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HistLit Test 2


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Jean Calvin
predestination, leader of branch of Protestantism, strict Biblical views, limited music in the church to psalm singing, but wanted to involve congregation in service (like Luther)
The top voice of a four-voice texture.
Motto Mass
Composers could create a more noticeable musical connection by using the same thematic material in all movements of the mass. A frequent strategy early in the 15th century consisted of beginning each movement with the same melodic motive, in one or all voices. A mass that uses such a head-motive as its primary linking device is called a motto mass. Mass in which each movement begins with the same melodic motive, called a motto mass when that opening motive (called head-motive) is the primary linking device. (Example in chapter 9, Ockeghem's Missa mi-mi.)
an introductory piece for solo instrument, often in the style of improvisation.
Glareanus, Heinrich
Swiss theorist who added four new modes to the traditional eight, making modes more consistant with the current practices of composers; wrote book Dodekachordon.
a particularly evocative instance of text depiction or word-painting, so called because of the prominent role of word-painting in madrigals.
keyboard instrument found in Italy; varied in size; tone more robust but could not be shaded by key pressure; builder could achieve different timbres and volumes.
Martin Luther
Professor of biblical theology at the University of Wittenberg in Germany. He concluded that salvation came through faith alone, not good works or penance, as preached by the Catholic Church and rebelled against nonbiblical practices in the Catholic Church. A list of complaints against the Catholic Church, posted on a church door in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. Widely printed and disseminated, making Martin Luther famous. When he refused to recant the theses, he was excommunicated from the Catholic Church (1520).
Great Service
a contrapuntal and melismatic setting of the service and anthem
solo keyboard pieces
prelude, fantasia, ricercare
Metrical Psalm
metric, rhymed, and strophic vernacular translation of a psalm, sung to a relatively simple melody that repeats for each strophe
Verse anthem
anthem in which passages for solo voices with accompaniment alternate with passages for full choir doubled by instruments
Full Anthem
anthem for unaccompanied choir in contrapuntal style
Bay Psalm Book
book of metrical psalms published in 1640 by the English Separatists in North America (first book published in North America)
the first French music printer; published over fifty collections of chansons.
an existing or newly composed tune, baseline, melodic plan, or other musical subject.
keyboard instrument found in France; varied in size; tone more robust but could not be shaded by key pressure; builder could achieve different timbres and volumes.
Petrucci, Ottaviano
made first collection of polyphonic music printed in movable type.
polychoral motets
works for two or more choirs; many were written by Gabrieli.
an arrangement of a vocal piece for lute or keyboard.
invented in 16th cent.; consists of a theme followed by similar formal melodic statements.
Contratenor Altus/Contratenor bassus
In 15th century polyphony, Contratenor parts that lie relatively high (Altus) or low (bassus) in comparison to the tenor. Often simply written as "altus" or "bassus," these are the ancestors of the vocal ranges alto and bass.
chief form of keyboard improvisation; motet like, may include imitative sections.
keyboard instrument found in England; varied in size; tone more robust but could not be shaded by key pressure; builder could achieve different timbres and volumes.
Improvised polyphony in which a plainchant in the middle voice was joined by an upper voice a perfect fourth above it and a lower voice singing mostly in parallel thirds below it. Improvised 6-3 sonorities. The word might derive from "burden" for the lowest voice and "fa" for the need to use B-Flat, "fa," in the soft hexachord. It was primarily a rule-based system for producing correct sonorous polyphony that could be used even by monks and clerics who could not read polyphonic notation or compose complex counterpoint.
Music consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody; similar to counterpoint.
Imitation Mass
Polyphonic mass in which each movement is based on the same polyphonic model, normally a chanson or motet, and all voices of the model are used in the mass, but none is used as a cantus firmus.
Sixteenth-century Italian song genre in a simple, mostly homophonic style.
viola da gamba
"leg viol"; synonymous with viol.
Cantus Firmus Mass
(also called tenor mass) - Mass in which the same cantus firmus, usually in the tenor, is the basis for all five movements. The cantus firmus could be a chant or the tenor from a polyphonic secular song. Sometimes also employs a unifying head-motive. It began in England and became the principal type of mass on the continent by the mid-fifteenth century.
basse danse
the favorite dance of the 15th and early 16th centuries; a stately couple dance marked by gracefully raising and lowering the body; featured five combinations of steps, including the branle.
consort song
renaissance English genre of song for voice accompanied by a consort of viols.
Music Transalpina
A collection of Italian madrigals translated into English, published by Nicholas Yonge in 1588.
Sixteenth-century Italian song, generally for three voices, in a rustic homophonic style.
Old Hundredth
Loys Bourgeois wrote a tune to Psalm 134, later used in English psalters as the tune for Pslam 100 (where it earned its name)
Plainsong Mass
When the composer based each movement on an existing chant for that text (the Kyrie on a Kyrie chant, the Gloria on a Gloria chant, and so on), the mass gained coherence because the borrowed melodies were all liturgically appropriate, although not necessarily related musically. Mass in which each movement is based on an existing chant for that text. Machaut's mass is an example. Many were written to be sung at a Lady Mass, dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Strophic hymn in the Lutheran tradition, intended to be sung by the congregation. Metric, rhymed, strophic poetry for unison, unaccompanied performance by the congregation. Most important form of Lutheran church music. Congregations sang several chorales at each service. Luther wrote many chorales himself. Four collections were published in 1524
Tomas Luis de Victoria
1548-1611; was the most famous Spanish composer of the 16th century; all sacred music; probably studied with Palestrina while he spent two decades in Rome; mastered Palestrina's style with exceptions---his works are shorter, less florid, with more cadences, more chromatic alterations, and more contrasting passages in homophony or triple meter; these characteristics are found in O Magnum Mysterium.
from Spanish villano, "peasant") type of polyphonic song in Spanish, with several stanzas framed by a refrain; originally secular, the form was later used for sacred works, especially associated with Christmas or other important holy days
the English's term for an instrumental ensemble consisting of four to seven instruments; could be homogeneous OR a "broken ______;" its instrumentation was not specified by composers until the end of the 16th century.
A manuscript or printed book containing the music for one voice or instrument part of a polyphonic composition.
repeating bassline.
the early form of the trombone
Band of Minstrels
The musicians were imported from France, Italy, Germany, Portugal
16th cent. sonata
a piece to be played on one or more instruments; a series of sections, each based on a different subject or on variants of a single subject; often used at mass.
concerto della donne
Women's ensemble of trained singers. The first oen was started by Duke Alfonso d'Este, and the women performing in it were Laura Pevara, Anna Guarini, and Livia d'Arco.
an instrumental dance in triple, usually paired with a pavane
began as a theological dispute and mushroomed into a rebellion against the authority of the Catholic Church. It started in Germany with Martin Luther, then spread to most of northern Europe. There were three main branches: the Lutheran movement in northern Germany and Scandinavia, the Calvinist movement led by Jean Calvin that spread from Switzerland and the Low Countries to France and Britain, and the Church of England, organized by King Henry VIII for political reasons but ultimately influenced by Reformation ideals. The theology and circumstances of each branch determined its values and choices concerning music. Sacred music was profoundly affected. Leaders of the Reformation sought to involve worshipers more directly, through congregational singing and services presented in the vernacular rather than in Latin. These changes led to new types of religious music in each branch of Protestantism, including the chorale and chorale settings in the Lutheran Church, the metrical Psalm in Calvinist churches, and the anthem and service in the Anglican Church
Giovanni Palestrina
Presumably born in Palestrina, a small town near Rome, he was trained at the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, organist and choirmaster in Palestrina, choirmaster of the Julian Chapel at St. Peter's from 1551-55 and 71-94, as well as at St. John Lateran from 55-60 and Santa Maria Maggiore from 61-66. He wrote mostly sacred music, with 104 masses and over 300 motets, but did write secular madrigals. He is said to have saved polyphony after the Council of Trent. He married Lucrezia Gori had three sons, and when she died he married Virginia Dormoli.
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; includes the Council of Trent, used to determine specifics in the Catholic Church and its services
Council of Trent
leaders in Catholicism gathered in response to the Reformation to revamp the Catholic Church; reaffirmed doctrines and practices that Luther and Calvin had attacked, and tried to purge the Church of laxities and abuses.
Syntagma musicum
Latin, translates into "Systematic Treatise of Music;" written by Michael Praetorius in 1618, contains descriptions of instruments in use in the early 17th century; its illustrations evidenced the use of instruments such as the harpischord, sackbut, tenor shawm, and bass viola da gamba.
leading genre of contrapuntal instrumental music; adapted from chanson or composed in a similar style; light, fast moving, strongly rhythmic, multi-sectional pieces.
a genre of Italian polyphonic song in mock-popular style, usually syllabic, homophonic, and diatonic, with the melody in the upper voice and marked rhythmic patterns.
Deutsche Messe
Luther never intended any formula to prevail uniformly in Lutheran churches, and various compromises between Roman usage and new practices could be found throughout the 16th century in Germany. Large churches with trained choirs generally kept much of the Latin liturgy and its polyphonic music. Smaller churches adopted the Deudsche Messe (German Mass) published by Luther in 1526, which followed the main outlines of the Roman Mass but different from it in many details and replaced most elements of the Proper and Ordinary with German Hymns.
Chorale Motet
chorale setting in the style of a 16th century motet
the leader of the Petrachan movement, he analyzed Petrach's work and found qualities, pleasingness and severity.
Head Motive
Initial passage or motive of a piece or movement; used especially for a motive or phrase that appears at the beginning of each movement of a motto mass or cantus-firmus mass.
All voices move together in essentially the same rhythm, the lower parts accompanying the cantus with constant resonance.
secular song with French words; used especially for polyphonic songs of the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries.
keyboard, solo instrument suitable for small rooms; pressing a key raises a brass blade that strikes a string, sustaining the tone until player releases key; very soft tone, but controllable volume.
sixteenth century Italian poem having any number of lines, each of seven or eleven syllables; and any polyphonic or concertato setting or such a poem or of a sonnet or other non repetitive verse form.
organ mass
a compilation of organ verses/pieces/movements comprising an entire mass.
an early to mid 16th century prelude in the style of improvisation; treats one or more subjects in imitation.
Tinctoris, Johannes
a Flemish composer, who wrote treatises on musical topics. Supporter of northern composers
Gaffurio, Franchino
Wrote treatises that revived the Greek ideas in music, and brought new thought to modes, consonance and dissonance, tuning, etc.
Spanish, 15th-century string instrument which predates the modern violin; includes the treble, tenor and bass versions; was played on or in between the legs and bowed underhand; absent was vibrato, and was more delicate sounding.
The practice of replacing the text of a vocal work with a new text while the music remains essentially the same; or resulting the piece.
Contenance angloise
A quality of early-fifth-century English music, marked by pervasive consonance with frequent use of harmonic 3rd, 6th, often in parallel motion.
a Spanish instrument related to the lute which had a flat back and a guitar-shaped body.
a notational system (written for lute) that tells the player which strings to pluck and where to place the fingers on the strings, rather than indicating what pitches will result.
Imitative counter point
Voices imitate or echo a motive or phrase in another voice, usually a t a different pitch level (i.e. a fifth, fourth or octave).
The study of thing pertaining to human knowledge and experience.
an instrumental dance in dupal, usually paired with the Galliard.
A style probably inspired by English faburden. Only the cantus and tenor were written out, moving mostly in parallel sixths and cadencing on an octave. An unwritten third voice sang a parallel fourth below the cantus, producing a stream of 6-3 sonorities. Used for settings of simpler office chants, such as hymns, antiphons, psalms, and canticles. Du Fay's setting of the hymn Conditor alme siderum uses fauxbourdon, paraphrasing the chant in the cantus. Only the even-numbered stanzas were sung polyphonically, alternating with the others in plainchant.
ca. 1420-1497. Sang in the Antwerp cathedral choir - was a celebrated singer Served Charles I, duke of Bourbon, for a short time. Served the kings of France from the 1450s to his retirement. Entered the service in 1451. 1454-1465: Held the post of chaplain. 1464: Became a priest. After 1465: Was master of the chapel. Traveled a little, and had contact with Du Fay, Binchois, and Busnoys, but was not as cosmopolitan as Du Fay. Composed relatively few works (13 masses, Requiem Mass, at least 5 motets, and 21 chansons). Masses, motets, chansons. Developed his own style, synthesizing past, present, and his own style elements. Known for his unique masses (Page 193 in text)
lute songs
a more personal genre than the madrigal; reflects the overall mood, less word painting; lute is always subordinate to the vocal melody.
Type of German amateur singer and poet-composer of the fourteenth through seventeenth centuries, who was a member of a guild that cultivated a style of monophonic song derived from minnedlieder.
Josquin de Prez
apparently a choirboy at St. Quentin; may have studied with Ockeghem (seems unlikely); traveled frequently and widely, assuming numerous important posts in Italy:with the papal chapel, the Sforza family, and the Este family in Ferrara, where he reached artistic maturity) in France (the royal court), and in Burgundy; may also have been employed by the Netherlands court; Documentary evidence suggests that the mature Josquin composed only when and as he wished, and that his displeasure could fall like lightning on his choristers; Called "The Father of Musicians" and "The Best composer of our time" by contemporaries; Internationally-known, universally admired and celebrated as the greatest composer of his time while still alive; his music was of great influence upon succeeding composers (incl. Nicholas Gombert and Adrian Willaert); His fame has never been eclipsed; Renaissance publications of his music reveal in their number the high degree of contemporaneous and posthumous esteem for his works.
A group of paid musicians and clerics employed by a ruler, nobleman, church official, or other patron, who lead an furnish music for religious services.
1555-1612; known primarily for instrumental works, but equally accomplished in sacred music; served Duke Albrecht the Fifth in Munic and studied with Orlando di Lasso; was the organist in St. Mark's starting in 1585, when he also started as the organist at the Scuola Grande di San Rocco; he stayed at both of those places until his death.
an instrumental composition that resembles an improvisation or lacks strict form.
Short Service
sets the same texts (from the service and anthem) in a syllabic chordal style
musique mesuree
late-sixteenth century French style of text-setting, especially in chansons, in which stressed syllables are given longer notes than unstressed syllables (usually twice as long).
Petrachan movement
Poets, readers and musicians looking back to the work of the poet Francesco Petraca for texts, ideals, and inspiration.
a setting of Anglican service music, encompassing specific portions of Matins, Holy Communion, and Evensong. A Great Service is a melismatic, contrapuntal setting of these texts; a short service sets the same text in syllabic, chordal style
"rebirth" period of art cultural and music history between the Middle Ages and the Baroque Period. It is marked for the birth of humanism, a revival of an ancient culture and ideas, and a new focus on the individual, the world, and the senses.
manner of setting chorales in chordal homophony with the melody in the highest voice- cantus
a published collection of metrical psalms
a double reed instrument enclosed in a cap, producing a sound like a soft bagpipe.

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