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Psych 346 - exam 3


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decreasing accessibility of information over time
entails inattentive or shallow processing that contributes to weak memories of ongoing events of forgetting to do things in the future
the temporary inaccessibility of information that is stored in memory
attributing a recollection or idea to the wrong source
refers to memories that are implanted as a result of leading questions or comments during attempts to recall past experiences
involves retrospective distortions and unconscious influences that are related to current knowledge and beliefs
Pathological remembrances: information or events that we can not forget, even though we wish we could
How are the 7 memory sins grouped?
1. Transience, absentmindedness, blocking --> different types of forgetting 2. Misattribution, suggestibility, bias --> different types of distortions, inaccuracy 3. Persistence --> intrusive recollections that are difficult to forget
For each sin – what cognitive process is involved, what is the adaptive value/beneficial aspect of cognition working this way, how does it go wrong to lead to the “sin”
See outline.
Timecourse of forgetting / retention function
• Poorly learned and well learned material → rapid at first then slows, logarithmic graph • Forgetting increases as time progresses • 1st described by Ebbinghaus
Factors that influence forgetting and recovery
• Better initial learning → better retention (will be more in permastore) • Recall vs. recognition → recognition is better because you have the cue restraints (both have slow decline, but recognition is less so than recall)
• Refers to the stable memory over time • Things that get into the permastore→ things better initially learned
Jost’s law, spontaneous recovery, and the timecourse of RI and PI
See outline.
Factors that influence response competition/interference
⬢ Similarity: The more similar something is, the harder it is to remember ⬢ Strength: The item with the greatest strength to the cue will be more easily remembered, while the others will have a more difficult time being remembered. ⬢ Number: The greater number there is, the harder it is to remember
Reminiscence and hypermnesia; factors that influence accuracy
See outline.
Theoretical explanations of forgetting
see outline.
Retrieval induced forgetting
see outline.
Part-set cueing, directed forgetting
see outline.
Think/no-think and brain activation patterns
• SUPPRESSION: o Activates some brain regions and deactivates others. • Activation in DLPFC → suggests suppression. • RESPOND: o Hippocampus activated → making associations • When comparing the suppression trials: o People who showed the most inhibition of the to-be-suppressed items showed greatest HC activation o ...And more activation in the Right and Left DLPFC for the to-be-suppressed items.
Aging vs. AD
see outline.
Areas affected by AD
• Damaged: Hippocampus → associations • Disease starts in the entorhinal cortex in the MTL. This cuts of the HC from the rest of the brain.
Progressive nature of AD – which functions are affected early/late in the disease
• First to go → Last to go o Episodic memory → Working memory, visuospatial perception, remote memory→ →Praxis →Language
Treatments and how they have their effects
• Medications: stop the break down of acetylcholine that is lacking in people with AD. • Errorless learning and fading cues to teach skills that will keep patient in good care as disease advances o Rely on implicit and procedural memories (memories still in tact with a person with AD) • Cognitive Problems are typically not most distressing, so try to find ways to help patients and carers cope with social and emotional distresses of AD o Reality orientation training (ROT) • Helps patient in later stages of dementia help maintain a sense of time and place • Reminiscence therapy: o Version of ROT o Use photographs and other reminders of past lives to help those with demtnia • ****SUMMARY: o errorless learning → helps with acquiring new information • The diaries and such
Methods of classifying amnesia
• By disorder o Pro: learn more and have a greater understanding for the disorder o Con: patients may have different behavior/patterns of damage • By damage o Pro: help determine the brain regions are involved in memory o Con: not all damage is “clean” and specific; may be hard to fully detect or characterize • By functional deficit o Pro: understand the memory functions better o Con: pure patients are very rare, may be multiple ways to get to the same memory functional defecit
Different types/sources of amnesia (e.g., psychogenic vs Korsakoff’s vs TBI)
see outline.
Stages of TBI
• 1. Coma (if severe enough) • 2. Recovering consciousness → PTA (post traumatic amnesia) • 3. **Discover personal knowledge • 4. Place • 5. temporal orientation
Methods of assessing and treating amnesia
• Lab tests are good, but it’s hard to get to measure real life situations • Diaries and questionnaires → sometimes people forget what they forgot o Have to clarify with a third source for accuracy • Rivermead Behavioral test o Tries to bring real life behaviors into lab…effort to make ecologically valid o Much higher correlation about complaints about everyday memory o The test? • Experiment hides object belonging to patient and says later tell him where it’s hidden (prospective memory—memory for the future) • OR experimenter traces a route around the examination room; delayed recall also involves remembering to deliver a message at a pre-specified point on the route
Development & decline of brain regions and how those are related to development & decline of memory function
see outline.
Memory in infants (Rovee-Collier experiments)
see outline.
How to encourage memory development
see outline.
Development of semantic memory & gist-based processing; advantages and disadvantages Infantile amnesia
see outline
Situations in which older adults have better memory function than young adults
see outline.
Relative effect sizes of age differences in memory (e.g., item vs source or associations)
see outline
Cognitive control & older adults’ memory function: self-initiation, compensation, environmental support
see outline.
Brain activation patterns (children?)
see outline

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