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Essentials of Psychology Ch. 7: Thought, Language, and Intelligence


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Brian, a mechanic, is examining a car that doesn't run. He is paying close attention to the car as he compares what he sees with information in his long-term memory. Brian's actions represent which stage of the information-processing model?
An equilateral triangle has three equal sides and three angles that measure 60 degrees. An object that has these qualities is definitely an equilateral triangle. An object that does not have these qualities is not an equilateral triangle. An equilateral
A formal concept.
Prototype is to concept as ______________ is to _______________.
Fearing that the melted wax would fall into the cake, Avery's mother decided not to light the candles on his birthday cake. Consequently, two-year-old Avery, who was expecting to blow out the candles, began to howl. His disappointment was due to a discre
Event script.
On Halloween, Sam and Diego went trick-or-treating. Sam rushed off to the houses that gave out candy last year. Diego methodically combed the neighborhood, checking every house for candy. Sam got home from trick-or-treating in about an hour. Diego got ho
Heuristic; algorithm.
When Suzanne signed up for psychology class, she thought psychologists related everything to sex. After taking a course showing that psychologists relate very few things to sex, Suzanne reduced her estimate. She now says psychologists relate every other
The anchoring heuristic.
After seeing the movie Titanic, Lena refused a friend's invitation to go on a sea cruise. Lena's fear may be explained in terms of the
Availability heuristic.
Dr. Abeyta told his students that the history test would be an essay exam and that memorizing names and dates would be useless. In spite of the teacher's warning, Joey studied by memorizing names and dates, since he had passed all his high school history
A mental set.
Which of the following is an example of functional fixedness?
Tyler doesn't notice that her set of brass knuckles can also be used as a paperweight.
While hiking through the woods, Martin led the Boy Scout troop on what he thought was the trail that led to the camp. Even though it soon became obvious to the boys that they were walking in the wrong direction, and that there were no more trail markings
Confirmation bias.
Sang has decided to attend a small private school rather than a large state university. He believes that, even though he will pay higher tuition costs, the smaller classes will allow him to learn more and eventually lead to a better job. Sang's choice of
Expected value.
On average, Michael has made about 50 percent of his shots during his basketball career. During one of his poorer games, a sports announcer said, "Michael has missed his last eight shots, so I would guess that there's about an 80 percent chance that
The gambler's fallacy.
Jennifer took a test that asked her to read a short story and then come up with as many apt titles for it as she could in a short span of time. Jennifer was being tested for
Divergent thinking.
A school task force was formed to deal with the problem of gang activity. of the the beginning of the meeting, a member proposed that students wearing gang insignia should receive detentions. If group polarization had occurred, by the end of the meeting
The final resolution would have turned out to be more extreme, perhaps involving an indefinite suspension for those who wear gang insignia.
Which of the following exemplifies the telegraphic speech that is typical of a 20-month-old?
"Give Bottle."
June has developed an intelligence test. She gives it to a group of subjects and then gives the same test to the same students three months later to see how consistent the scoring is. What feature of the test is June checking?
Roger thinks that the heavier a hamster is, the more intelligent it is. In order to see if a hamster is smart, Roger weighs it on a scale. Roger's method of estimating hamsters' intelligence is
Reliable but invalid.
The role of genetics in intelligence can be seen most clearly in which of the following?
Identical twins, separately adopted at birth, score similarly on IQ tests when grown.
According to Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, a poet is to ________ intelligence, as a popular politician is to ________ intelligence.
Linguistic; personal.
Which of the following would be classified in Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence as analytic?
Knowing how to prove a math theorem.
True / False

As long as our logic is perfect, we will come to the right conclusion.
True / False

Using algorithms and heuristics will always lead us to the right conclusion.
True / False

Computers can think as well as people.
True / False

Groups always make better decisions and solve problems more effectively than do individuals.
True / False

Children learn language by imitation.
True / False

IQ tests are not a valid measure of how smart a person is.
True / False

About 50 percent of an IQ score is inherited and 50 percent learned.
True / False

Mainstreaming is necessary for retarded children to achieve their maximum potential.
A mental grouping of objects, events, or ideas with common features is called a
Which of the following would enable you to find your way in the dark?
A cognitive map.
The difference between natural concepts and formal concepts is that
The rules defining formal concepts are clear-cut, whereas those of natural concepts are not.
Deductive reasoning differs from inductive reasoning in that only deductive reasoning
Applies a general rule to reach a conclusion.
What is the name for the mental shortcut that is used when the likelihood of an event is judged by its similarity to a prototype?
The representativeness heuristic.
Bashir faced the imposing challenge of writing a research proposal. To manage this project, he broke it down into several smaller projects. One day, he wrote the introduction. The next day, he summarized his theory. He did a little each day, and soon he
Unlike the other problem-solving strategies, incubation is effective because it allows one to
Forget the old, inappropriate ways of solving a problem.
The tendency to ignore information that contradicts one's thinking is called
The confirmation bias.
Jill took an exam that tested her ability to use divergent thinking. This exam most likely measured
Mei is a creative thinker. Which of the following is most likely true about her?
She is willing to take risks.
Six-year-old David and his eight-year-old sister Beth love to work with clay. One day, their uncle announces that he's going to pay each of them a dollar every time that they create what he considers a masterpiece. According to the research on motivation
Become less creative than before.
In problem solving, groups outperform individuals on which type of problem?
One that has an obvious answer.
A twenty-one-year-old man who had never been exposed to language was found on a small island in the Pacific. Although experts worked with him for years, he never attained the language ability normal for his age. The story of this young man is consistent
A critical period.
Juan speaks Spanish and English and is considered a balanced bilingual. He would most likely display
More cognitive flexibility and creativity than people who are not bilingual.
Jim took an IQ test last year and received an IQ score of 100. What does Jim's 100 IQ score mean?
His raw score on the test was average for his age group.
When a test is standardized, it means that
Every child taking the test will be presented with the same items under similar conditions.
Which of Gardner's multiple intelligences are measured by standard IQ tests?
Spatial, linguistic, and logical-mathematical.
In Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligence is composed of which three factors?
Analytic, creative, and practical.
Ten-year-old Joseph is intellectually gifted with an IQ of 150. His cousin Andrew has an average IQ of 100. Applying the findings of the Terman Study of the intellectually gifted, one can predict that when they're adults
Andrew would be more likely than Joseph to suffer from mental illness.
Bud took an IQ test and received a score of 65. Which of the following options is most consistent with his apparent level of intellectual functioning?
He should be able to hold an unskilled job and maintain a family.

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