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T2 Exam Vocabulary

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Terms

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fossil fuels
Non-renewable energy sources derived from originally living matter. Any combustable material derived from coal, petroleum or natural gas.
thermal conduction
the movement of thermal energy through a material.
First Law of Thermodynamics
All heatentering a systems adds taht amount of energy to the system.
joule
a commonly used unit of energy; most accepted
physical system
A group of objects and/or organisms which are related or connected in some way; designed by an outside observer for the purpose of investigation
metabolism
the process by which organisms use energy. It is also the rate of chemical reactions that take place within a cell, and that determinethe rate of energy use.
fermentation
a chemical reaction through which organisms break down an energy - rich compound, typically sugars, without consuming oxygen and often resulting in the formation of alcohal; anaerobic respiration
calorimeter
An insulated container used to measure the energy released or absorbed during chemical and physical changes. It is designed to prevent the transfer of energy from a physical system to the environment.
molecules
Made up of two or more atoms tightly bound together to form a neutral particle
atoms
The smallest particle of an element made of protons, electrons, and (in most cases) neutrons.
yeast
single-celled fungi commonly found on plants, on skin, in intestines, in soil, and in water.
specific heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of matter one degree Celsius.
mechanical energy
energy of motion commonly associated with the moving of machines and devices
poikilotherms
Any animal species whosinternal body temperature changes based on the external temperature.
optimum
The value of set conditions which result in the most favorable outcome
per capita
per person (derived from Latin)
potential energy
stored energy of position. The higher up an object is, the more of this energy the object has.
Carbon dioxide
CO2; a fossil fuel that thins the ozone layer and causes the earth's surface temperature to rise
cellular respiration
A chemical process occuring in an organism which provides energy necessary for that organism's survival. In animals and many other organisms, oxygen and sugars react to releasestored chemical energy also producing carbon dioxide and water.
more developed
A country in which the average resident has access to many economic materials and energy resources.
energy flow diagram
A chart illustrating a transfer or series of transfers that occur during a physical change
Caloric
A liquid substance that flows through, and fills that spaces between the atoms and molecules
homeostasis
the maintainance of stability in an organism's internal invironment regardless of external changes.
thermal energy
energy of atomic or molecular motion (heat)
homeotherms
Any animal species whose internal body temperature remains relatively constant regardless of external temperatures.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
scatter plot
A type of graph in which X and Y data values are used to creat a set of points that describe the relationship between the X and Y variables
hidden costs
Effects of a process or action that do not involve obvious financial costs in the short terms, but that do have less aparant negative consequences such as environmental damage and/or resource availability lessening, in both short and long term
less developed
A country in which the average resident does not have acces to economic materials and energy resources
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Heat will always flow from areas of higher temperatures to areas of lower temperature.
thermal insutator
a material that has the ability to contain energy and not let it pass through.
qualitative data
the non-numerical data
quantitative data
the numerical data
kinetic energy
energy of motion. One of the two categories mechanical energy is divided into

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