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APEC CH 22 & 23


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Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Crimean war
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Florence Nightingale
Established sanitary nursing care units. Founder of modern nursing. began professional education of nursing.
British housing act
collection of taxes to construct housing for the working class
William Gladstone
Liberal PM, "great ministry", he was depply religious and tried to attemp this in politics. directed reforms in government administration, education, and elections. Acts; A civil service reform of 1870, examinations who panted to participate in civil service: The Education Act of 1870; The Ballot Act of 1872; Redistribution Act of 1888, created electoral districts almost equal in population
Henry john temple (lord Palmerston)
as a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. He was in government office almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865, beginning his parliamentary career as a Tory and concluding it as a Liberal.He is best remembered for his direction of British foreign policy through a period when the United Kingdom was at the height of its power, serving terms as both Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister. Some of his aggressive actions, now sometimes termed liberal interventionist, were greatly controversial at the time, and remain so today
Karl Marx
the Communist Manifesto, Marx is a socialist, says after modern industry, society split between middle class (bourgeoisie) and modern working class(proletariat), that next working class would take over, should make a socialist society of revolutionary workers. Followed theory of Hegel
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
Was a German philosopher who wrote and influenced many others (like Marx) with his writings. He is most often characterized by his 'three-step process' of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881), Czar of Russia; tried to modernize and westernize Russia. He also freed the serfs in 1861 with the Edict of Emancipation. This led to his assassination in 1881.
Benjamin Disraeli
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881). Led the Conservative party of Britain in the 1860s and 1870s. He strongly supported the extension of British colonies.
Louis Napoleon
Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (German: Ausgleich) established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. It was signed by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation
Victor Emanuel II
king of Italy who completed the unification of Italy by acquiring Venice and Rome (1820-1878)
Auguste Comte
French philosopher and system builder-initially a disciple of utopian socialist Saint-Simon-wrote 6 volume System of Positive Philosophy largely overlooked during romantic era-noted that prevailing explanation of cosmic patterns had shifted, as knowledge of astronomy developed from the will of God to the will of an orderly nature to the rule of unchanging laws-apply scientific method-idea of evolution
Italian unification
in 1850 austria dominated Italian Peninsula; people looked to the state of Piedmont for leadership in unifying Italy
Otto van Bismark
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes. Very persuasive person. Fought 3 wars in 1864, 1866, and 1870.
English writer (born in India) (1811-1863)
Bismarck's political philosophy of realistic and focused political goals
Communist Manifesto
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Danish War
in 1864 after three months of fighting denmark surrendered to prussia and austria. they were forced to give up two duchies, prussia wouuld administer schleswig and austria would administer holstein.
charge of the light birgade
Ruyard Kipling shows the struggels of the British to make it famous at the battle of Balaclava
the English physicist nd chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1791-1867)
William I
Prussian king; kaiser of 2nd Reich; made constitution of limited monarchy, was Kaiser of Prussia, made Otto von Bismarck a chancellor. Hires Bismarck and becomes king of all of Germany.
moderate, favored constitutional govt, economic expanison, large army, allied himself with france 1858 --> provided the leadership necessary for unification
Home Rule act
1914, Provided for Self-government of Ireland; had earlier been supported by Parnell and Gladstone but hadn't passed almost creates sovereign Ireland
wrote Evolutionary Socialism capitalist system not broken middle calss expanding and proletariat = higher standard living
Das Kapital
Karl Marx's book that said all social classes should end and everyone should be equal with equal ownership of businesses
German Social Democratic Party
first political party to follow Carl Marx and legislature is called to improve working conditions
lower more important chamber of german parliament
Public health act
Created the National Board of Health, empowered to form local boards that would establish modern sanitary systems.
Franco-Prussian war
started by ems dispatch and Bismark cornered and isolated French and captured the capital of Paris along with Napoleon III
House of Savoy
The Italian dynasty ruling the independent state of Piedmont- Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II.
Frederich Engels
Worked with Karl Marx to develop Marxism, and helped write a couple of books that outlined the ideals of Marxism and communism, and how the world will advance toward it.
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
Francis Joseph
king of hungary; emperor of austria; makes limited reforms; constitution of limited gov
Composer and public celebrity considered to be the greatest pianist and showman of the Romantic era
Elizabeth Blackwell
a pioneer in a previously forbidden profession for women (medicine) who was the first female graduate from a medical college
in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term also describes works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid.
Austro-Prussian war
was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states.smarck may well have been encouraged to go to war by the advantages which the Prussian army enjoyed over that of the Austrian Empire
secondary school classical education Greek adn latin
Dual Monarchy
after austria's defeat by prussia in 1866, hungarians demanded more freedom. austria responded in 1867 by forming this monarchy, also called the austria-hungary, in which hungarians shared power with austrians.
elected assemblies responsible for road repair, schools, and agriculture, allow some democracy without weakening the central government
Joseph Lister
English surgeon. realizes aerial bacteria and wound infection. antiseptic principle. Very successful in limiting infection.
Red shirts
Girabaldi's Guerilla troops, volunteers fighting b/c inspired by nationalism.
Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
EMS Dispatch
A telegram edited by Bismark to insult the French people while making it sound as though they had insulted the Prussians. This led to the Franco-Prussian wars which Prussia won handily and violently. The French people never forgave the Prussians, setting the stage for World War I
Napoleon Liberal empire
allowed male sufrage and allowed trade unions and the creation of a legastrative branch
The Lower House of the Legislative Assembly in Germany.
First International
A loose association of socialist parties and labour unions in Western Europe, organized in 1864
the leading italian state in national unity once Cavour named Prime Minister
known for military status, largest of north German states; centered at Berlin; ruled by Hohenzollern - along w/ Junkers - Prussian nobility; built strong army; one of the great electors of the HRE
Act of the Union
Irish and English parliaments unite and Irish are not happy about it
boy scouts 1908 founder to show discipline and patriotism
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
Gustave Flaubert
French writer of novels and short stories (1821-1880) wrote realism pieces like, Madame Bovary who commits adultery and then kills herself
A tariff-free zone in Germany, in order to boost German economy. Also helps build German nationalism, advocated by Friedrich List.
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

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