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chapter 14 and 15


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Halo Effect
The tendency for a general impression of a person to influence our perception of any aspect of that person.
A collection of the student's work in area, showing growth, self-refletion, and achievement.
Objective Testing
multiple choice, matching, true/false, short-answer, and fill in tests; scoring answers does not require interpretation.
formative test for assessing student's knowledge, readiness, and abilities
Formative Assessment
ungraded testing used before or during instruction to aid in planning and diagnosis
Norm-Referenced Testing
testing in which scores are compared with the average performance of others
Norm Groups
A group whose average score serves as a standard for evaluating any students score on a test
Standardized Tests
Tests given, usually nationwide, under uniform conditions and scores according to uniform procedures
Criterion Referenced Testing
Testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard
Norming Sample
large sample of students serving as a comparison group for scoring standardized tests
Frequency Distribution
record showing how many scores fall into set groups
bar graph of a frequency distribution
most frequently occuring score
Central Tendency
typical score for a group of scores
Standard Deviation
measure of how widely scores vary from the mean
degree of difference or deviation from the mean
distance between the highest and lowest scores in a group
Normal Distribution
the most commonly occurring distribution, in which scores are distributed evenly around the mean
Percentile Rank
percentage of those in the norming sample who scored at or below an individual's score
Grade-Equivalent Score
measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade
Standard Scores
scores based on the standard deviation
Stanine Scores
whole number scores from 1 to 9 each representing a wide range of raw scores
consistency of test results
True Score
hypothetical average of all of an individual's scores if repreated testing under ideal conditions were possible
Standard Error of Measurement
hypothetical estimate of variation in scores if testing were repeated
Confidence Interval
range of scores within which an individual's particular score is likely to fall
degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
Assessment Bias
qualities of an assessment instrument that offend or unfairly penalize a group of students because of the students gender, SES, race, ethnicity, etc.
Achievement Tests
standardized tests measuring how much students have learned in a given content area
Diagnostic Tests
formative tests to determine students' areas of weakness. Also, individually administered tests to identify special learning problems.
Aptitude Tests
tests meant to predict future performance
decision making about student performance and about appropriate teaching strategies
an evaluation expressed in quantitative number terms
procedures used to obtain info about student performance

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