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"C" Vocab for 'Anatomy and Physiology of Companion Animals'


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calcaneal tuberosity
Large process of the fibular tarsal bone that projects upward and backward; commonly referred to as the point of the hock; site of attachment of the gastrocnemius (calf) muscle; equivalent to the human heel.
Hardening of organic tissue by the deposit of lime and calcium salts.
The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that prevents the level of calcium in the blood from getting too high.
The healing tissue between the ends of the fractured bone that is eventually replaced by true bone as the fracture heals.
Heat producing
canal of Schlemm
The structure that drains aquesous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye. It is located out at the edge of the anterior chamber where the iris and the cornea meet.
Tiny channels through the matrix of bone. Threadlike projections from osteocytes communicate with each other and with blood vessels through the canaliculi.
cancellous bone
"Spongy" bone. A form of bone compposed of seemingly randomly arranged "spicules" of bone separated by spaces filled with bone marrow. Appears spongelike to the naked eye. Found in the ends (epiphyses) of long bones and the interiors of short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.
The progressive, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells or neoplasms that turn normal somatic cells into milignant ones. Ultimately, if left untreated, the cancer will metastasize, causing the disease to spread to other systems or areas of the body, leading to an eventual death.
canine parvoviral enteritis
Caused by the canine parvovirus, this infectious disease has an extremely high mortality rate in puppies. Infections occurring in utero are known to cause acute myocarditis and overall poor health in the litter. Because it tends to attack cells in the mitotic phase, rapidly dividing epithelial tissue is particularly affected by parvoviral infections. Vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, and dehydration are clinical signs of disease. An immunization is available.
canine tooth
Sharp, pointed tooth between the most caudal incisor and the most rostral premolar.
cannon bone
The large metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the horse.
The corner of the eyelids where they come together. Each eye has a medial and a lateral canthus.
The process spermatozoa undergo in the female reproductive tract before contact with the ovum that increases their fertility. Part of the process exposes the digestive enzymes in the acrosome. This helps the cell penetrate through the layers surrounding the ovum.
capillary refill time (CRT)
The time it takes for mucous membranes to return to their normal pink color after being pressed to a white color. If the return to normal color is too slow or fast, it can indicate a diseased state.
capsular space
The space between the visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule.
carbohydrate metabolism
Metabolic processes that store and release energy contained whitin carbohydrates for the purposes of growth, repair, and normal function of the body.
One of teh essential nutrients necessary for all ife functions. They are a quick source of energy and may be stored in the body as glycogen; sugars.
Protease secreted in an inactive form from the pancreas and activated by trypsin.
Having those properties that cuase cancer.
The part of the stomach where the esophagus enters.
cardiac muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle that is found exclusively in the heart. Cardiac muscle is controlled by the autonimic nervous syste. It has one centrally located nucleus and intercalated disks that form special connections between the muscle branches.
Disease of the myocardium (heart muscle)
carnassial teeth
Large rostral molar and last premolar in the dog that have deep roots.
An animal whose diet is primarily meat.
carpal bones
The bones of the carpus. Consist of two parallel rows of short bones lovated between the distal ends of the radius and ulna and the proximal ends of the metacarpal bones.
The joint composed of the carpal bones. Referred to as the "knee"of the horse and the "wrists" of humans
carrier proteins
Any protein that facilitates diffusion of a specific molecule through the cell membrane.
An opaque, dense connective tissue composed of a relatively small number of cells that are contained within a nonliving matrix. Cartilage absorbs shock anmd protects the epiphysial ends of bones. Cartilage is not innervate or vascularized, which makes it reistant to pain but also to healing. It is found in joints, body structures such as the ears and nose, the costal cartilage of the ribcage, and the fetal skeleton.
cartilaginous joint
A joint in which the bones are united by cartilage; also called an amphiarthrosis. Only a slight rocking motion is permitted between the bones.
Numerous mushroomliek structures int he linging of teh uterus of ruminant animals. Thye join with the cotryledons of the placenta to form placental attachment sites called placentomes.
The breaking down of nutrients into smaller and simpler materials for use by the cell to release energy; the opposite of anabolism.
catagen phase
The transitional phase between anagen and teolgen phases of the hair growth cycle.
An enzyme found in almost all cells the breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Substances that induce chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed.
The group of neurotransmitters that includes norepinephrine, epinephrine, fopamine, and other neurotransmitters with similar chemical properties.
Positively charges ions.
A directional term meaning toward the tail end of an animal.
cecocolic orifice
The opening between the cecum and the colon; most deceloped int he horse and other nonruminant herbivores.
The blind pouch leading off from where the ileum meets the colon; in nonruminant herbivores the cecum can be very developed into a base, body, and apex (tip).
The most basic structural unit of all animals and plants. Cells make up all tissues of an organism and perform all of the functions by which life is defined, including growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
cell adhesion molecules (CAM's)
Glycoproteins that aid not only in the bonding of cells but also in lubricating the movement of one cell past another. They also help to transport specialized cells to areas of need.
cell-mediated immune responses
Response of the body's cells to regulate the destrction of infectious bacteria and viruses during specific immune responses.
cell-mediated immunity
The portion of the immune system that produces "killer" cells that directly attack foreign invaders.
cell membrane
The selectively permeable outer membrane of teh cell that is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, protein, and cholesterol; also called plasma membrane or plasmalemma.
cell metabolism
Functions that break down nutrients, prduce ATP, use ATP, and create complex molecules from simple ones.
cellular respiration
The oxidation of organic material to yield energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
An enzyme that breaks down the sugar cellulose
Ruminant animals must convert this matter into volatile fatty acids to derive sustenance from it. This is accomplished through microbial fermentaion. Cellulose is not digested by carnivores and most omnivores.
central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord
cental sulcus
The cental depression of the frog in the equine hoof
A tubular organelle composed of nine triplets of microtubules that aids in the process of cell division. Centrioles split in two and migrate to opposite poles of a divinging cell to organize the spindle fibers, enabling the cell to divide in two.
Also called a kinetochore; the protein disk that holds a pair of chromatids together as a chromosome and then holds that chromosome to a spindle fiber during cell division.
An area of condensed cyroplasm located near the nucleus that contains the centriole(s) of the cell.
cerebellar dysfunction
Caused by inflammation, underdecelopment, or degeneration of the cerebellum, the disease is characterized by an exaggerated and awkwaed gait usually resulting from hyperextension of the legs. Cerebellar dysfunction does not exhibit any degree of paralysis, partial or complete.
Second largest component of the brain; allows the body to have coordinated movement, balance, posture, and complex reflexes.
cerebral cortex
Gray matter that makes up the outer layer of the cerebrum.
cerebral hemispheres
The two halves of the cerebrum.
cerebrospinal fluid
Fluid that bathes and protects the brain and spinal cord from the hard surface of the skull and spinal vertebrae.
That portion of the brain responsible for functions most commonly associated with "higher-order" behaviors (learning, intelligence, awareness); receives and interprets sensory information, initiates conscious (voluntary) nerve impulses to skeletal muscles, and integrates neuron activity that is normally associated with communication, expression of emotional responses, learning, memory and recall, and other behaviors associated with consciuos activity.
cervical vertebrae
The bones of the neck portion of the spinal column.
The sphincter muscle "valve" between the uterus and the vagina; controls access to the lumen of the uterus from the vagina. It is normally closed except during breeding and parturition.
chemical contral systems
The respiratory control system that monitors the pH of the blood and its content of O2 and CO2. If any of the measured calues varies outside preset limits, the chemical contral system initiates changes in the breathing pattern to bring them back into balance.
chemical digestion
The breakdown of food by action of chemicals or enzymes.
chemical signaling
The specific interaction of hormones and neurotransmitters to cell surfaces for the purpose of changing cell activity.
The movement of white blood cells into an area of inflammation in response to chemical mediators released at the site by injured tissue or other white blood cells.
Believed to be the vestigial remnants of the carpal and tarsal bones, they are horny, keratinized growths located on the medial forearm and hock of horses.
chief cells
Cells in the stomach that produce the enzyme precursor pepsinogen.
Two internal nares that open from the nasal chambers into the roof of the mouth.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
A hormone released by the duodenum when chyme enters from the stomach. It slows gastric emptying and motility while increasing intestinal motility. It also stimulates the pancreas to release digestive enzymes into the duodenum.
A steroid alcohol that is found in many fat-based tissues throughout the body. Cholesterol can be synthesized in the body or obtained through diet.
cholinergic neurons
Neurons that secrete acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.
cholinergic receptors
Receptors for acetylcholine; may be muscarinic or nicotinic.
Fixed cells that form cartilage.
Mature cartilage cell.
chondroitin sulfate
A glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage.
An adhesive glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage.
chordae tendineae
Fine, threadlike cords that connect two atrioventricular valves to the appropriate papillary muscles in the ventricles.
Part of the placenta; the outermost layer that attaches to the uterine lining. The chorion is linked to the fetus by the umbilical cord.
chorionic gonadotropin
A hormone produced by the placenta of a pregnant animal.
A portion of the uvea, or middle vascular layer, of the eye. The choroid consists mainly of pigment and blood vessels and is lovated between the sclera and the retina.
Stands of genetic material that, when joined together with another chromatid by a centromere, form a chromosome.
Threadlike accumulations of DNA in the nuclei of cells that are particularly visible during mitosis. The DNA of chromosomes contains the genetic material of the cell. The number of chromosomes is constant withing a given species.
The "milky" appearing lymph from the intestines consisting of primarily small molecules of absorbed fats.
Microscopic particles of fat found in chyle and blood. Their numbers are highest after a meal.
The semifluid, partially digested food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum.
Protease secreted in an inactive form from the pancreas and activated by trypsin.
Hairlike processes of the luminal surface of cells that assist in the movement of mucus, fluid, and solid material across the cell surface.
ciliary body
A portion of the uvea, or middle vascular layer, of the eye. The ciliary body is a ring-shaped structure located immediately behind the iris. It contains the ciliary muscles that adjust the shape of the lens and the cells that produce aqueous humor.
ciliary muscle
Multiunit smooth muscles of the ciliary body that adjust the shape of the eye's lens.
circular muscle
The smooth muscle in the muscle layer of the gastrointestinal tract that encircles the organ and causes mixing or segmental contractions; plays a role in peristalsis; concentrated circular muscle compose the sphincters.
circulating pool of neutrophils
Neutrophils found in the peripheral blood flowing through the center of blood vessels.
A joint motion whereby the distal end of an extremity moves in a circle.
A reservoir that stores fluid.
citric acid cycle
A complicated metabolic pathway that is included in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates and that involves the oxidation of pyrucic acid and the release of energy. Other terms used are the Krebs cycle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Accessory appendages of the integumentary system present mainly in carnivores for the purpose of grasping prey and self-defense.
The process of very rapid cell division after an ovum has been fertilized. The cells divide so rapidly that they do not have time to grow sppreciably between divisions. The number of cells increases rapidly, but the overall size of the cell mass does not invrease much.
One of the structures of the culca of the femal. Homologous to the penis of the make, the clitoris contains erectile tissue and is richly supplied with sensory nerve endings.

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