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Things to Remember


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copy deck
5 radiopacities
define primary center of ossificiation
1st site where mineralization occurs, usually at center of long bone, marked by nutrient foramen
define secondary centers of ossificiation
later sites of mineralization (epiphyses, apophyses), ex. supraglenoid tubercle
What spinal cord segments contribute to brachial plexus?
C6, C7, C8, T1, T2
What spinal cord segments contribute to lumbosacral plexus?
L4, L5, L6, L7, S1, S2, S3
What is the key nerve which allows animal to bear weight on thoracic limb?
radial n.
What is the key nerve which allows animal to bear weight on pelvic limb?
femoral n.
What do the superficial cervical lymph nodes drain?
superficial neck, lymph nodes of head, most of thoracic limb, craniodorsal thoracic wall
What do the axillary lymph nodes drain?
medial proximal thoracic limb, cranial mammae, accessory axillary ln (if present)
What do the popliteal lymph nodes drain?
distal pelvic limb
What do the superficial inguinal lymph nodes drain?
ventral abdomen, caudal mammae, genitalia, medial pelvic limb
What is the blood supply to the diaphragm?
caudal phrenic a.
What is the blood supply to the liver?
hepatic branches of hepatic a.
What is the blood supply to the lesser curvature of the stomach?
R & L gastric aa.
What is the blood supply to the greater curvature of the stomach?
R & L gastroepiploic aa.
What is the blood supply to the descending duodenum?
cranial & caudal pancreaticoduodenal aa.
What is the blood supply to the jejunum?
jejunal aa.
What is the blood supply to the ileum?
antimesenteric branch of cecal a., ileal a.
What is the blood supply to the colon?
ileocolic a.
What is the blood supply to the rectum?
cranial rectal a.
What is the blood supply to the pancreas?
cranial & caudal pancreaticoduodenal aa.
What is the blood supply to the kidneys?
renal aa.
What is the blood supply to the testes?
testicular aa.
What is the blood supply to the ovaries/uterus?
ovarian aa.
define the line of pleural reflection & its importance
8th to 9th costal arch curving dorsally to last rib

line along which costal pleural is reflected to become diaphragmatic pleura

must be cranial to line to enter thoracic cavity (for thoracocentesis)
where would you perform thoracocentesis in a dog & cat?
enter costodiaphragmatic recess: where costal & diaphragmatic pleura contact w/o intervening lung

do both sides

dog: 7th or 8th ICS at CCJ

cat: 8th ICS at CCJ
What do the mediastinal lymph nodes drain?
thoracic viscera & wall
What do the tracheobronchial lymph nodes drain?
Where is the cardiac notch & what is it used for?
site for cardiac puncture (R ventricle not covered b’twn cranial & middle lung lobes)

R side: 4th to 5th ICS close to sternum (ventral)
What are the points of maximal intensity for the 4 heart valves?
pulmonic: L 3rd ICS at CCJ
aortic: L 4th ICS above CCJ
left AV: L 5th ICS at CCJ
right AV: R 4th ICS at CCJ
What is the approximate location of the heart in the dog & cat?
in middle mediastinum, to L of midline

dog: 3rd-6th ICS

cat: 4th-7th ICS
What is the pathogenesis of PDA?
d/t failure of closure of ductus arteriosus

shunt from L to R side of heart --> blood from higher pressure aorta continuously shunted to main pulmonary a. --> inc. volume of blood to lungs --> pulmonary edema, volume overload to left heart
What is happening with the heart sounds S1 (lub) & S2 (dub)?
S1: AV valves closing

S2: aortic & pulmonic valves closing
What is the heart doing during systole?
ventricles are contracting & ejecting blood
What is the heart doing during diastole?
ventricles are relaxing & filling
What is meant by valvular stenosis & insufficiency (regurgitation)?
stenosis: valve doesn’t OPEN completely

insufficiency (regurgitation): valve doesn’t CLOSE tightly
What are the attachments of the broad ligament?
female repro tract to dorsolateral body wall
What is the round ligament of females?
lateral free edge of mesometrium (uterus, cervix, cranial vagina to body wall)
What are the attachments of the suspensory ligament?
ovary to body wall
What are the attachments of the proper ligament?
ovary to uterine horn
What are the contents of the spermatic cord?
ductus deferens & blood supply

testicular a,v,n (pampiniform plexus)

lymphatic drainage of testes


vaginal tunic (NOT cremaster m.)
What are the clinical signs of a LMN lesion?
hyporeflexia --> areflexia

hypotonia --> atonia

paresis --> flaccid paralysis
What are the clinical signs of an UMN lesion?
hyperreflexia --> clonus

hypertonia --> tetany

spastic paresis --> paralysis
What are the clinical signs of a cerebellar lesion?
intention tremors
What are the clinical signs of a vestibular lesion?
head tilt
What are the 3 layers of meninges, from external to internal?
dura mater
pia mater
What are the 5 components required for a reflex to occur?
sensory neuron
motor neuron
What signs would be expected with a spinal cord lesion in segments C1-C5?
normal to UMN signs to forelimbs, hindlimbs
What signs would be expected with a spinal cord lesion in segments C6-T2?
LMN signs to forelimbs; normal to UMN sings to hindlimbs
What signs would be expected with a spinal cord lesion in segments T3-L3?
forelimbs normal; normal to UMN sings to hindlimbs
What signs would be expected with a spinal cord lesion in segments L4-S3?
forelimbs normal; LMN signs to hindlimbs, anus
What signs would be expected with a spinal cord lesion in segments Cd1-Cd5?
forelimbs, hindlimbs normal; LMN signs to tail
What are the 5 divisions of the brain?
telencephalon (cerebrum)
mesencephalon (mid-brain)
metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)
myelencephalon (medulla oblongata)
What divisions of the brain make up the brain stem?
diencephalon, mesencephalon, pons, myelencephalon
What is the vertebral formula for the dog & cat?
C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd18-20
What are the 2 main parts of an intervertebral disk?
annulus fibrosis: outer circumferential collagneous fibers

nucleous pulposus: inner gelatinous core
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve I?


What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve II?


What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve III?

sensory & motor

extraocular mm., autonomic motor to iris & ciliary body mm.
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve IV?


dorsal oblique m. (eye)
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve V?

sensory & motor

sensory to head, motor to muscles of mastication
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve VI?


lateral rectus, retractor bulbi mm. (eye)
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve VII?

sensory & motor

sensory for taste, concave surface of pinna
motor to facial mm.
autonomic motor to some salivary & lacrimal glands
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve VIII?


hearing, equilibrium
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve IX?

sensory & motor

sensory to pharynx for taste
motor to pharyngeal mm.
autonomic motor to salivary glands
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve X?

sensory & motor

sensory to tongue for taste; to pharynx, esophagus, GI tract
motor to mm. of pharynx, esophagus, larynx
autonomic motor to heart, lungs, gut
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve XI?


muscles of thoracic limb
What is the name, function, and innervation of cranial nerve XII?


tongue mm.
What are the 3 branches of CN V?
CN V: trigeminal n.

maxillary, mandibular, ophthalmic nn.
What is the dental formula for dogs - DECIDUOUS teeth?
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/3
What is the dental formula for dogs - PERMANENT teeth?
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3
What is the dental formula for cats - DECIDUOUS teeth?
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2
What is the dental formula for cats - PERMANENT teeth?
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1
How many roots do permanent teeth have in the dog?
incisors, canines: 1 root

Upper: P1 has 1 root, P2, P3 have 2 roots, P4, M1, M2 have 3 roots
(1 has 1, 2 have 2, 3 have 3)

Lower: P1 has 1 root, P2, P3, P4, M1, M2 have 2 roots, M3 has 1 root
(1st & last have 1, rest have 2)
How many roots do permanent teeth have in the cat?
incisors, canines: 1 root

Upper: P2 has 1 root, P3 has 2 roots, P4 has 3 roots, M1 has 2 roots
(1, 2, 3, 2)

Lower: All have 2 roots
What is the vector for Ehrlichia canis & what type of host cell does it infect?
vector: brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguines)

infects monocytes
What is the agent that causes Lyme dz & what is its vector?
Borrelia burgodorferi

deer tick (Ixodes scapularis)
What is the agent that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever & what is its vector?
Rickettsia rickettsii

American dog tick (Dermacentor variablis)
What agent causes cat scratch disease & what is the likely vector?
Bartonella henselae

vector: flea
What are 3 primary causative agent of cutaneous dermatophytosis in dogs & cats?
1. Microsporum canis (dog, cat)
2. Microsporum gypseum (dog; does NOT fluoresce)
3. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (cat)
What are the 3 main types of cartilage?
hyaline cartilage

elastic cartilage

Which cells are responsible for the formation of bone?
Which cells degrade bone?
What is intramembranous ossification?
replacement of loose CT w/ bone
What is endochondrial ossification?
rreplacement of preformed hyaline cartilage model w/ bone
What type of bone is found in the adult skeleton?
lamellar (layered)

subdivided into compact (cortical) & spongy (cancellous)
What is the immature type of bone that is later replaced in the adult?
woven bone
What is the name for an immature red blood cell?
What is the function of a ribosome?
translate mRNA into protein
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
segregates proteins made by ribosomes that will be exported from cell
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
synth. of steroid hormones & lipoproteins
What is the function of the Golgi complex?
modifies & packages newly translated proteins

membrane trafficking
What is the function of a lysosome?
recycling center of cell

protein metabolism

destruction of ingested material
What is the function of the mitochondria?
center or energy production
What is the most common cell type in connective tissue & what is its function?

synthesis of CT fibers & ground substance
What is the organizational scheme of the GI tract layers, starting w/ most internal layer?
muscularis mucosa
adventitia (sometimes bounded by serosa)
What are the layers of the epidermis, starting w/ most superficial layer?
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale
What is meant by viremic spread of a virus?
spread via the bloodstream
What is a modified live vaccine?
attenuated virus (not pathogenic for vaccinated animal) that retains antigenicity & ability to replicate
What are 4 advantages of modified live vaccines?
-stimulate immunity comparable to natural infection
-efficient stimulators of local & systemic immunity (IgA, IgG, T cells)
-single dose required (replication of virus amplifies dose)
-may be applied by natural route, thus stimulating local immunity
What are 3 disadvantages of modified live vaccines?
-may cause rxn (dz) d/t insufficient attenuation
-possible reversion to virulence
-unstable (may be inactivated by heat, disinfectant, UV)
What are killed (inactivated) vaccines?
composed of viruses that are cultivated in cell culture or embryonated eggs & treated w/ chemicals or by physical means (heat, irradiation, etc.) to destroy infectivity
What are 2 advantages of killed vaccines?
What are 4 disadvantages of killed vaccines?
-multiple doses required (ex. RV)
-protection usually of shorter duration than w/ MLV
-poor stimulators of IgA, T cell immunity
-often require adjuvants to increase immunogenicity
What is a subunit vaccine?
composed of viral capsid or envelope proteins instead of intact virions
At what age do puppies & kittens lose their passively acquired Ab's from mom?
2-3 months
What is a recombinant DNA subunit vaccine?
gene for protective antigen from virus inserted into DNA of cloning vectors (bacteriophages, plasmids)

protective antigen: surface protein of virus that elicits production of Ab’s &/or T cells that provide protective immunity
What are 5 advantages of recombinant DNA subunit vaccines?
-safe: lack virulence & lack ability to revert to virulence
-effective: good stimulators of IgG, IgA, & T cell responses
-don’t produce potentially severe rxns
-can make vaccines for viruses that can’t be propagated in cell culture or eggs
-no adjuvant needed
What is a gene deleted vaccine?
removal of certain viral genes that promote virulence w/out harming replication & immunogenic properties of virus
What is a virus vectored vaccine?
DNA copies of viral genes coding for protective antigen inserted into DNA of other viruses (cloning vectors, ex. vaccinia virus)
What is an important fact about corona viruses that may make dx difficult?
antigenic cross-reactivity:

several viruses infect several species & induce Ab’s which may exacerbate dz by facilitating infection of MP’s
-ex. cats can be infected w. canine CV (CCV) & transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) of pigs

some viruses are indistinguishable antigenically, making it hard to interpret serum Ab titers
-(ex. FIPV vs. FECV)
What percentage of the healthy cat population have Ab's against FIP/FECV (feline enteric corona virus)?
What is the pathogenesis of FIP if no cell mediated immune response occurs?
WET form

intense inflammation, complement fixation --> vessel wall damage --> peritoneal, pleural effusion
What is the pathogenesis of FIP w/ a partial cell mediated immune response?
DRY form

weak monocyte & T cell response --> granulomas
What is the pathogenesis of FIP w/ an effective cell mediated immune response?
strong monocyte & T cell response --> NO clinical dz
What type of virus is canine distemper?
What determines the dz outcome in canine distemper?
host immune response
What is the outcome of canine distemper with an excellent (high Ab) response?
inapparent infection
What is the outcome of canine distemper with a moderate (low Ab) response?
mild illness

virus cleared from periphery, but persists in CNS --> neuro signs 1-2 mo. post infection --> usually death
What is the outcome of canine distemper with a poor (no Ab) response?
severe dz & death
What are the 3 possible scenarios upon infection w/ feline leukemia virus?
1. cat mounts immune response, develops neutralizing Ab & becomes resistant to future infection (~40%)
2. after initial period of viremia & shedding, cat harbors virus in latent form & becomes a latent carrier: neither recovered nor acutely infected, susceptible to clinical dz (~30%)
3. cat becomes persistently viremic & sheds virus (83% die w/in 3 yrs)
How is feline leukemia virus transmitted?
gains entry (primarily via saliva) thru membranes of nose, eyes, resp. tract

can also be transmitted in milk, by blood transfusions, perhaps across the placenta, perhaps by fleas
What is the efficacy of the vaccine for feline leukemia virus?
approx. 80%
What is the series of steps in an ELISA testing for a virus?
-used to detect soluble viral proteins in clinical specimens such as plasma, urine, ocular secretions (indirect: detects Ab)

-specific Ab absorbed to surface of test plate
-add sample containing suspected virus (if viral Ag present, will bind absorbed Ab)
- rinse
- add specific antiviral Ab labeled w/ enzyme
- rinse
- add substrate for enzyme
- color change = sample positive for Ag
How is paired serum serology used to dx viral infections?
- serum collected from patient during acute clinical phase of dz
- 2-3 wks later, “convalescent” serum sample obtained
- 4 fold rise or more ↑ in Ab titer from acute to convalescence is considered evidence of recent infection w/ test agent
What is the pathogenesis of rabies from animal bite to virus shedding in saliva?
animal bite --> virus replication in myocytes --> spreads up nerves --> virus replication in CNS --> spreads down nerves --> infection of salivary glands, cornea, etc. --> excreted in saliva
What is the incubation period for rabies & what is the significance of this for tx?
incubation period: 2 wks – 1 yr (avg. 3-8 wks)

highly susceptible to Ab during incubation period (BEFORE entry into nerves)
When do animals w/ rabies start shedding virus, and what is the clinical course (length) of the dz?
⬢virus shedding: ~5 days before onset of clinical signs

⬢clinical course: 5-10 days (onset of signs --> death)
What are the 2 forms of rabies & what are the associated clinical signs?
o furious form: aggression, viciousness, roaming, loss of fear of man & other animals, altered vocalization, excessive salivation

o dumb form: paralysis of head & neck mm.  inability to swallow, altered vocalization, excessive salivation, coma, respiratory arrest
What are the main reservoirs for rabies in US?
wild carnivores (skunk: central US, fox, raccoon: eastern US, coyote)

insectivorous bats
How is rabies diagnosed?
fluorescent antibody test on brain tissue: current method choice
- will detect infection in up to 98% of affected animals

histopathology: detection of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies)
- formed late during course of infection, so animal may die prior to their formation

also virus isolation, PCR (saliva, cornea, brain)
How is FIV transmitted?
fighting (bites): males > females
What are some clinical signs assoc. with FIV infection?
lymphadenopathy, fever, gingivitis, weight loss, chronic rhinitis, anemia, chronic dermatitis, neurological signs, uveitis, persistent diarrhea, abortion
What is the prognosis of cats w/ FIV?
variable: not all cats develop clinical signs
What fact makes prevention of canine adenovirus easier?
immunity for CAV-1 & CAV-2 is cross-protective
What is the pathogenesis & clinical signs of canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), infectious canine hepatitis?
severe systemic dz resulting in damage to endothelium, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes

clinical signs: edema, hemorrhage, hepatitis

blue eye: anterior uveitis & corneal edema that develops 7-10 days after resolution of clinical signs (damage due to immune complexes)
What signs are associated w/ canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)?
uncomplicated infections cause mild resp. dz

severe infections result from 2° infection w/ bacteria (Bordatella, Mycoplasma) --> kennel cough (fatal pneumonia may occur)
What is the tropism of parvoviruses?
can only replicate in mitotically active cells (GI tract, bone marrow, cells of fetus & neonate)
How does feline panleukopenia differ in newborn kittens vs. older kittens?
newborn kittens (-2 to 2 wks): thymus & cerebellum most severely affected (cerebellar hypoplasia)

older kittens: virus replicates in lymphoid tissue of oropharynx, intestinal crypts, bone marrow
How is canine parvovirus transmitted & what aspect of the virus makes it difficult to eradicate?
transmission: fecal-oral (shed in high titers in excretions in acutely infected dogs)

virus is very environmentally resistant: requires good disinfection (ex. 1/40 dilution of bleach)
What is the result of canine herpesvirus infection in dogs > 3 wks of age vs. pups < 3 wks. old born to seronegative moms?
mild resp. dz & genital infection in dogs > 3 wks

fatal, systemic infection in pups < 3 wks born to seronegative mothers
- painful crying, anorexia, hemorrhages in viscera, death w/in 48 hrs
How is canine herpes virus transmitted to puppies?
-seronegative bitch transmits virus to pups during period 3 wks before to 3 wks after parturition (contact w/ infected genital tract, or postnatal via resp. secretions)
-will not occur w/ subsequent pregnancies in same bitch (will have Abs)
What is another name for feline herpesvirus 1?
feline viral rhinotracheitis
What systems are generally affected by feline herpes virus 1 (FVR)?
- causes resp. & ocular dz in young cats
- may cause abortion
- recrudescence of virus in cornea --> keratitis, potential blindness
What is the pathogenesis of herpesviridae (incl. recrudescence)?
1º infection --> spread by viremia & nerve tracts --> latent infection in ganglia --> reactivation due to stress factors --> intermittent shedding +/- recrudescence (2º episodes of dz)
What is the gestation period for dogs?
~65 days (58-68 d.)
What is the gestation period for cats?
64-69 days
What are the methods for diagnosing pregnancy & at what periods of gestation can they be used?
abdominal palpation: 20-30 days or after 50 days

- 21-42 days: may detect fluid filled uterine horns
- after day 42: may detect varying degrees of fetal ossification

- 16-20 days: fetal vesicles can be visualized w/in uterine horns
- after 24 days: fetal heart beats can be detected
What are the 4 extraembryonic membranes?
yolk sac
What type of placenta do dogs & cats have, based on degree of uterine invasion & shape?
zonary, deciduate (endotheliochorial)

fetal chorion contacts uterine capillary wall
What is teratology?
the study of abnormal development
What are 4 examples of acyanotic heart defects (blood is sufficiently oxygenated)?
pulmonic stenosis
aortic stenosis
interventricular septal defect (IVSD)
interatrial septal defect
What are the 4 defects combined in tetralogy of Fallot?
pulmonic stenosis
IV septal defect
overriding aorta: blood from both ventricles can get into aorta
R ventricular hypertrophy
What are some development GI defects?
congenital megaesophagus
esophageal achalasia
esophageal diverticulum
intestinal stenosis & atresia
persistent ileal (Meckel's) diverticulum
congential umbilical hernia
urorectal fistula
atresia ani
What is spina bifida?
defect in fusion of vertebral arches that allows variable degree of protrusion of spinal cord & meninges
What is cranial bifida?
cleft in skull that allows a variable degree of protrusion of cerebral tissue, fluid, & meninges (signs depend on region involved & extent of protrusion)
What is the most common congential CNS defect?
What are some clinical signs of cleft palate?
difficulty suckling: milk runs out of nose, aspiration pneumonia
What is Collie eye anomaly?
thinning of choroid & sclera, resulting in retinal degeneration & detachment
What is microphthamia & what are some potential causes?
very small eye due to insufficient growth of optic vesicle

unilateral of bilateral

can be caused by griseofulvin in kittens, vit. A deficiency in pigs, dogs, cattle
What are some patient factors associated w/ congenital deafness? What is the usual cause?
blue eyes
merle pigmentation

cochlear duct degeneration
What are the names for lateral, dorsal,& ventral spinal deviations, & for an abnormal twisting of the cervical spine?
- scoliolis: lateral
- kyphosis: dorsal
- lordosis: ventral
- torticollis (“wryneck”): abnormal twisting of cervical vertebrae
What is cervical stenotic myelopathy & what breeds of dogs are predisposed & what vertebrae?
trauma caused to spinal cord in this area --> ataxia (“wobblers”)

- basset hounds (C2-C3 or C3-C4)
- dobermans/great danes (C5-C7)
What is chondroplasia & what breeds are affected?
retarded growth & ossification of long bones --> shortened bones, dwarfism

malamutes, dachshunds, Pekingese, basset hounds
What are carpus valgus & carpus varus?
angular limb defects

- carpus valgus: distal limb deviated laterally (“knock kneed”)
- carpus varus: distal limb deviated medially (“bow legged”)
What is an ectopic ureter?
ureter has abnormal termination, usually into urethra or vagina instead of bladder --> urine dribbling
What is the most common development limb defect in animals and how does it occur?
arthrogryposis: contracted joints, often in combo w/ facial & spinal defects

1º neuromuscular defect --> abnormal joint formation --> ankylosis (fixation of joints)
What is opsonization?
coating of surface of a pathogen or other particle w/ any molecule that makes its more readily ingested by phagocytes
What is humoral immunity?
immunity that is mediated by antibodies
What is innate immunity?
the host defense mechanisms that act from the start of an infection & do not adapt to a particular pathogen
What is an epitope?
particular part of Ag bound by Ig or T cell receptor
What is the 1st antibody isotype made after exposure to antigen?
What is the major immunoglobulin in secretions (sweat, saliva, mucus, tears, milk)?
Which immunoglobulin is found attached to mast cell & basophil mems?
Which is the smallest immunoglobulin, found in high conc. in serum, lymph, CSF?
What are the effector cells of innate immunity?
neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells
What are the effector cells of acquired immunity?
B & T lymphocytes
What does protein electrophoresis do?
allows separation of proteins based on charge
What type of immune response is stimulated by extracellular pathogens, & what is the major cell type involved?
humoral immune system

B cells (activated by cytokines to produce Abs)
What is an adjuvant?
substance when mixed w/ Ag, that enhances the immune response
What is the definition of primary lymphoid tissues & what are some examples?
where lymphocytes mature in Ag-recognizing cells

bone marrow: source of all hematopoetic cells, where B cells mature

thymus: where T cells mature
What is the definition of secondary lymphoid tissues & what are some examples?
where immune response is initiated

ex. spleen, lymph nodes, MALT, GALT, BALT, Peyer's patches
What type of immune response is stimulated by intracellular pathogens, & what are the major cell types involved?
cell mediated immune response

T cells
What are the 2 types of T lymphocytes, & what do they do?
cytotoxic T cells: CD8+, kill infected cells

helper T cells: CD4+, produce cytokines that activate B cells
What are the 1st cells at the site of inflammation & why?

respond rapidly to chemotactic factors; present in high numbers in blood
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
loss of function
What cytokine is the major endogenous pyrogen?
interleukin-1 (IL-1)
What type of immune response is promoted by T helper 1 vs. T helper 2 lymphocytes?
TH1: promote cell mediated immunity (response dominated by effector cells)

TH2: promote humoral immunity (response dominated by Abs)
What is determined/detected by an indirect vs. direct ELISA?
indirect: detects serum Ab

direct: detects serum Ag
What type of ELISA test is used for FIV & FelV (indirect or direct)?
FIV: indirect (tests for Ab)

FelV: direct (tests for Ag)
What is a hypersensitivity reaction?
normal immune response to Ag resulting in damage to host
What are some examples of type II hypersensitivity rxn?
transfusion rxns
hemolytic dz of newborn
immune mediated cytopenias (d/t drugs, pathogens)
What is a type III hypersensitivity rxn?
immune complex deposition

immune complexes of certain size deposit in tissue & are trapped
complement activated --> acute inflammation at site of deposition
What are some examples of type III hypersensitivity rxns?
blue eye (dog)
serum sickness
FIP (wet)
immune complex dz (general)
What are some examples of type IV hypersensitivity reactions?
tuberculin test
contact allergies
FIP (dry)
granulomatous dz
What are some examples of type I hypersensitivity reactions?

d/t inhalation of allergen: COPD, asthma
d/t ingestion of allergen: food allergy
atopic dermatitis
intradermal: insect bites, vaccine rxns
What is a type II hypersensitivity rxn?
Ab (IgM or IgG) binds to surface cell Ag --> complement activation, opsonization of target --> lysis of target

target cells:
RBCs --> hemolytic anemia
platelets --> thrombocytopenia
What is a type IV hypersensitivity rxn?
delayed type hypersensitivity

charactizered by mononuclear infiltrate (lymphocytes, MPs)
does NOT involve Ab; overactive cell mediated immune response
What is a type I hypersensitivity rxn?
immediate-type hypersensitivity (sensitization required)

IgE bound to mast cell --> Ag-binding sites on mast cell exposed --> cross-linking of receptors --> degranulation --> release of proinflammatory mediators
What does a direct Coombs test test for?
tests for Abs or complement bound to RBCs (indicative of immune mediated hemolytic anemia)
What does an indirect Coombs test test for?
tests for anti-RBC Abs in serum
What does an anti-nuclear Ab (ANA) test test for?
tests to see if serum contains Abs to a nuclear Ag
What are the 4 stages of anesthesia?
stage of voluntary movement (sedation): from initial drug administration to loss of consciousness
stage of involuntary movement (excitement): from loss of consciousness to establishment of regular breathing pattern
stage of surgical anesthesia: unconsciousness, progressive depression of autonomic reflexes (planes: light, moderate, deep (rapidly controlled by changing vaporizer setting))
medullar collapse: death due to cardio/pulmonary decompensation; may be reversed
What is the MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) of an inhaled anesthetic?
minimum alveolar concentration at which 50% of patients will not purposefully move in response to a standardized noxious stimulus
What is the physical classificaiton scheme (ASA) for an animal undergoing anesthesia?
I: normal healthy patient (usually elective procedure)
II: mild, compensated dz (ex. herniated disc)
III: serious systemic dz w/ compensation (ex. diabetic controlled w/ insulin)
IV: serious decompensating systemic dz (ex. diabetic refractory to drug therapy)
V: moribund, not expected to survive 24 hrs

II-V can be further modified w/ designation of emergency case (ex. III-E)
What is the purpose of a vaporizer on an anesthetic machine?
changes a liquid anesthetic into its vapor & adds a specific amt of vapor to gases being delivered to patient
What is the defining characteristic of a rebreathing (circle) system?
part or all of exhaled gases flow back to patient after extraction of CO2
What is the purpose of the pop-off valve in a rebreathing system?
allows venting of gases to scavenging system to prevent build-up of excessive pressure (must keep open)
What is the formula to determine the minimum size of the resevoir bag for a patient undergoing anesthesia?
minimum size: 5 x 15 ml x body wt (kg) = vol (L)
What is the defining characteristic of a non-rebreathing system & what set of patients is this indicated for?
uses no chemical absorbent for CO2 – depends on high fresh gas flow rates to flush out exhaled CO2

used in patients weighing < 8 kg
Define the normal ranges for the following arterial blood gas parameters:

a. pH
b. paO2
c. paCO2
d. HCO3-
a. 7.35-7.45
b. 80-100 mm Hg
c. 35-45 mm Hg
d. 22-27 mEq/L
What change in a blood gas parameter defines the following?

a. respiratory acidosis
b. metabolic acidosis
c. respiratory alkalosis
d. metabolic alkalosis
a. increased paCO2
b. decreased HCO3-
c. decreased paCO2
d. increased HCO3-
What is the appropriate therapy for a respiratory acidosis OR alkalosis?
alter patient's minute volume to inc. or dec. elimination of CO2
(Vmin = tidal vol x resp. rate)

to tx respiratory ACIDOSIS: increase Vmin

to tx respiratory ALKALOSIS:
decrease Vmin
What is the appropriate therapy for metabolic acidosis?
1. tx underlying cause first
2. consider administering sodium bicarbonate if pH <= 7.2
What is hypoxemia?
subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood (↓PaO2 in room air)
What is relative hypoxemia vs. absolute hypoxemia?
absolute: PaO2 < 80 mm Hg

relative: PaO2 less than expected for given PaO2, but still > 80 mm Hg
What is the appropriate therapy for hypoxemia?
provide adequate ventilation
optimize cardiac output
provide supplemental O2 (indicated for patient persistently incapable of maintaining Hg-O2 saturation > 90%)
Why do most anesthetized patients hypoventilate?
b/c of ↓ CNS sensitivity to CO2–evoked alterations in CSF
Under what clinical situations should intermittend positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) be instituted?
when patient ventilation is impaired to point of significant acid-base imbalance or when alveolar hypoventilation becomes a limiting factor in maintaining inhalation anesthesia

(generally, when PexpCO2 ≥ 60 mm Hg)
What are the 4 steps of nociception?
1. transduction: process of damaged tissue communicating this info to PNS
2. transmission: process of communicating info from step 1 to the spinal cord or cranial nerve nucleus
3. modulation: neurons w/in dorsal laminae of each spinal cord segment synapse w/ 1st order neurons transmitting from periphery & decisions are made about what info is sent to higher CNS & autonomic centers
4. perception: at cerebrum, nociceptive info is integrated w/ other info  experience of pain
What is allodynia?
when a normally non-painful stimuli (ex. touch) becomes painful
What is central sensitization (wind-up) as it relates to pain?
2nd order neurons depolarize in response to progressively less stimulation & become more likely to code info from those recruited non-nociceptive neurons (ex. those assoc. w/ touch or pressure) as nociception
What are the 2 basic tenets in pain therapy?

What is the appropriate fluid replacement rate for most healthy animals undergoing short elective procedures?
10 ml/kg/hr
What is the percentage breakdown of body water in the ICF vs. ECF?
ICF: 2/3 of body water
ECF: 1/3 of body water
- 3/4 of ECF is interstitial/transcellular
- 1/4 of ECF is plasma
What factor controls the size of the extracellular fluid compartment?
total body sodium content
What is the definition of isotonic dehydration & what are some causes?
fluid lost is high in sodium (most common type), all comes from ECF

causes: vomiting, diarrhea
What is the definition of hypertonic dehydration & what are some causes?
fluid lost is low in Na (pure H2O), comes from total body water

causes: access to H2O, heat injury
What is the definition of hypotonic dehydration & what are some causes?
caused by ionic loss + drinking some H2O (uncommon)

usually due to diarrhea or severe heart failure treated w/ diuretics
What are some examples of replacement fluids, when are they used, and how much plasma volume expansion do they cause?
LRS, plasmalyte-A

used to tx isotonic dehydration & expand plasma vol. (commonly used during anesthesia)

1 L given --> 200-250 mL expansion of plasma vol
When is hypertonic saline used, and how much plasma volume expansion do they cause?
used for rapid resuscitation of patients from shock using a small vol. of fluid

100 mL given --> 400 mL expansion of plasma vol.
What are some examples of colloids, when are they used, and how much plasma volume expansion do they cause?
starches (hetastarch, dextran), albumin, oxyglobin

 used for resuscitation from circulatory shock or to correct volume-responsive hypotension w/ less total H2O than a replacement fluid
best use is in hypoalbuminemic animals

1 L given --> 1L of plasma vol. expansion
What is the definition of shock?
syndrome characterized by inadequate O2 delivery to a critical mass of tissues (cellular O2 debt)
When are low sodium fluids (ex. 5% dextrose) used, and how much plasma volume expansion do they cause?
used to provide animals w/ distilled H2O in a temporarily isotonic form that won’t lyse RBC’s at tip of IV catheter

NOT used during anesthesia b/c they do NOT support plasma vol.

1 L given --> 50 ml plasma expansion & ↓ osmolality
At which vertebrae does the spinal cord end in the dog & cat?
dog: L6-L7
cat: S1
How do the left & right kidney differ in location?
right kidney usually 1/2 length or more in front of left (left got LEFT behind)

right kidney fits into renal impression of caudate lobe of liver

both are palapable in CAT, more mobile, esp. left, which hangs in a fold of peritoneum
What attaches to the greater omenutum?
the greater curvature of stomach to dorsal body wall
What attaches to the lesser omentum?
the lesser curvature of stomach to liver & duodenum
What is mesentery?
double sheets of peritoneum that attach an organ to the body wall
How many mammary glands do dogs have?

Name the pairs from cranial to caudal.

cranial thoracic
caudal thoracic
cranial abdominal
caudal abdominal
How many mammary glands do cats have?

Name the pairs from cranial to caudal.

caudal thoracic
cranial abdominal
caudal abdominal
Name the 4 major regions of the stomach.
What is the normal sequence of blood flow in an adult starting in the right atrium?
R atrium --> R AV valve --> R ventricle --> pulmonic valve --> pulmonary trunk --> lungs --> pulmonary vv. --> L atrium --> L AV valve --> L ventricle --> aortic valve --> aorta --> head & body --> cranial & caudal vena cava --> R atrium
What murmur is associated w/ PDA?
continuous ("machinery") murmur
How many lobes do the left and right lungs have & what are they called?
left: 2 (cranial, caudal)

right: 4 (cranial, middle, caudal, accessory)
How many cusps do each of the heart valves have?
R AV (tricuspid): 2
L AV (mitral): 2
aortic: 3
pulmonic: 3
(aortic & pulmonic called semilunar valves)
What are chordae tendinae & what is their function?
attach cusps of AV valves to septal wall of vetricle via papillary mm.

prevent eversion of cusps during contraction of heart (systole)
When during cardiac cycle do systolic murmurs occur & give 2 examples.
b'twn S1 & S2

aortic/pulmonic stenosis
AV insufficiency
When during cardiac cycle do diastolic murmurs occur & give 2 examples.
b'twn S2 & S1

aortic/pulmonic insufficiency
AV stenosis

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