] (of a situation or condition) extremely bad, unpleasant, and degrading : ~ poverty.; • (of an unhappy state of mind) experienced to the maximum degree : his letter plunged her into ~ misery.; (of a failure) absolute and humiliating.; 2 (of a person or their behavior) completely without pride or dignity; self-abasing : an ~ apology.
without a clearly defined shape or form : ~ blue forms and straight black lines. ; • vague; ill-organized; unclassifiable : make explicit the ~ statements. ; • (of a group of people or an organization) lacking a clear structure or focus : an ~ and leaderless legislature. ;• Mineralogy & Chemistry (of a solid) noncrystalline; having neither definite form nor apparent structure. [from modern Latin amorphus, from Greek amorphos 'shapeless' (from a- 'without' + morphē 'form' ) + -ous .]
wild mammals and birds that are believed to be harmful to crops, farm animals, or game, or that carry disease, e.g., foxes, rodents, and insect pests. ; • parasitic worms or insects. ; • figurative people perceived as despicable and as causing problems for the rest of society : the ~ who ransacked her house. [from Old French, based on Latin vermis 'worm.']
offering nothing that is stimulating or challenging : tuneful but ~ musical comedies. [(used originally in description of drinks as [lacking in flavor] ): from Latin vapidus.]
not previously announced, expected, or recognized.
(esp. of a woman) attractively lively and animated. ; from Latin vivax, vivac- 'lively, vigorous' (from vivere 'to live' ) + -ious .
a quick and penetrating intelligence
of or characteristic of or occurring in spring; Ex. "the ~ equinox"
be a sign that (something) is about to happen : the speech ~ed a change in policy. ;• (usu. be heralded) acclaim : the band has been ~ as the industrial supergroup of the '90s.
the faculty or power of using one's will : without conscious ~ she backed into her office. [from medieval Latin volitio(n-), from volo 'I wish.']
report or represent in outline : James Madison ~ed the necessity that the Senate be somewhat insulated from public passions. ; • indicate faintly : the walls were not more than ~ed by the meager light. ; • foreshadow or symbolize : what qualities in Christ are ~ by the vine? • overshadow : her happy reminiscences were ~ed by consciousness of something else. ; from Latin adumbrat- 'shaded,' from the verb adumbrare, from ad- 'to' (as an intensifier) + umbrare 'cast a shadow' (from umbra 'shade' ).]
(of a person) open and responsive to suggestion; easily persuaded or controlled : parents who have had easy babies and ~ children. ; • [ predic. ] ( amenable to) (of a thing) capable of being acted upon in a particular way; susceptible to : the patients had cardiac failure not ~ to medical treatment.
wanting or devouring great quantities of food : he had a ~ appetite. ; • having a very eager approach to an activity : his ~ reading of literature. ;[from Latin vorax, vorac- (from vorare 'devour' ) + -ious .]
boast about or praise (something), esp. excessively : the much ~ed information superhighway. [from late Latin vantare, based on Latin vanus 'vain, empty.']
warn or reprimand someone firmly : she admonished me for appearing at breakfast unshaven | [ trans. ] "You mustn't say that, Shiona," Ruth ~ed her. See note at rebuke .
experienced in the imagination through the feelings or actions of another person : I could glean ~ pleasure from the struggles of my imaginary film friends. ; • acting or done for another : a ~ atonement. ; [Latin vicarius 'substitute' (see vicar ) + -ous .]
exhibiting different colors, esp. as irregular patches or streaks : ~ yellow bricks. ; • Botany (of a plant or foliage) having or consisting of leaves that are edged or patterned in a second color, esp. white as well as green. ; • marked by variety : his ~ and amusing observations.
the study of the properties of moving air, and esp. of the interaction between the air and solid bodies moving through it. ;• the properties of a solid object regarding the manner in which air flows around it. ;• [treated as pl. ] these properties insofar as they result in maximum efficiency of motion.
diminish or put at rest (fear, suspicion, or worry) : the report attempted to educate the public and ~ fears. ; • relieve or alleviate (pain or hunger) : some stale figs partly ~ed our hunger.
assist or encourage, usually in some wrongdoing
adj. having or showing valor
a ghost or ghostlike image of someone, esp. one seen shortly before or after their death. ; • used in similes and metaphors to describe a pale, thin, or insubstantial person or thing : heart attacks had reduced his mother to a ~. ; • poetic/literary a wisp or faint trace of something : a sea breeze was sending a gray ~ of smoke up the slopes. DERIVATIVES -like
n. playfully quaint or fanciful behavior or humor : the film is an awkward blend of ~ and moralizing.
characterized by or provoking loud noise or uproar : an ~ party. ; • provoking loud laughter; very funny. ;
to the extent that : he decided that philosophy spoke of personal problems only ~ as they illustrated general ones.
the appearance of being true or real : the detail gives the novel some ~. ; the ~ of her performance is gripping realism, believability, plausibility, authenticity, credibility, lifelikeness.[from Latin verisimilitudo, from verisimilis 'probable,' from veri (genitive of verus 'true' ) + similis 'like.']
the act of washing oneself (often used for humorously formal effect) : the women performed their ~s. • a ceremonial act of washing parts of the body or sacred containers.
sharpen by rubbing, as on a whetstone, make keen or more acute Ex. "~ my appetite"
(of countryside) green with grass or other rich vegetation. ; • of the bright green color of lush grass : a deep, ~ green.
a change of circumstances or fortune, typically one that is unwelcome or unpleasant : her husband's sharp ~s of fortune. ; • poetic/literary alternation between opposite or contrasting things : the ~ of the seasons. 盛衰;兴败[P] His life is marked by ~. 他的一生几经沉浮。 [ from French, or from Latin vicissitudo, from vicissim 'by turns,' from vic- 'turn, change.']
compete eagerly with someone in order to do or achieve something : rival mobs vying for control of the liquor business.
associated by chance and not an integral part; happening or carried on according to chance rather than design or inherent nature : my adventures were always ~, always thrust on me. See note at accidental . ; ~ also implies the lack of an essential relationship, referring to something that is a mere random occurrence (: ~ circumstances that led to victory). ; [from Latin adventicius 'coming to us from abroad' (from advenire 'arrive' ) + -ous (see also -itious 2 ).]
given or giving without restraint; unsparing : he was ~ in his praise.
feeling resentment at having been unfairly treated : they were ~ed at the outcome | she did not see herself as the ~ party.
1 put a ~ on (a pair of animals); couple or attach with or to a yoke : a plow drawn by a camel and donkey ~ed together | figurative Hong Kong's dollar has been ~ed to America's. ; 2 informal rob; mug : two crackheads ~ed this girl.
(of a person) not aware of the full facts : an ~ accomplice. ; • not done on purpose; unintentional : we are anxious to rectify the ~ mistakes made in the past.
(of a person) able to use the right and left hands equally well : few of us are naturally ~. ;• (of an implement) designed to be used by left-handed and right-handed people with equal ease. [(from Latin ambi- 'on both sides' + dexter 'right-handed' ) + -ous .]
reduce or extinguish (a debt) by money regularly put aside : loan fees can be ~ed over the life of the mortgage. ; • gradually write off the initial cost of (an asset) : they want to amortize the tooling costs quickly. ; [based on Latin ad 'to, at' + mors, mort- 'death.']
an action or remark that causes outrage or offense : he took his son's desertion as a personal ~ | privilege publicly worn is an ~ to democracy. v. offend the modesty or values of : she was ~ed by his familiarity.
relating to or adapted for walking.
a state of temporary disuse or suspension : matters were held in ~ pending further inquiries. [from Old French abeance 'aspiration to a title,' from abeer 'aspire after,' from a- 'toward' + beer 'to gape.']
1 (chiefly of large mammals) roll about or lie relaxed in mud or water, esp. to keep cool, avoid biting insects, or spread scent : watering places where buffalo liked to ~. ; • (of a boat or aircraft) roll from side to side : the small jet ~ed in the sky. ; 2 ( ~ in) (of a person) indulge in an unrestrained way in (something that creates a pleasurable sensation) : I was ~ing in the luxury of the hotel | he had been ~ing in self-pity. ; 1 an act of wallowing : a ~ in nostalgia. [from an Indo-European root shared by Latin volvere 'to roll.']
(of an area of land or a building) be next to or have a common boundary with : gardens ~ing Great Prescott Street | [ intrans. ] a park ~ing on an area of wasteland.
(of a remark or reference) working by suggestion rather than explicit mention : ~ references to the body.
speak or write about in an abusively disparaging manner : he has been ~ed in the press. See note at .
a trace of something that is disappearing or no longer exists : the last ~s of colonialism. See note at trace . ; • [usu. with negative ] the smallest amount (used to emphasize the absence of something) : he waited patiently, but without a ~ of sympathy. ; [from Latin vestigium 'footprint.']
difficult to control or predict because of unusual or perverse behavior : her ~, difficult sister | figurative his ~ emotions.
involving or characterized by conflict or opposition : industry and government had an ~ relationship. ; • opposed; hostile : Williams had an uncertain relationship to Marxism, sometimes ~, sometimes allied. ;
1 a number of bullets, arrows, or other projectiles discharged at one time : the infantry let off a couple of ~. ; • a series of utterances directed at someone in quick succession : he unleashed a ~ of angry questions. ; 2 (in sports, esp. tennis or soccer) a strike or kick of the ball made before it touches the ground. ; • utter or discharge in quick succession : the dog was ~ing joyful barks.
obtain (something that is desired) by persuading others to comply or by manipulating events : I ~ed an invitation to her party | I think we should be able to ~ it so that you can start tomorrow. ; an act or an instance of obtaining something in such a way : they regarded the coalition as a ~.
defeat thoroughly : Mexican forces ~ed the French army in a battle in Puebla. ; [from Latin vincere 'conquer.']
(law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer
deprive (a person in holy orders) of ecclesiastical status. • [usu. as adj. ] ( -ed) deprive (someone) of professional status or membership in a prestigious group : a ~ psychiatrist.
crafty; cunning; artful; N. wile: deceitful stratagem
denoting a sin that is not regarded as depriving the soul of divine grace. Often contrasted with mortal . ; • (of a fault or offense) slight and pardonable. ; [ from Latin venalis, from venum 'thing for sale.']
shriveled or wrinkled with age : a ~, weather-beaten old man.
a large nest of a bird of prey, esp. an eagle, typically built high in a tree or on a cliff.
showing or motivated by susceptibility to bribery : why should these ~ politicians care how they are rated? | their generosity had been at least partly ~. ;
readily expressing anger or irritation : he had a ~ tongue.
not spoiled or made impure : an ~ reputation.
friendly, good-natured, or easy to talk to : an ~ and agreeable companion.
having an irritatingly strong and unpleasant taste or smell : ~ fumes. ; • angry and bitter : an ~ farewell.
a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one : Pilgrim's Progress is an ~ of the spiritual journey. ; • the genre to which such works belong. ; • a symbol.
1 a brief evocative description, account, or episode. ; 2 a small illustration or portrait photograph that fades into its background without a definite border. ; • a small ornamental design filling a space in a book or carving, typically based on foliage. ; short literary composition; portray (someone) in the style of a ~. [ from French, diminutive of vigne 'vine.'] [note pronounciation]
the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words. [from medieval Latin alliteratio(n-), from Latin ad- (expressing addition) + littera 'letter.']
mental calmness, composure, and evenness of temper, esp. in a difficult situation : she accepted both the good and the bad with ~.
energy; enthusiasm : in his youth he was full of ~ and vigor. ; perhaps Latin, accusative of vis 'energy.'
not self-indulgent, esp. when eating and drinking : "We only had a bottle." "Very ~ of you." [Latin abstemius (from ab- 'from' + a word related to temetum 'strong drink' ) + -ous .]
not friendly or forthcoming; cool and distant : they were courteous but faintly ~ | an ~ and somewhat austere figure. ; • conspicuously uninvolved and uninterested, typically through distaste : he stayed ~ from the bickering.
a long bridgelike structure, typically a series of arches, carrying a road or railroad across a valley or other low ground.
a friendly relationship : international ~ and goodwill.
helpful in bringing about a harmonious adaptation; Ex. "the warden was always ~ in allowing visitors in"; "made a special effort to be ~"
charming in a childlike or naive way; attractive or appealing in appearance or character : a ~ smile. [ORIGIN Old English wynsum, from wyn [joy] + -some 1 .]
a dispute or argument, typically one that is long and complicated : an insurance ~ is holding up compensation payments. ; 1 [ intrans. ] have such a dispute or argument : [as n. ] ( ~ing) weeks of political wrangling. See note at quarrel . ; 2 [ trans. ] round up, herd, or take charge of (livestock) : the horses were ~ed early. ; [late Middle English : compare with Low German wrangeln, frequentative of wrangen 'to struggle' ; related to wring .]
1 assent or agree to a demand, request, or treaty : the authorities did not ~ to the strikers' demands. ; 2 assume an office or position : he ~ed to the post of director in September. [ Latin accedere, from ad- 'to' + cedere 'give way, yield.']
(esp. of a person or speech) vehement or clamorous : he was a ~ opponent of the takeover.
formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure Ex. "She ~ed her beliefs"
vigor and spirit or enthusiasm : Kollo sings with supreme ~ and flexibility. [from Latin verba 'words.']
harsh or corrosive in tone
unexpected and inappropriate or inconvenient : both tried to behave as if nothing ~ had happened | ~ jokes and racial remarks.
a noisy argument or disagreement, esp. in public : I had an ~ with the conductor. See note at quarrel . [from Latin altercat- 'wrangled,' from altercari.]
1 wear away or change the appearance or texture of (something) by long exposure to the atmosphere : [ trans. ] his skin was ~ed almost black by his long outdoor life | [as adj. ] ( weathered) chemically ~ed rock. ; • [ intrans. ] (of rock or other material) be worn away or altered by such processes : the ice sheet preserves specimens that would ~ away more quickly in other regions.
noun. lush green vegetation. ; • the fresh green color of such vegetation. ; • poetic/literary a condition of freshness.
cause to feel shame, To lower in position, estimation, or the like; degrade.
regard with great respect; revere : Mother Teresa is ~ed as a saint. See note at revere .
pure, chaste
find fault with (someone); scold : he was ~ed for his slovenly appearance. See note at scold . {we were ~ed for leaving the back door unlocked reprimand, rebuke, admonish, chastise, chide, reprove, reproach, scold, berate, take to task, lambaste, give someone a piece of one's mind, give someone a tongue-lashing, rake/haul over the coals, lecture; informal tell off, give someone a talking-to, tear a strip off (of), dress down, give someone an earful, rap over the knuckles, bawl out, lay into, chew out, ream out; formal castigate; rare reprehend. See note at scold .}
call into question the integrity or validity of (a practice) : there is no basis to Searle's motion to ~ the verdict.
obsequious flattery; excessive admiration or praise : he found it difficult to cope with the ~ of the fans. [from Latin adūlātiō, adūlātiōn-, from adūlātus, past participle of adūlārī, to flatter.]
repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal agreement) : a proposal to abrogate temporarily the right to strike. See note at void ; [from Latin abrogat- 'repealed,' from the verb abrogare, from ab- 'away, from' + rogare 'propose a law.']
possessing or showing courage or determination : she made a ~ effort to hold her anger in check | a ~ warrior.
suggests a harsh, grating loudness that is particularly distressing to the ear (: her ~ voice could be heard throughout the building).
1 using or expressing dry, esp. mocking, humor : a ~ smile | ~ comments. ; 2 (of a person's face or features) twisted into an expression of disgust, disappointment, or annoyance.
without special knowledge or experience : a bachelor neither prudish nor ~ | [as plural n. ] ( the ~) the discussion wasn't easy to follow for the ~.
let off the hook Ex. "I ~ you from this responsibility"; , grant remission of a sin to Ex. "The priest ~ed him and told him to say ten Hail Mary's" [from Latin absolvere 'set free, acquit,' from ab- 'from' + solvere 'loosen.']
the illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest.
a confused multitude of things, be immersed in Ex. "~ in work"; move in a turbulent fashion : the streams foam and ~.

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