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The Eye

Terms

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cataract
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
exotropia
right or left eye deviates outward away from nose (exo = out; tropo = turning)
aqueous humor
watery liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens (humor = fluid)
opthalmoscopy
use of an opthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye
dacryocystectomy
excision of a lacrimal sac
fluorescein angiography
visualization and photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vien, circulates through the eye
glands of Zeis
oil glands surronding the eyelashes
canal of Schlemm
duct in anterior chamber that carriers filtered aqueous humor to the viens and bloodstream
distance visual acuity
a measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance, usually form 20 feet (6 meters); normal distance visual acuity is 20/20 (6/6)
lacrimal gland
gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
vitreous
jelly-like mass filing the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
corneo/, kerat/o
cornea
tonometry
use of a tonometer to meausre intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma
dacryocystitis
inflammation of the tear sac
lens capsule
capsule that encloses the lens
strabismus, heterotropia
a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance (strabismus = a squinting; hetero = other)
enucleation
excision of an eyeball
estropia
right or left eye deviates inward toward nose (eso = inward; tropo = turning)
iris
colored circle; colored part of the eye located beind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil
cornea
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
ciliary muscle
smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near vision capability
scleritis
inflammation of the sclera
optic nerve
nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain
pterygium
a fibrous, wing-shaped growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea, developing most commonly from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light
lacrimal ducts
tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
belpharospasm
involuntary contraction of the muscles surronding the eye causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
ciliary body
ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the focusing shape of the lens
blephar/o
eyelid
myopia
nersightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays are focused on apoint in front of the retina
aphakia
absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
glaucoma
a group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
mydriatic (dilation of pupil)
an agent that causes dilation of the pupil (used for certain eye examinations)
conjunctivitis
pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva
iridectomy
excision of a portion of iris tissue
asthenopia
eyestrain (asthenia = weak condition)
exopthalmos, exopthalmus
abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
pesudophakia
an eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant (pseudo = false)
rods
rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
a technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopis, and astigmatism (smileusis = carving)
lacrim/o, dacry/o
tear
iritis
inflammation of the iris
presbyopia
impaired vision caused by old age or loss of accommodation
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
retin/o
retina
nasolacrimal duct
passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
fovea centralis
pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision (fovea = pit)
vitre/o
glassy
contact lens
a small, plastic, curved disc with optical correction that fits over the cornea; used to correct refractive errors
hordeolum
a sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid (hordeum = barley)
scotoma
blind spot in vision (skotos = darkness)
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
slit lamp biomicroscopy
use of a tabletop microscope used to examine the eye, especially the cornea, lens, fluids, and membranes
ectropion
inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
diplopia
double vision
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blidness if not repaired surgically
conjunctiva
mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball
sonography
use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye, such as foreign bodies or detached retina
iridotomy
incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow for drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber, used to treat a type of glaucoma
ir/o, irid/o
colored circle, iris
lacrimal sac
structure that collects tears before emptying into nasolacrimal duct
phot/o
light
cones
cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and repond to bright light
lacrimation
secretion of tears
posterior chamber
space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous chamber filled with aqueous humor
accommodation
ability of the eye to adjust focus near objects
cryoretinopexy, cryopexy
use of intense cold to seal a hole or tear in the retina; used to treat retinal detachment
belpharoptosis, ptosis
drooping of the eyelid, usually caused by paralysis
cataract extraction
excision of a cloudy lens from the eye
refractive errors
defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina
keratoplasty
corneal transplant
macula lutea (macula)
central region of the retina responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color (lutea = yellow)
dacryoadenitis
inflammation of the lacrimal gland
anterior chamber
fluid-filled space between cornea and iris
trabecular meshwork
mesh-like structure in the anterior chamber that filters the aqueous humor as it flows into the canal Schlemn
presby/o
old age
intraocular lens (IOL) implant
implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens (e.g., after cataract extraction)
eye instillation
introduction of a medicated solution in the eye usually administered by drop (gt) or drops (gtt) in the affected eye or eyes: OD (oculus dexter) right eye; OS (oculus sinister) left eye; OU (oculi unitas) both eyes
chalazion
chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct (chalaza = hailstone)
hyperopia
farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the reina
nystagmus
involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball (nystagmos = a nodding)
photophobia
extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light
opia (additional suffix)
condition of vision
epiphora
abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct (epi = upon; phero = to bear)
retinitis
inflammation of the retina
trichiasis
misdirected eyelashes that rub on conjunctiva or cornea
astigmatism
distorted vision caused by an obloning or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina (stigma = point)
fundus (base)
interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole (curvature at the back of the eye)
miotic
an agent that causes the pupil to contract (mio = lens)
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
pupil
black circular opening in the center of the iris through which lights passes as it enters the eye
phacoemulsification
use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract with aspiration and removal
eyelid (palpebra)
movable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
blepharoplasty
surgical repair of an eyelid
scler/o
hard or sclera
aque/o
water
choroid
vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to outer portion of the retina
diabetic retinopathy
disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization) leading to scarring and loss of vision
ocul/o, opthalm/o, opt/o
eye
macular degeneration
breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
meibomian glands
oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids
conjuctiv/o
conjunctiva (to join together)
laser surgery
use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues (used to create fluid passages or obliterate tumors, aneurysms, etc.)
phac/o, phak/o
lens (lentil)
optic disc
exit site of retinal nerve fibers
sclera
tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
eye irrigation
washing of the eye with water or other fluid (like saline)
antibiotic opthalmic solution
antimicrobial agent in solution; used to treat bacterial infections (such as conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers)
ciliary processes
epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
belpharochalasis, dermatochalsis
baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open (chalasis = slackening)

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