# chapter 14 and 15

## Terms

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- Halo Effect
- The tendency for a general impression of a person to influence our perception of any aspect of that person.
- Portfolio
- A collection of the student's work in area, showing growth, self-refletion, and achievement.
- Objective Testing
- multiple choice, matching, true/false, short-answer, and fill in tests; scoring answers does not require interpretation.
- Pretest
- formative test for assessing student's knowledge, readiness, and abilities
- Formative Assessment
- ungraded testing used before or during instruction to aid in planning and diagnosis
- Norm-Referenced Testing
- testing in which scores are compared with the average performance of others
- Norm Groups
- A group whose average score serves as a standard for evaluating any students score on a test
- Standardized Tests
- Tests given, usually nationwide, under uniform conditions and scores according to uniform procedures
- Criterion Referenced Testing
- Testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard
- Norming Sample
- large sample of students serving as a comparison group for scoring standardized tests
- Frequency Distribution
- record showing how many scores fall into set groups
- Histogram
- bar graph of a frequency distribution
- Mean
- average
- Mode
- most frequently occuring score
- Central Tendency
- typical score for a group of scores
- Standard Deviation
- measure of how widely scores vary from the mean
- Variability
- degree of difference or deviation from the mean
- range
- distance between the highest and lowest scores in a group
- Normal Distribution
- the most commonly occurring distribution, in which scores are distributed evenly around the mean
- Percentile Rank
- percentage of those in the norming sample who scored at or below an individual's score
- Grade-Equivalent Score
- measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade
- Standard Scores
- scores based on the standard deviation
- Stanine Scores
- whole number scores from 1 to 9 each representing a wide range of raw scores
- Reliability
- consistency of test results
- True Score
- hypothetical average of all of an individual's scores if repreated testing under ideal conditions were possible
- Standard Error of Measurement
- hypothetical estimate of variation in scores if testing were repeated
- Confidence Interval
- range of scores within which an individual's particular score is likely to fall
- Validity
- degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
- Assessment Bias
- qualities of an assessment instrument that offend or unfairly penalize a group of students because of the students gender, SES, race, ethnicity, etc.
- Achievement Tests
- standardized tests measuring how much students have learned in a given content area
- Diagnostic Tests
- formative tests to determine students' areas of weakness. Also, individually administered tests to identify special learning problems.
- Aptitude Tests
- tests meant to predict future performance
- Evaluation
- decision making about student performance and about appropriate teaching strategies
- Measurement
- an evaluation expressed in quantitative number terms
- Asessment
- procedures used to obtain info about student performance