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crime 3


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precipitation or provocation
victim does or says comething that causes an offender to violate law
instigation or pepetration
victim actively encourages a crime or takes criminal action against another person
victim places themself at rise by delibedration, recklessness, or negligence
vulnerability or invitation
some people are unusually susceptable because of personal attributes, social status, or entry into a risk-filled situation
is a party to a consensual crime such as gambling, prostitute
affluence will often attract offenders
offenders can expect that the victim will not report the crim to the police because the victim is also breaking the law
victim precipitation
person who suffers eventually harm from a crime plays a direct role in causing the crime to be perpetrated.
3 factor often present when crime is commited, but do not actually cause crime
drugs, firearms, alcohol. they are FACILITATING FACTORS- they increase the chanse that a situation will lead to criminal violence or theaft
theoretical perspectives on crime and the criminal law
the law develops to benefit some groups to the detriemnt of others. consensus theorists reguard the law as a reflection of popular agreement on standards of behavior
conflict theory
law- distribution of power and economic resources.
crim. law reflects the will of the powerful and well to do and behavior that threatens the interests of the elite will be harshly sanctioned.
marxists or radical criminology
focuses on social class, defined by the relationship of a group to the means of the production.
relationshjip between capitalism and crime
consensus perspective
why some people violate the law, rather than why the law defines their behavior as criminal
social construction of crime
the way that crime is interpreted by groups with different interests they seek to promote by useing thier resources to gain ownership of an issue.
introduces a time dimension follows a carefully defined group of people who are in a common situation over a period of time.
stimulus (punnishment or intervention) can either go to improvement (no more crime) or crime intensifies or continues (recidivism)
"father of criminology" able to direct the study of crime away from questions of free will and personal responsibility to a more scientific basis..
FBI index part 1 crimes are
reguarded by public as very serious,
relatively frequent in occurance
often come to attention of police
proportion of a population that commits crime at a given time. mearured by dividing the nuimber of offenders by size of population
frequency with which offenders commit crime, or avg. numbre of offenses per offenders. measured by divinding number of offenses by the number of offenses.
subterraneon value approach
dominant value system. ex. asu student may hold many of the dominant values of csociety., but psycology of the group takes over, spring break
techniques of neutrolization
all socially accepted norms expect appropriate behavior by members of society and these norms have flexability and act as "qualified guieds for action". crime is bad for society but can be tolerated if it can be justified.
main functions of laws in any society
social control, dispute resolution, social change (social engeneering), socila integration of its members, social solidarity, protection
sex differences
rather than genetic factors, which do not correlate will with gender differences, criminal behavior may well be due more to social and or cultural influences or variables
violent behavior seems to be associated with defeacts in the neurotransmitter, serotonin, dopeamine and noreaprinefferine
relative deprivation
direct correlation between employment, unemployemnt and property types of crimes. may be direct of result beteween their expectations and cabibilities
anomie, strain, and crime
merton- crime is rooted in the economic social system- when there is disjunction between goals and the approved means to achieve these goals, a condition may arise which is termend anomie or normalness
anomie, strain, and crime cont...
a particular aspect of society was "functional" if it had positive consequences, it contributed to social stability. crime as a negative action in society may have positive effects by the reinforcement of socitites norms and values
occurs when an individual experiences a frustration and sence of injustice that resultes from experiencing socially constructed incapacities as low capacities. LOOK AT GRAPH
social control theory notebook
people that engate in deliquency are free of intimate attachemnt, aspirations, moral beliefs, that bind them to a conventional law abiding way of life. deviant behavior is
naturally attractive
situationally induced
rationally chosen
criticisms of social control theory notebood
doesn't identify motivations of breking law
doen't look at changes in social interaction over time
doesn't analyze life events that could impact on the individual
doens't examine relative interactions between various institutions. ex famile...
containment theory notebook
a favorable perception of ones self in relation to others
an awareness of being a goal orientated person
high level of frustration
subculture of violence therouy
wolfganga and ferracuti- norms shared by a group of people sometimes define violence as an appropriate response to certain circumstances. these norms have a reality of their own an dinfluence behariork, sometimes leading people to be violent
patterned say of life similar in some ways to but different in others from teh dominant culture of a society.
reasons for crime to lower
more police effectiveness, growth in number of offenders in prison ,wanint of the cack epidemic, involvement of crime prevention, booming economy with lots of jobs, drop in the proportion of the pop in the crime prone age group
hate crimes
bias crime as a "criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offenders bias against a race, religion, disability ,sexual orientation , or ethnicity/national origion"

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