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Bio Transportation Chapter


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what happens to nutrients after digestion is completely?
they go into the blood stream and are transported to the cells of the body. in the cells, nutrients are chemically combined with oxygen and energy is released
the process of absrption and circulation of materials throughout the body
involves the passage of materials into and out of the blood stream
examples of absorption
oxygen diffusing into blood capillaries of the lungs, food entering blood in villi, and carbon dioxide diffusing into the blood capillaries of body tissues
the distribuation of mmaterials to all parts of the body
circulatory/transport system
made up of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and lymph vessels
William Harvey
discovered the circulation of blood--concluded that blood flowed in a circle throughout the body and was used over and over again
how does blood move through the boddy
in a continuous pathway of blood vesels
what are the two basic pathways of circulation
pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
pulmonary circulation
involves blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide and water vapor
how does the blood return to the heart from the lungs
the veins
systemic circulation
blood flows from the left ventricle to all body parts and then returns to the heart--provides the body cells with needed substances and carries away cellular excretions
a muscular, four-chambered organ that pumps blood through blood cessels adjusting the rate of flower and pressure to changing body requirements
two upper chambers of the heart--receive blood reutrning in the veins from the lungs and other boddy tissues and pump it into the ventricles
lower chambers of the heart that pump blood into the arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. they are muscular and help to pump blood through the body
separate the chambers of the heart and regulate the direction of blood flow in and out of the heart--prevent the blood from flowing backwards
thick, tough sac that covers the heart
blood vessels
tubes that ransport blood to and away from body parts
3 major types of blood vessels
arteries, capillaries, and veins
when artial walls expand and snap back to their normal size to help pump blood through the body
coronary arteries
arteries located in the heart
largest artery in the body that carries blood that is high in oxygen.
arteries branch and become smaller and smaller in diameter until they become tiny vessels called arterioles
blood pressure
pressure that the blood in the arteries is under from the pumping action of the heart
the smallest blood vessels. connect arteries to veins.
capillary walls
through which the exchange of oxygen and carvon dioxide, between the blood and the body parts, takes place by diffusion, as well as plasma filtered out at the capillaries which becomes tissue fluid
blood vessels that transport blood under low pressure from the capillaries back to the heart--have valves that prevent backflow of blood and thin muscular walls
vena cava
two large veins that return blood to the heart
the liquid medium that transports materials throughout the ody within the blood vessels
what makes up blood
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
straw colored, non living part of blood that is 90% water. transports blood cells, end products of digestion, hormones, ceulluar exretions, and antibodies throughout the body. also helps to regulate temperature
red blood cells composition/look
shaped like round plates that are indented in the center-----mature red blood cells have no nucleus--are red because it has iron rich pigment hemoglobin
where are red blood cells produced
produced in special tissue called bone marrow located inside certain long bones
what does hemoglobin do?
-hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen from the lungers to the body cells--also transports carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs
carbon monoxide poisoning
ifu took in carbon monoxide, your hemoglbin would permanetely combine w/ the molecules and would not be able to xombine with oxygen---your cells cannot get oxygen for respiration and u sufocate and die
small--no nucleus--live only 2 to 4 days--very numerous---involved in the clotting of blood
what do white blood cells do
fight infections and are part of the body's immune system.
describe white blood cells
irregular in shape and have no color--have a nnucleus and are bigger than red blood cells
where are white blood cells produced
in bone marrow an in tussue called lymph tissue
when are there more white blood cells than red blood cells?
only when they are fighting infection, when they increase in number
white blood cells that aid in fighting disease by engulfing bacteria, viruses, and other foreign organisms
white blod cells that produce proteins known as antibodies
are produced by lymphocytes when antigens enter the body to help fight the antigeng
antigens and ex.
foreign particles
ex. bacteria and foreign tissues
comes from the portion of the blood plasma that diffuses out of the capillaries--surrounds the body cells as intercellular fluid
intercellular fluid/tissue fluid
helps transport dissolved materials between capillaries and cells
lymph vessels
where excess intercellular fluid enters and is cirulated through these vessels as lymph-transport the lymph to beins where is enters the blood and becomes part of the plasma again
lymph nodes
structures of the lymph system in the armits, neck, and groin that filter out bacteria and viruses form lymph
how does lymph tissue help proect the bodyy against infection?
produces a type of white blood cells that helps teh body fight disease--lymph nodes become enlarged when you have an infection
how is lymph circulated in lymph vessels??
by contractions of body muscles
disease-causing organisms
the ability of the body to resist certain disease-causing organisms
name 4 defenses of the body to resist diseasse
1_ presense of barriers such as skin, nose hairs, and mucus coated linings in the digestive and respiratory tracts
2) hydrochloric acid in the stomach
3) ability of white blood cells to englulf bacteria
4) production of antibodies to fight foerign substances that enter the body
how are antibodies carried
by bood
immune reactions
occur between antibodies and antigens when the body defends itself against invading organisms.
active immunity
occurs when the body makes it own antibodies to a particular antigen from either having the disease or form a vaccination
consists of an injection of a dead or weakened form of a disease-cuasing microorganism, which can non longer cause the disease, but can still stimulate antibody production by white blood cells
passive immunity
a temporary immunity to a disease produced by the injection of antibodies into the cody. --last for a short time
how do you type blood in the ABO blood group system?
based on the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of thr red blood cells and if the blood plasma contains anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies
high blood pressure
when blood pressure in the arteries increases
-caused by sress, diet, heredity, cigarette smoking, and aging
-damages lining of arteries and weakens heart muscle
coronary thrombosis
type of heart attack caused by a blockage in one of the arteries that carries blood to the heart muscle. stop flow of blood to some of the heart muscle
a form of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many while blood cells. the large numbers of white cells crowd out developing red blood cells and platelets
occurs when the blood does not have enough hemoglobin or red blood cells. the body cells do not receive enough oxygen, which results in low levels of energy. can be treated by eating iron-rich foods or taking pills containing iron
acquired immune deficiency syndrome-caused by HIV--destroys body's immune system, making it unable to fight even small infections

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