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Biology Midterm


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Loves water.
What are the reactants in Respiration?
Glucose and 6O2.
Suicide Sacs
Lysosomes that explode and eat the cell.
Cell Membrane
Made of phosopholipids.

Controls what goes in and out of the cell.
How do phospholipids form the cell membrane?
The hydrophilic phosphate head meets the water and the fatty acid tails hide inside because they are hydrophobic, creating a bilayer.
What are the three steps of Respiration?
1. Glycolysis

2. Kreb's Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle

3. Respiratory Chain
Has no electrical charge.
What are the 7 life processes?
Feeds on others.
How many chromosomes does a Genome have?
46 Chromosomes
Hypertonic Solution
When the cells surrondings has more solute than the cell.
What are the uses of protein?
structural-muscle, skin, hair, feathers, scales, nails, claws, hooves.

function-acts as an enzyme
When a food vacuole is made. (Ameba)
It is the dividing of the cytoplasm.
What is the order of the mr. bunny story?
Mr. Sun
Mr. Cereal Grain
Mr. Bunny
Mr. Coyote
Mr. Grizzly Bear
absorbs nutrients to the blood stream
Process where particles move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
How many ATP does Lactic Acid make?
Where concentration is the same throughout.
Cell Wall
Only in plants.

Supports the cell and makes it rigid.
Isotonic Solution
When the cell and its surrondings have an equal amount of solute.
Test Cross
When an dominant colored animal is crossed with a homozygous recessive to see if the animal is pure-bred or hybrid.
Process of releasing what is in the vacuole out of the cell.
What are the atoms of life?

What does water make plants?
Mechanically strong.
What goes on during glycolysis?
Glucose (C6H12O6) is taken and using 2ATPs, the C6H12O6 is turned into 2 Pyruvates. (2C3H6O3) During this process, 4ATP are produced using ADPs and phosphate, making a net gain of 2ATP.
What happens to an Animal Cell in a Hypotonic Solution?
Lysis- the cell explodes.
What are lipids?
fats and oils.
Hypotonic Solution
When the cell has more solute than its surrondings.
Binary Fission
To split/divide into 2 parts.
Only in plants.

Catches sunlight for photosynthesis.
What are proteins made of?
20 different amino acids.
The Diffusion of water over a selectivly permeable membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
When does DNA Replication occur?
During Mitosis
What is Mr. Bunny?
Mr. Bunny is...

A primary consumer.

A heterotroph.

A herbivore.
Why are plants and fruits colorful?
So animals, birds, and insects, will spread their seeds by eating carrying and dropping etc.
move, react to our environment
Uses food energy to power cell
Describes the genes
What are phosopholipids?
They are two fatty acid tails with a phosphate head.
Urea and Ammonia go to kidneys and are excreted
What charge are phospholipids?
Negative because the phosphate head is negative(polar) and the fatty acid tails have no charge(nonpolar).
What is a nucleotide, and what are its parts?
A nucleotide is a single piece of information on the DNA.

It is composed of 3 parts:
1. A 5-Carbon Sugar
2. A Phosphate
3. A Nitrogen Base (ATCG)
Stores and organizes chlorophyll.(only in plants)

chloro means green.

Has 2 membranes; smooth outter membrane and folded inner membrane. (to increase surface area)
How are proteins made?
DNA makes RNA which sends the protein-making information to the ribosomes which makes the protein.
Makes their own food.
not purebred/different genes for the trait
Only in plants.

Collection of all three Chloro, Chromo, and Leuco.
What is a prokaryotic cell?
A bacteria cell.

Has no nucleus
What is dissolved.
What is the Law of Independent Assortment?
The segregation of one pair of genes has nothing to do with any other pair of genes.
storage structures for starch.
What is a polymer?
strands of monomers

Polymers are protein strands.
Central/H2O/Plant Vacuole
Plants only.

Collects water.

When full, water can't get in anymore.
What does the tRNA do?
tRNA, or transfer RNA, catches an amino acid, and on the other side the tRNA will have the complementary nucleotides and will lock in at the right place on the mRNA line.
Fearing water.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
Proteins are created here.

Has ribosomes making bumps on it, so is rough E.R.
Sacks of protein.

Sometimes hit membrane and the protein shoots out.
What happens during G2?
The cell rests, but has 92 chromosomes now. At the end, the centriole doubles.
Active Transport
Going from a lesser concentration to a greater concentration. Takes effort and energy. Active transport is used to get bad things out of the cell. Said to be "going against the gradient".
What are the nucleic acids?
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
1 degree consumer/ primary consumer
only eat plants first heterotroph on the flow chain.
Point Mutation
A mutation at a specific point of the DNA
Passive Transport
Membrane is completly inactive and things just pass through.
What do enzymes do?
speed up chemical reactions.
Has an electrical charge
A mess-up in the DNA.
red or yellow.

sometimes with some photosynthetic ability.
What is the cell theory?
1) All living things are made of cells.

2) The cell is the smallest unit of structure and function of any living thing.

3) All cells come from preexisting cells.
What performs the dissolving.
What is another name for decomposers?
What happens to a Animal Cell in a Hypertonic solution?
Crenation-when an animal cell shrivels up.
Contains sugars (single monomers), starch (long strand of glucose), and cellulose (long glucose strand).

Other types of sugar include fructose, sucrose, and maltose.
Golgi Body
Packs protein into the vacuoles.
What are Mendel's Laws?
Law of Unit Characters
Law of Dominance
Law of Segregation
Law of Independent Assortment
Facillitated Transport
Transport that is being aided by a channel.
What are fats?
fats are insulators.
How does Mr. Cereal Grain get his food?
He uses photosynthesis.

He is an autotroph.
What happened during Anaphase II?
The sister chromatids split and move to opposite ends of the poles.
What happens to a Plant Cell in a Hypertonic Solution?
Plasmolysis-the plant cell is flimsy.
What are the organic molecules?
Nucleic Acids
What do the proteins in the cell membrane phospholipid bilayer do?
Called transport proteins.

Move stuff in and out of the cell.
What happens during Metaphase?
The sister chromatids move to the equator (of the spindle), and are in a single line. The spindle covers the whole cell now.
Contractile Vacuole
In an Amemba.

Collects water.

Cytoskeleton will contract and spit water out.
A-sexual divides-one parent is a exact copy

Sexual-gives a characteristic blend
One who only eats plants.
What is the Double Helix?
The two chains of DNA that are twisted/spiraled together.
What happens to a Plant in a Hypotonic Solution?
Turgor pressure-the cell becomes mechanically strong.

Good for crisping veggies.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
Is rough and smooth E.R.

Increase the surface area.
Sacs of digestive enzymes.

Sometimes they explode and eat the cell; then they are called suicide sacs.
What is the ten percent rule?
Ten percent of the original energy goes done through the eating chain.

10% to Bunny
10% to Coyote
10% to Grizzly Bear
Skeleton of protein fibers.
growing and making mass
What job does Helicase perform?
Helicase is an enzyme which unzips the DNA during Replication.
Cellular fluid.

H2O and Organic Molecules.
What is an ATP?
It is an energy carrier (is not energy).
How does alcoholic fermentation work?
Glucose becomes 2 Ethyl Alcohols and 2CO2
Why don't blood cells blow up?
Because they are isotonic.
Physically make the protein.
What is Mr. Coyote?
Mr. Coyote is a...

secondary consumer.

What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine TriPhosphate
Where ribosomes are made.
What is Mr. Grizzly Bear?
Mr. Grizzly Bear is...

a tertiary consumer.

a heterotroph.
When one nucleotide gets substituted with another nucleotide.
What another name for decomposer?
Holds the DNA/Chromatin
Respiration Equation
6O2 + C6H12O6---->6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy.
What happens during Anaphase I?
The tetrads split and the each of the sister chromatids go to their respective sides.
Only eat meat.
The physical (viewable) characteristics
What happens to all the dead in the energy flow?
They go to the decomposers and get decomposed.
What is the final ATP Gain during respiration?
38 ATP.

36 Net Gain ATP.
A process of makign glucose w/ out light.

Performed in smokers deep in the ocean.
The two genes of the trait are the same
Don't respire and no oxygen.
What is the Law of Unit Characters?
Two genes control each trait. These genes are on homologous chromosomes.
Eat a little of everything.
A specific characteristic of an organism
Why are there fewer tertiary consumers than primary consumers?
Because the tertiaries get very little of the original amount of energy (.1%), so they need to eat a lot to be full.
What is the Law of Dominance?
One form of the gene is more powerful and is dominant and the other form of the gene is recessive.
You respire and breath and have oxygen.
Release of valuable waste
snot, nectar, tears, enzymes, saliva
What goes on during Kreb's Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle?
The two pyruvates are taken and one at a time, they are put on molecules and form citric acid. During a time period when it goes full circle, 2ADP + Phosphate become 2ATP and 6CO2 leave the pyruvates and 12H moves on to the final part of respiration.
What happens during Telophase I?
The cell divides.

The spindle dissolves.
A blend of two different genes (of the one characteristic)
What two industries use alcoholic fermentation?
Baking and Brewery
The creation of gametes through cell division.
What happens during transcription?
RNA Polymerase separates DNA strands and then one of the strands is copied to make RNA.
What job does DNA Polymerase perform?
DNA Polymerase is an enzyme which builds the new companion DNA strand.
Which life process is most similar to photosynthesis?
What is an example of an alcoholic fermenter?
What happens during translation?
Cells use mRNA info to make protein.
When a nucleotide is added.
What goes on during Respiratory Chain?
The 12Hs and begin to hop through a series of enzymes called cytochromes. Once it finally gets out, 32 ATPs had been made and 6H2O left over. The hydrogens stayed on the chain because they were attracted to the electrons of the cytochromes.
Center line (Vertical) on the spindle.
Makes the spindle
What is the purpose of Fermentation?
To get energy from glucose.
What are the differences between Mitosis and Meiosis?
(Mitosis right-Meiosis left)
4 D-cells 2 D-cells
Identical Similar (D-cells)
46C to 46 46-46-23
Asexual Sexual
How does lactic acid work?
C6H12O6------>2C3H603/Lactic Acid(same formula as pyruvates, but is assembled differently)
What was the Human Genome project?
It was a project that analyzed the ATCGs.
What does the mRNA do?
mRNA, or messenger RNA, meets up with a ribosome which puts together the protein.
For example Dihybrid Cross-crossing 2 hybrids
What happens during Metaphase I?
The tetrads move to the equator.
What does RNA stand for?
Ribonucleic Acid
What are the pairs of Nitrogen Bases?
A to T


C to G
What happens during Telophase II?
The cell splits.
The spindle dissolves.
What happens during Prophase II?
The spindle is starting to grow.
Protein fibers made by centrioles
Cell Plate
Only in plants during Telophase, it is a new cell wall that divides the Mother Cell.
What is the backbone of a series of Nucleotides?
A sugar, phosphate, sugar backbone.
The first Cell of a baby.
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What happens during Telophase?
The spindle dissolves.
The cells splits, during which there is a cleavage furrow and a cell plate in plants.
The Nucleus and Nucleolus are rebuilt, one for each cell.
Cytokinesis also occurs.
a full set of DNA
How many ATPs does Alcoholic Fermentation create?
Mother Cell
The cell that splits
What are the phases of Mitosis?
A series of 3 nucleotides which indicate a amino acid
Cleavage Furrow
The cell's dividing point in telophase.
What does E.R.'s increased surface area do?
Allow for quicker movement of molecules
Daughter Cell
What the Mother cell splits into
What are the components of Interphase?
What happens during S?
The DNA replicates.
What happens during Metaphase II?
The doubled chromosomes are in the equator.
Sister Chromatids
The twin pairs of DNA that are held together by a centromere. Looks like a butterfly.
3 hybrids
The DNA uncoiled and loopy, is this way during interphase.
Incomplete Dominance
When there is no one dominant gene (of that trait)and the genes (of that trait) blend
What change in chromosomal number does Meiosis go through?
Diploid to Haploid
Holds two identical copies of DNA together
What is the Law of Segregation?
The 2 genes fro a trait must separate during Meiosis. Therefore, there is only 1 gene in each gamete.
When a sequence of DNA is transferred into RNA
Punnet Square
A grid used to solve Genetic Problems
The process in which a cell makes an exact replica of itself.
What are the genarations labeled?
P1 (parents)


What happens during G1?
The cell rests and the DNA is in the form of Chromatin
Who was Franklin?
Woman who took the x-rays of DNA, but recieved little ir no credit for them.
Photosynthetic Equation
6CO2+6H2O+Light Energy------>C6H12O6+6O2
Opposite ends of the spindle
What does the ribosome do?
It uses the information given by the mRNA to put together the protein.
When 2 homologous doubled chromosomes come together.
What type of process is Fermentation?
Half a set of DNA
What went on during Prophase I?
Nucleus and Nucleolus dissolve.
Synapsis occurs.
What does A, T, C, and G stand for?
When does lactic acid fermentation occur?
Happens in the stomach.
When athletes are doing something like running and they are getting all the O2 that they can but your body wants more, so they perform lactic acid fermentation and get 2ATP. When we get too much lactic acid, our muscles cramp. When the O2 debt is replaced, the lactic acid reverses back to glucose.
How is protein made?
The DNA makes RNA which in turn sends protein-making information to the Ribosomes, which physically make the protein.
What are the products of respiration?
6H2O + 6CO2 (The waste product)

36ATP (The useful product)
What is DNA Replication?
It is when DNA makes an exact copy of itself.
A piece of DNA that makes a specific protein
What happens during Prophase?
The Nucleus and Nucleolus dissolve.
The centrioles move apart and begin to make a spindle.
How does an ATP make energy?
The three phosphates are connected by high energy bonds.
When the third ATP breaks off, the energy is set loose.
This also turns the ATP into an ADP plus a Phosphate.
What happens during Anaphase?
The Double Chromosomes split to Single chromosomes and move to opposite ends of the poles.
How do the two strands relate?
The second strand is upside down, and therefore the parterns match. There are also hydrogen bonds between the two Nitrogen Bases.
What are the two types of Fermentation?
Alocoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid Fermentation.
Who were Watson and Crick?
They were to men who won the Nobel Prize for their descriptions of DNA.

They really used photos from another scientist, but she was a woman did not publize much.

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