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Govt Exam 3 2


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What is often considered 5th branch?
Mass Media
What are the two types of Media?
print and electronic
Functions of Media?
1)Entertainment-primary thing done
2)Report News-primary goal
3)Identify public problem-set agenda
4)Socialization-media is an impt agent in American society
5)Providing political form:debates, a
6)Make profits
Socialization is?
The process were we develop our political attitudes, ideas and beliefs.
What is the Equal Time Rule?
1 impt rule out of the FCC that requires air time given/sold to a candidate must also go toward a opponent
Where did the Equal Time Rule come from?
Communication act of 1934
What is the FCC?
independent regulatory agency charged with regulating the electronic media, develops & implements policys concerning interstate and international communication by radio, tv, wire, satelite and cable
What is the FCC made up of?
A five member commision
Who is the current chair of the FCC?
Michael Powell
Where was the FCC estab?
Communication act of 1934
What is the Fairness Doctorine?
It is an impt rule passed by FCC; no longer have 1949-1987; requires brodcasters to devote responsible amt of air time to issues of public importance and concern, presents a balanced effort to be fair
What is the Telecommunication Act of 1996?
first major overhaul of telecom law that we have had since com act of 1934. 1)standardize license period (8 yrs)FCC lefted cap on # AM/FM & TV stations that can be owned by a single intentity. Their are caps that limit on % of a market that brodcastor can cover (35%)
What does the telcom act of 1996 estab?
that 35% can be covered; requirement size, # of station requirement in part market
Communication Decency Act of 1996
Congressional effort to regulate content on internet. SC declared unconsit cause it limits free speech. Mike Powell vowed to not change.
1st ammendment?
ensures that the USA media is one of the most free media in the world, and expose wrong doings of govt officials without fear of censorship or persuction.
What is public opinnion?
Combination of view,attitudes, or beliefs shared by some portion of a community. There is no 1 single public opinnion.
What are 4 dimensions of public opinnion?
1)constant-remain stable over time whether long or short
2)dynamic-fluctuate in response to some social or political or economic event
3)casual preference- largely apathetic about it
4)intense-strong emotional feelings about..effects way we vote.
What 3 diff levels of public opinnion?
1)concensus-general agreement among public about an issue
2)divisive-public at polar ends
3)latent-largely unexpressed but has potential to become very significant public opinnion
Closed end ?'s
best type of ?'aire provides set of alternative to select
Sampling error?
margin of error degree by which the results are off, typically 95% confidence level, larger results in less margin of error
3 types of samples?
1)random-most accurate for population-equal chance to be selected
2)Biased-purpose estab predetermined set of ideas.
3)Weighted/Quota-over exaggerate; mall polls; 51 women represent all women.
what is a sample?
Subset of pop used to find out info about pop
What is ideology?
Interelated set of beliefs or interelated system of beliefs and attitudes about what the govt ought ot be doing or not doing
Open end ?
respondet has no options for response; answered less frequently than closed end
Leading ?
Variant of open/closed end?- can be open or closed designed to produce some predetermined response
Survey Research
Sci. method used for sampling the attitude of particular groups of people. Principle tool used to sample a pop
Political Socialization
process through which we develop our political attitudes ideas &/or beliefs, readily expressed (family is greatest impact, 70% take on their parents party)
Party ID
psych attachment we have w/a polit party...leads to voting consistently for that party
Political Advocacy
a personal sense of being able to accomplish something poltically on election day
Straw Poll
non scientific method for sampling
Why is measuring public opinnion difficult?
because we are heterogenous
Interest groups
impt agency for represent interest of citizens in AMerican political system
organized attempt to influence one's public policy decision to shape legislation
3 types of lobbying?
1)Direct-consist of all face to face contact with elected official groups
2)Indirect/grass roots-mount public info campaign trying to stimulate interest of public in hoping interest will influence descision making used by public relation firm.
3)Political Interest group-any private group that attempt to organize and influence public policy
Who said political interest groups "shared attitude group that make certain claims against other groups in society if/when it makes these claims through or upon any of the institutions of govt it is a political interest group"
David Trueman
Different types of interest groups?
1)Business-most representative and organized
2)Labor-well organized
3)Agriculural-lobby for interest of ag
6)Cause-lobby narrow no win issues
Interest group resources
variety of diff resources that directly impact amt of influece that a group has in political system.
1)resource size, cohesive, geographic, disturbtion of group
3)skills of leadership
4)prestige of leders
5)intensity of member conviction
6)appropriateness of group goals
Iron Triangle
3 way alliance between a bureaucratic agency, interest group and congress
How are most policies made?
Through and iron triangle
Political Action Committee
Fund raising of a private organization raises founds to suport candidates/initatives. Allowed to be established under Fed Elect Campaign Act of 1971
Soft money
those unregulated dollars
hard dollars
regulated dollars by election commision donated for party building etc
Independent expenditure
expense by group independent of campaign no coordination with candidate or staff
Issue Ad
Ad's independent expenditure can't expressly advocate voting for or against a candidate or party
Ethics in govt act of 1978
attempt by congress to lessen influence of lobbyist and subsequently $ in political system, prohibits sr. govt official from lobbying, their former agency period of up to 2 years
Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995
update of lobbying regulations of 1946. Lessen influence of $ & special interst groups in political system on certain types of gifts legislators can recieve from lobbyists.
Peak Association
organization made up of smaller organziations nat'l assoc. of manufactures in 13,000. Form of a group v. a group AFLACID, NCAA
What is a political party?
Non govt indentity who wants to put their own in office
Political parties
left out of constitution because of madison
Political parties are a very impt part of our american political system despite the fact that it is completely left out of what?
the constitution
Washington had no party affiliation until 1853 when Franklin Pierce was in office since then every prez has been?
A repub or democrat
USA political system is a ___________?
two party system
minor political party
any party not democrat or repub; emered fo variety of reasons; minor 2 replace major Repub replace Whigs
Convention at the Nat'l level
held every 4 years to select party electorate for prez
Party Platform
statement of party intentions
Levels of parties
1) party in the electorate-loose assoc of voters
2)party as an organization-various organization of party (RNC/DNC) occur at natl/state
3)Party in govt-govt is organized around a party
Partys are?
hierarchial only in structure
US's two party system is
favor govt regulation of economy and social programs
favor less gov regulation of economy, favor increase defense spending, no welfare policy, no govt'l policy based on in equality

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