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Earth Science chpt.14


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how does altitude affect temperature?
the higher in altitude the place is, the cooler the temperature.
the greenhouse effect:
the Earth absorbs solar radiation in short wavelengths, and then radiates it in longer wavelengths which are absorbed in the atmospheric gases, but are then radiated either back to earth or skyward. the earth's atmosphere allows shorter wavelengths to enter, and get absorbed by the gases and earth's surface that gives off longer wavelengths which become trapped in the earth's atmosphere.
How does geographic position change temperature?
depending on where the place is located, the winds may blow the ocean's influence on shore creating cooler temps, or it will blow out toward the ocean creatng warmer temps.
Difference between weather and climate: (and the definitions of the two)
weather: the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place & climate is a description of weather conditions based on observations accumulated over a long period of time. (so, the climate is the sum of all statistical weather information that helps describe a place or region.)
land and water temperature differences:
because land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water, and cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water. Land only absorbs heat at the surface, but water is transparent, so light can penetrate to deeper depths.
the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity. = the enegry of molecules is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another w/ heat flowing from higher temp to lower temp object
how do clouds affect temperatures?
in the daytime, when clouds are present, they reflect some of the sun's rays. And in the nighttime, when clouds are present, they reflect the radiation sent by the earth back to earth.
What happens in the trophosphere and what is the temperature?
it is the bottom layer in which we live, temp decreases with altitude, all weather phenomena occur here, vertical mixing of air occurs here, enviromental lapse rate.
absorbtion and solar radiation:
when a gas molecule absorbs light waves, the energy is transformed into internal molecular motion, causing a rise in temp.
Ozone is: and is formed by:
a form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule. Is in the stratosphere where oxygen (O2) is split into single atoms where they absorb UV rays and then the single atom combines with oxygen (O2)
Mesosphere: what happens here and what is the temperature?
the third layer of the atmosphere, temps decrease with height until they reach
-90 degrees c just before the thermosphere.
The other tiny particles in the air are: (and how do they affect the air)
water vapor: is the source of all clouds and precepitation. Has ability to absorb heat given off by the Earth.
aerosols: solid and liquid particles suspended within the atmosphere. Heavy/big sink, and light/small float. They act as places where water vapor can condense and can absorb or reflect incoming radiation. They cause color at sunrise and sunset and reduce the amount of sunlight reaching earth's surface when present.
thermosphere: what happens here and what is the temperature?
the 4th layer, has no defined limit, contains only a tiny fraction of the earth's mass, temps increase with absorbtion of short-wave;high-energy solar radiation.=1000 degrees c, because there are so few molecules here, they produce only a small quantity of heat, so in the thermosphere, the amount of solar radiation absorbed describes the temp.
what happens to air temperature the higher up you go in the atmosphere?
it gradually gets cooler
what causes seasons?
length of daylight, angle of the sun above the horizon which effects the amount of energy recieved at the earth's surface in two ways: 1.the lower the angle, the less intense the suns rays and 2. the angle of the sun determines the amount of atmosphere the suns rays must penetrate.
primary and secondary pollutants are:
primary pollutants: emitted directly from identifiable sources and have a direct impact on human health which is not as severe as secondary pollutants which form in the atmosphere when reactions take place among primary pollutants.
the two principle motions of the earth are: and the circle of illumination:
rotation: the spinning of earth about it's axis
revolution: the movement of the earth in it's orbit around the sun
circle of illumination: the line separating the dark half of earth from the light half at any given time.
what are the basic elements that the nature of weather and climate are expressed in?
1.air temperature 2.humidity 3. type and amount of cloudiness 4.type and amount of precepitation 5.air pressure 6.the speed and direction of the wind
differences in heat and temperature: (and their definitions)
heat:a form of energy-defined as the total kinetic energy of all the atoms and molecules that make up a substance
temperature: intensity- the measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance
atmosphere end and space begins at:
the point when there are too few gas molecules to detect-no definte point
the transfer of heat by mass movement of circluation within a substance.
can only take place in liquids where atoms and molecules can move about.
The four layers of the atmosphere, divided on the basis of temperature are:
the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere.
how is temperature defined?
in terms of the average speed at which molecules move
what is atmospheric pressure?
the weight of the air above
what is the inclination of the axis?
the tilting of the earth 23 1/2 degrees from perpendicular in it's axis
what is the air surrounding us made of?
nitrogen and oxygen make up 99% of air, and other minor elements including co2 that is important because it absorbs heat energy radiated by Earth, keeping the atmosphere warm.
reflection of solar radiation: and albedo
when solar radiation hits the earth's surface or particles in the earth's atmosphere, some of the radiation is reflected back to space. the albedo is the amount reflected back.
stratosphere: what happens here and what is the temperature?
the temp remains constant for 20 kilometers, then begins an increase until the area just before the mesosphere. Ozone is located here=raise in temp b/c of absorbtion of heat energy.
what causes the ocean currents and winds?
unequal heating by solar energy on the Earth's surface creates the winds and currents which transport heat from the tropics to the poles in an unending attempt to reach a balance.
how is the daily range calculated?
by finding the difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures for a given day
the way in which solar energy reaches our planet, contains many different forms of electromagnetic radiation:long-wave radiation including tv and radio, and short-wave radiation including visible light, and UV rays.
the monthly and annual means are calculated by:
monthly mean: adding together the daily means for each day of the month and then dividing by the # of days in the month.
annual mean: is an average of 12 monthly means.
what is the importance of june 21 or 22, december 21 or 22 ad september 22 or 23, march 21 or 22?
June 21 or 22: the earth is in a position where the axis in the northern hemisphere is tilted 23 1/2 degrees toward the sun =tropic of cancer and is summer solsitice in northern hemisphere.
dec. 21 or 22: earth is in an opposite position= 23 1/2 degrees south latitude= tropic of capricorn. is winter solsitice in northern hemisphere
sept. 22 or 23: autumnal equinox &
march 21 or 22: spring equinox
on these days the suns rays strike the equator (0 degrees) and the earth is not tilted toward or away from the sun =equal amount of daylight (12 hrs) over entire earth.
how is the daily mean calculated?
by adding the maximum and minimum temperatures and then dividing by two
scattering of solar radiation:
energy redirected by gases and dust particles in the atmosphere.
explains how light reaches a shaded area.

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