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World Civ 2


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Karl Marx
Karl Marx redefined political theory for Western Culture from 1848-1860, his reasoning was to end the "evils" of capitalism. He told workers that their low wages were explotative and unjust. His efforts did not end the class struggle or eliminate state power but his ideas did provide encouragement and structure which many countries translated into political parties.
Martin Luther
A german monk who drafted the 95 thesis in Germany in 1517 protesting against the selling of indulgences, and many other practices of the Catholic church. Luther was convinced only faith could gain salvation and that priests should be allowed to marry, and that the bible should be translated from Latin so the masses could have access. Luther encourages state control of the church and his break in Christianity spawned other protestant groups
French Revolution
Robespierre and Napoleon led the French Revolution in France from the 1780s-1800 voicing the ideological insistence on change. They wanted to decrease the powers of the church, increase political role of the middle class, and increase freedom of peaseants. The F.R. clearly set in motion the political restructuring of W. Europe
Shi'a is a branch of Islamic religion that played a major factor in Western culture by controling the Safavid empire until 1722 and becoming one the the great muslim empires of the gunpoweder revolution. The Shi'a are the trailer trash of muslim community with no edu. jobs, of social status. Always in conflict with mulim branch of the Sunni and always claiming to be oppressed by the establishment. The battle between Sunni and Shi'a still rages today in modern Iraq and Iran.
Peter the Great
Peter the great was the Tsar of Russia 1689-1725. He was great because he was a vigorous leader of exceptional inteligence and ruthless energy. Built tsarist control and expanded Russian territory. Also changed Russian economy by imitating W. forms of science and Tech. Peter the Great led the first Westernization effort in history adn paved the model for attempts elsewhere.
Napoloeon was the leading general in France in 1799 and converted the revolutionary French republic to an authoritarian empire. He reduced parliment power, and enacted a powerful polic system to limit the freedom of expression. Napoleon created a massive uprising of French nationalism. Ultimately that nationalism led the countries demise due to the growing anti-napoleon nationalism of other countries.
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Frued was a Viennese physician who developed theories of the working of the human subconcious for Western Cultures during the end of the 19th century. He argued that behavior is determined not by impulses but that emotional problems can be relieved if brought into rational discussion. His theories propelled the status of the social sciences in society of W. culture.
Artists and writers during the 1st half of the 19th century began to view Romanticism as the central artistic vision of Western Culture. Romanticism held that emotion and impression were the keys to the mystery of human experience. Artists portrayed intense passions and novelists moved readers to tears. Caused people to question the so called certanties of christiantiy and the enlightenment, and expressed tensions of the modern mind.
Garden of Earthly Delights
Hieronymus Bosch painted G.E.D. in the Netherlands c 1500 which illustrates the realities and consequences of sin, in particular lust. 1st panel=paradise 2nd panel=lustfull activities 3rd panel=punishement for sin (hell). The imagery may have been unsuitable for an alterpiece but it spoke powerfully to those who enjoyed learned allagories
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian
Mategna painted M.S.S. in Renaissance Europe in 1475. Represented clear charactaristics of renaissance. Classical=detail of buildings deomonstrating individual talent for detail Humanist=glory of human form and the accurate agony of the archers face. Christian=subject matter reflecting importance of christiantiy in renaissance
American Exceptionalism
A.E. is a concept that U.S. and West History were seperated by the industrialization of U.S. 1760-1914 and that the growth of American was largely seperate development. Blending immigrants, greater role of women, porlitally democratic, and diverse religions were all factors that seperate the American from the rest of the West. These beliefs led many to think of Americans as "god's people" and that the rules don't apply to us, which creates a very pompus attitude in the world scene.
Chinese Relations
The relations between China and Western culture 1500-1850 involve many factors. Missionaries attempted to convert but were greated with small reception and hostility. Chinese only traded what the really needed and did not feel the need to expand. W.E. forced open markets during the opium wars.
Geography is Destiny
The idea that Geography is destiny and can allow or limit invasion and expansion during Western expansion of 1450-1750 can be demonstrated in comparing and contrasting U.S. and Russia. Russia is a country of plains with little natural barrier to invasion. Being also a very large territory it was difficult for Russian gov't to remain strong enough to maintain empire status in W.E. America however is nestled between two oceans and peaceful canada and mexico. Their threat of invasion is very small. Which then freed our navy to go around the world and whack whomever we pleased with little vunerability.
Kaiser Wilhelm
Kaiser Wilhelm earns Dr. Cobbs "dumber than a houseplant" award because during his rule in Germany in the 20th century he single handedly ruined the strong empire that Bismark built. He made 3 large mistakes. 1=fired bismark 2=eliminated russia from the great triple entante 3=built a navy and pissed of Britain who is quite fond/proud of navy. Due to the decreased power of gov't with alliance and leadership and the lack of a sufficiant army they were unable to be effective in WWI in the following years.
Chinese Examination
Chinese examinations are tests given by gov't officials in China during the Ming and Qing dynasties to determine entry into the Chinese buerocracy. They were given every 2-3 yrs and county, provincial, and imperial levels. Completing highest levels made you eligible for highests posts and social prestige second only to royalty. Almost 1/2 of gov't earned positions through exams and this ensured high levels of edu and talent for administration as a whole.
African Slave Trade
African slave trade boomed amongst the countries of the Atlantic basin during 1500-1850 as massive intensive labor was needed on sugar plantations in Brazil and agricultural plantations in the america's. Dominated by Atlantic Slave Trade and shipped almost 12 mil out of Africa to Portugal, Brazil and the America's. It did however greatly contribute to the expanding economy of W. Europe b/c slave trade/labor became vital aspects of economy in slave trading countries.
Japanese to Christianity
Missionaires and Jesuits were sent to Japan 1570-80s to convert followers to christianity that would perhaps lead to military conquering of Japan. They converted outlying daimyos' domains inward toward central power of Nobunga. In 80's Hideyoshi put an end to christian conversion by outright banning it by 1614. Conversion attempts caused much of the isolationist behavior of the japanese during hideyoshi and is successors as christianity was eventually reduced to an underground faith.
Am Civil War challenge and response
The relations between the north and the south during the Civil War 1861-65 can be catagorized as a series of challenge and response as each side was threatened by the other. N challenged slave economy with industrial growth. and S threatened to succeed from the union if forced to give up slave economy. The civil war did however accelerate American industrialization which propelled the U.S. into the economic big leagues of Western Nations.

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