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Bio 1 Lab, Spring08


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copy deck
always based on the particular experiment designed to test a specific hypothesis. written in the form of if/then statments
condenser lens
used to focus the light from the lamp through the specimen to be viewed
unicellular (single-celled)
all living functions (respiration, digestion, reproduction, excretion) handled by one cell
supports the stage and the condenser lens
eukaryotic cells
have membrane-bound organelles; have membrane-bound nucleus (with DNA inside); larger than prokaryotic; some have a tough outer wall (plants); single and multicellular (animals, plants, fungi, protists); plasma membrane present
light intensity lever
adjusts the intensity of the light that passes through the specimen
transmitted light
light passing through the object (vs. reflected or incident light)
compound microscope
the scopes have a minimum of two magnifying lenses (the ocular and the objective lenses)
reflected or incident light
light directed down on the object (vs. transmitted light)
epithelial cells
occur on the outside of animals and serve to protect the animals from water loss, mechanical injury, and foreign invaders. also line interior cavities and ducts in animals (vs epidermal for plants)
the lenses on the revolving nosepiece
working distance
the distance between the specimen and the objective lens
monocular microscopes
have one eyepiece
food vacuoles
fingerlike projections of the cytoplasm. are used for locomotion as well as for trapping and engulfing food in a process called phagocytosis
independent variable
the variable that is manipulated to test the investigators hypothesis
stand for the microscope and houses the lamp
epidermal cells
occur on the outside of plants as protection
field of view
the circle of light that one sees in the microscope
stereoscopic (dissecting microscope)
7x to 30x microscope, used for viewing and manipulating large objects
interpupillary distance
distance between the eyepieces on a binocular microscope
"false feet"; fingerlike projections from the cytoplasm. used for locomotion as well as for trapping and engulfing food in a process called phagocytosis
coarse and fine adjustment knobs
changes the distance between the stage and the objective lenses
the lens in the eyepiece
revolving nosepiece
where the objective lenses are mounted
photosynthetic (vs. heterotrophic)
deriving food from other organisms or their by-products (vs. autotrophic)
cell wall
rigid outer framework surrounding the cell. gives the cell a definite shape and support. not found in animal cells
a set of tests in which the independent variable is held at an established level or is omitted
controlled variable
variables kept constant
plant cell organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll that absorbs light energy for use in the manufacture of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is located within parallel stacks of membranes called grana. are characteristic of plant cells; animal cells do not have these
aggregates of cells
organisms consisting of random, temporary clusters of cells
The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes.
insect Ringers
a saline solution that is isotonic to the internal environment of insects
level of treatment
value set for the independent variable
unicellular eukaryotic organisms
stage clips
secures the slide on stationary stages, can be moved by hand or adjustment knobs
bright-field microscopy
when the revolving turret is set on 0
stage adjustment knobs
moves the stage right/left and back/forth (only for mechanical stages)
groups of specialized cells
scanning lens
the 4x lens
the granular cytoplasm containing the cell organelles
the protoplasm of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus (protoplasm includes the nucleus)
prokaryotic cells
lack membrane-bound organelles; lack a nucleus; contain DNA, butplasma membrane present not in a separate compartment); smaller than eukaryotic; almost always have tough external wall; single-celled organisms (Archaea and Bacteria);
cell membrane
the boundary that separates the organism or cell from its surroundings
contractile vacuoles
clear, spherical vesicles of varying sizes that gradually enlarge as they fill with excess water. serve an excretory function for amoebas
adjustment knob
controls the height of the condenser
the same procedure repeated several times (to get many data points)
tentative explanation of something observed
simple colonies
no physiological connections but maintain a predictable multicellular structure
supports the two sets of magnifying lenses
grouped tissues
sequence of steps to be performed for the experiment
depth of field
the thickness of the specimen that may be seen in focus at one time
revolving turret
condenser is housed in here on phase-contrast-optics microscopes
"false feet"; finger-like projections from the cytoplasm used for locomotion, trapping food in a process called phagocytosis
clusters composed of a consistent and predictable number of cells
high-power lens
the 40x lens
binocular microscopes
have two eyepieces
organ systems
grouped organs
the organized contents of the cell, exclusive of the cell wall
dependent variable
the variable that will be measured or counted or observed in response to the experimental conditions
a specialized cellular part
large numbers of cells with specialized structure and function, and no one cell can exist successfully by itself
complex colonies
physiological connections and specialization of groups of cells
intermediate lens
the 10x lens
iris diaphragm
controls the width of the circle of light and, therefore, the amount of light passing through the specimen
a process for trapping food using pseudopodia
the thin, transparent layer of cytoplasm directly beneath the cell membrane
supports the specimen to be viewed
occur on the outside of plants and serve to protect the plants from water loss, mechanical injury, and foreign invaders. (vs epithelial for animals)
daughter colonies
produced asexually; when large enough, will be discharged from the parent colony
wet mount
material in water or with water added before adding a coverslip
central vacuole
a membrane-bound sac within the cytoplasm that is filled with water and dissolved substances. stores metabolic wastes and gives the cell support by means of turgor pressure
long, hairlike structures
to be deleted later

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