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what is growth influenced by
genes and environment
when does teething begin
3-4 months
when do teeth first show
6 months
how many teeth at first bday
6-8 teeth
what direction is growth
top to bottom, inner to outter
describe growth in first three years
faster than ever in life, first few months especially
by what month does baby's weight double
fifth month
describe weight by age 1
3 times the amount at birth
is a wet nurse as healthy as breast feeding
full of antibodies(clear liquid) will only be produced by mother who just gave birth.
what are the recommendations about the first year regarding breastfeeding
recommended first year
is breast mild more or less digestable
more digestable
are formulas better than breastfeeding
will never be as good as breast feeding even though there are many choices today as well as many vitamins
what do they say about cows milk
recommended after first bday.
what do pediatricians recommend for milk
whole milk
what kind of solid foods are recommended for babies
do they say fruit or veggies first and why
veggies first cuz they don't taste as good
how many months before juice is recommened
6 months
can a child be obese just because their parents are obese
yes, if both parents are diagnosed as obese
age what age of a child being obese can it mean that they might grow up to be obese
age 3
is cholesterol being found in children?
at what age is a low cholesteral diet being recommended
8 months
fatty substance buildup on the inner lining of arteries
what is the central nervous system
how bodies receive information. how we know what to do
brain growth spurts
rapid production of cells. help develop cognitively.
tendency of 1/2 of brain to specialize in something.
left half of brain
langague, logical thinking
right half of brain
visual awareness, spacial
do left handed ppl do somethings better than right handed people
neuron cells
send and recieve information.
support and protect neurons
lubes up track so information can be sent really quick. lubes everytime information is sent so infor is sent quicker and quicker everytime.
what does myelination occur
stimulation of the brain...very important in babies
molding of the brain through experiences
what happens in connections are not made early in life
it may be impossible
reflex behavior
enate things we have no control over
infants are born with how many reflexes
what are the first sense to develop
touch and pain.
what is the most mature sense for first few months
touch and pain.
can a baby feel pain prenataly
can a baby smell and taste in utero
how do they know that a baby can smell and taste in utero
they have a sucking reflex, strong with sweet and weak with bitter.
by how many weeks can a baby tell the difference in mothers breast pad and another woman's
6 weaks, sense of smell
do babies have hearing in utero?
yes, reading to belly, headphones
least developed at birth.
size of eyes at birth
very small
optic nerve at birth
peripheral vision at birth
very narrow
how many inches away can a baby focus on
6 inches
can a baby see color at birth
no, not for a few months
binocular vision
eyes working together
how many months till a baby has binocular vision
4-5 months
how many months till a baby has vision cliff
4-5 months, did the study with bed-plexy glass, child did not jump
head control at birth
on back,
side to side on belly
head control at 2-3 months
lift head higher and higher
head control at 4 months
holds head erect when held/sitting proped up
hand control at birth
grasping reflex
hand control at 3.5 months
grab hand. hand transfer
hand control at 7-11 months
pincer grasp, tiny tiny things
hand control 15 months
2 cube
hand controlat 3 years
can copy circle
locomotion at 3 months
back, front roll
locomotion at 6 mths
sit with support
locomotion at 8.5 mths
sit w/o support
locomotion at 6-10 mths
locomotion at 7 mths
stand with help
locomotion at 11 mths
stand alone
locomotion at 1 yr
locomotion at 2 years
climb stairs, run, jump
infant mortality rate
portion of babies that die if first year of life.
sudden infant death syndrome, cant explain why baby died. linked to smoking in the house, but not the reason
intelligent behavior
goal oriented, reason for actions
change based on environment
behaviorist approach
mechanics of learning. how a behavior changes. respond to stimuli.
classical conditioning
blink when someone pushes button on camera, expect flash
operant conditioning
learned behavior based on punishment or reward
psychometric approach
IQ tests, standardized tests
0-1 month reflexes
1-4 months
primary circulary reactions. repeat pleasureable behaviors
4-8 months
secondary circulary reactions. repeat pleasureable behaviors that bring results
8-12 mths
coordination of secondary schemes. intentional behaviors. remember anticipated events.
12-18 mths
tertiary circular reactions. trial and error. explor environment to learn new things.
18-24 months
mental combinations. symbolic thoughts. mental representations. no more trial and error.
object permanence
child can remember something that they can't see in front of them. they rememeber it's there.
ob.per. 4-8 mths
out of sight, out of mind
ob.per. 8-12 mnths
look for object in place they 1st saw it (AB Error) even if they see it moved.
ob.per. 12-18 mths
search where they saw it hidden, but not where they never saw it hidden.
ob.per. 18-24 mths
search wherever, regardless of where they've seen in/not seen it.
Information Processing
observing and analyzing mental processes. what they do with their info. perception, learning, memory, prob. solving
kind of learning where a child becomes familiar with something, they become less interested in it.
visual preference
prefere to look at one thing over another
visual recognition memeory
ability to see and recognize things you've seen before. 6mths-1 year. shows memory
cognitive neuroscience
mechanics of the brain. stucture. what parts are involved in cognitive processes.
study of the brain
explicit memory
intentional, conscious. names, events, facts, study
implicit memeory
unconcious recall, habits, reflexs. develops earlier
social contextual approach
how environment have effect on learning. parents, caregivers play role in cognitive development.
guided participation
mutal interaltion, baby coos, mama coos mama smiles, baby smiles
ability to read and write
prelinguistic speech
sounds, not words
linguistic speech
convey meaning, words
newbors only way to communicate needs. way of talking
cooing, what age, what does it mean
6wks -3 mths. happiness
3-6 mths
playing with sounds copies inflextions they hear. lower lone if hears dad alot
6-10 mths
babbling, wake up and alone. could be symbolism.
7 mths
first word
one word that represents a sentence. juice
t/f children understand a lot more than they can say
16-24 mnths
language explosion. 50-400 common words
18-24 mths
telegraphic speech. a few key words dady bye work.
rules for grammar
20-30 mths
articles, prepositions, conjugate verbs, simple rules of grammar.
problem with simple rules of grammar
in eng, is hard with many exceptions.
over regularizing rule
mouses instead of mice
underextending meaning of words.
his carcar is blue and white. a red car cannot be carcar. only one
overextending meaning of word
anything furry and with four legs is a cat
BF Skinner's thoery of language
we learn language through opperant conditioning. positive and negative feedback.
nativism. known for language aquisition device. part of brain allows us to understand all rules and then we can speak that language when our LAD has figured it all out.
a way adults speak to children. repeat, high pitched, slow simple.
reactions to experiences when there's a change. infant cries, or smiles
self awareness
a child realizes that they are separate from environment. starts at 15-20 mths
the way we aproach, interact with situations. 1. easy-go with the flow. 2.. difficult- irritable. intense resopnses, emotions. 3. slow to warm up. 4. goodness of fit.
gender typing process
children learn behavior that the society think is good for child to know. comfort level
relationszhip between infant and caregiver
stranger situation
test use to study infants
secure attachment
child will cry when mom leaves but when mom comes back, they with is happy
avoident attachment
when mom leaves
ambivalent resistant attachment
wants to be picked up, then wants to be put down. never happy.
disorganized/disoriented attachment
no eye contact
stranger anxiety
dev. around 6 mths. and older. child sees someone they don't recognize in the comfort of someoen they do know. good thing-there's memory
separation anxiety
trusted caregiver leaves the picture. can last years where child gets very upset about being left.
mutual regulation
infants and caregives have ability to communicate their emotional state to eachother and respond. very young infants can know adults feelings
still faced paradign
infants and mom. engage in mutual regulation then shut it off and do stil faced. observe. babies find a way to sooththemselves. stopped trying to make mom smile.
social referencing
child looks to others/ environment to see how to behave or to see if they even want to be there. (looking around at fancy restaurant to see what fork to use) (child falls then looks around to see who's watching to see if they should cry)
self concept
the way you percieve yourself
3 step sequence in self concept
1. physical self recognition (18-24 mths)
2. self description/ evaluation. talk about ourselves (19- 30 mths). super positive evaluation.
3. emotional response to something they did wrong. developing conscience 2nd year.
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
toddlers who want to do it themselves vs. doubting they can. toilet training. will take initiative in developing.
saying no, 2 yrs-6 yrs
process of learning habits, skills, value system. becoming productive members of society
child accepts society standards. hear the rules and values and begin to internalize them. dont' steal, dont' yell in restauratns.
self regulation
children control over own behavior in order to conform to society. have to control over right from wrong.
produces discomfort when violated
committed compliance
obediance when socity/parents are not looking. committed to doing the righ tthing.
situational compliance
only when someone is watching
mutual responsive relationship where child wil be socialized. warm reciprocal relationship it fosters committed compliance.
contact with other children
siblings arrive
when new baby arrives
old sibling may not want baby. mom talks to baby more than older child. use of more orders instad of talking things through
sibling interaction
can be negative in beginning. fighting as baby gets older. langage increases. negotiation skills become better
non sibling
how do children learn at 18-,mths and older
from peers
conflic resolution begins at what age
3, with adult intervention
are caregives better than stay at home moms?
ongoing debate.
what is teh best determinate in child environmetn

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