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Apex Biology Semester Review

Terms

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daughter cell
one of two genetically identical cells that result from cell division
replication fork
the y-shaped region on a DNA molecule where new DNA strands are being synthesized during replication
primer
a short segment of DNA that serves as the starting point for DNA synthesis
codominance
a situation in which both alleles for a certain trait contribute to the organism's phenotype
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a given trait
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
genome
all of an organism's genetic material
solvent
liquid that dissolves another substance without changing its chemical composition
autotroph
an organism that can synthesize its own food from inorganic substances
aqueous
water-based
gene expression
the overall process of making proteins using the information coded in DNA; includes the processes of transcription and translation
magnification
the apparent enlargement of an object by an optical device such as a microscope
organelle
a component of eukaryotic cells that carries out a specific function
R group
used to represent one of 20 possible side chains found in amino acids of living systems
lipid
a nonpolar molecule that is not soluble in water
cytosol
the liquid part of the contents of a cell
alternation of generations
a process in which an organism switches back and forth between diploid and haploid forms during its life cycle
catalyst
a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by it
polygenic trait
a trait controlled by two or more pairs of genes
nucleus
a membrane-enclosed organelle that contains most of the genetic material in a eukaryotic cell
cyclic molecule
a chemical compound whose atoms are arranged in a ring or closed-chain structure
eukaryotic cell
a cell that possesses a membrane-enclosed nucleus
codon
a sequence of three nucleotides on a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule that indicates which amino acid belongs in that position in a polypeptide
genome
An organism's genetic material.
sex-linked trait
a trait controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosome
ultraviolet light
electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 1 and 380 nanometers
incomplete dominance
a situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over the other
hypertonic
having a higher concentration of solutes than another solution
resolution
the measurement of the clarity of an image; the minimum distance that two very close points can be viewed as separate objects
genetic code
a table that shows the amino acid that corresponds to each of the 64 possible codons
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a given trait
chemical reaction
a process in which a substance or substances is converted into one or more new substances w/ different properties and composition
allele
one of several possible forms of a gene
autotrophs
organisms that can synthesize their own food from inorganic subtances
chloroplast
an organelle that is the main site of photosynthesis in plant cells
ribose
a five-carbon monosaccharide found in RNA
aerobic
a reaction occurring in the presence of oxygen
volume
The space occupied by a sample of a substance.
evolution
changes that occur in groups of organisms over time
recombinant DNA
a DNA molecule constructed in the laboratory that contains segments of DNA from different sources
xenotransplantation
an organ, tissue, or cell transplantation from one species into another
condensation reaction
a chemical reaction that joins two molecules and removes a molecule of water
polymerase chain reaction
a laboratory technique for making multiple copies of a DNA sample using a heat-resistant DNA polymerase enzyme
isomer
a compound with the same chemical formula as another compound, but with a different arrangement of atoms that gives the molecule different chemical and physical properties
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that adds nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA, and also proofreads to see that the new nucleotides are correct
purine
double-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
Chargaff's rules
a pair of statements that describe the nucleotide composition of a DNA sample
secondary element
one of five chemical elements that are found in small amounts in living organisms
histone
an abundant protein which forms the nucleosome on the DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes
polysaccharide
a carbohydrate with many sugar units
cell
the basic unit of life
global warming
an increase in the average global surface temperature of the Earth
helicase
an enzyme that unwinds small segments of the DNA double helix during replication
multicellular
consisting of many cells
nuclear envelope
a double membrane structure that surrounds the nucleus
karyotype
an image of chromosomes, grouped in homologous pairs
gas
a substance that has no fixed volume or shape
observation
The process of perceiving the environment with any of the five senses.
pyrimidine
single-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either cytosine, thymine, or uracil
solid
a substance that has a fixed shape and volume
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
haploid
a condition in which a cell contains one set of chromosomes
genotype
a specific combination of alleles for a certain gene
flagellum
a structure made of microtubules that enables cells to move using a whip-like action
hydrogen bond
an attractive force between a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom on one molecule and an oxygen atom on another molecule
contact inhibition
a process that stops additional cell growth when cells become crowded
sticky ends
the uneven ends of a double-stranded DNA molecule that has been cut with a restriction enzyme
experimental group
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
hydrolysis reaction
a chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water
meniscus
The curved surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.
hypotonic
having a lower concentration of solutes than another solution
trisomic
having three copies of a chromosome
interphase
that portion of the cell cycle when the cell is not actively dividing
omnivore
a heterotrophic organism that eats both plants and animals
pH scale
a scale based on the concentration of hydrogen ions that determines the acidity of a solution
endocytosis
the process of taking in large molecules by pinching off a portion of the plasma membrane
phenotype
the outward appearance of a particular trait
fibrous protein
a protein that folds into an elongated shape so that it can serve a wide variety of structural functions in the cell
restriction enzyme
a protein that cuts DNA at specific sequences; typically used in recombinant DNA technology
genetic markers
segments of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed
cellular respiration
the breakdown of food molecules in the presence of oxygen, in order to release the chemical energy the molecules contain
saccharide
a simple sugar or combination of sugars; a carbohydrate
hexose
a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms
amino acid
an organic molecule that functions as the building block for proteins; it contains an amine group, a carboxylic group, and a R group
lysosome
an organelle that contains digestive enzymes to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
genomic library
all of the DNA of an organism, stored as individual DNA fragments on a collection of hundreds or thousands of plasmids or other cloning vectors
metabolism
the collection of chemical reactions that take place in living cells in order to provide energy and synthesize new substances needed by the cell
fructose
an isomer of glucose; it has the same chemical formula (C6 H12 O6) but its atoms are arranged differently
theory
A tested explanation of facts, observations, and natural phenomena.
Calvin cycle
a cyclic metabolic pathway that converts carbon dioxide to glucose precursors
meiosis
a form of cell division in which the chromosome number is cut in half through separation of homologous pairs of chromosomes
plasma membrane
a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and serves as a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
prokaryote
a unicellular organism that does not have a membrane-enclosed nucleus
organ system
a collection of organs that work together to carry out a specific set of biological functions
homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes containing genes that code for the same proteins
herbivore
a heterotrophic organism that eats only plants
life cycle
the progression through a series of differing stages of development
anaerobic
a reaction that occurs in the absence of oxygen
fatty acid
a lipid that consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group at one end
coding region
a portion of a DNA molecule that contains information about the protein that a gene encodes
electromagnetic radiation
any kind of radiation that consists of alternating electric and magnetic fields, characterized by its wavelength
glucose
a monosaccharide found in all living cells; it has the chemical formula C6 H12 O6
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of membranes near the nucleus that plays an important role in the transport of components needed for protein synthesis
inferences
Possible interpretations of observations that are based on previous experience.
organism
an individual living thing
chlorophyll
plant pigment that absorbs visible light in the 650-700 nanometer range and gives plants their green color
chromosomal mutations
changes in a DNA sequence that affect an entire chromosome or multiple chromosomes
density
the ratio of a substance's mass to its volume
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria; used in some forms of recombinant DNA to transport foreign DNA into a host cell
cross
(noun) an organism that is the offspring produced by breeding plants of different varieties; (verb) the genetic exchange of information in two different plants to reproduce more members of the same species
carnivore
a heterotrophic organism that eats only animals
asexual reproduction
Reproduction that is simple cell division, with only one parent bearing offspring identical to itself.
monohybrid cross
a genetic cross that involves following one trait to the offspring
base
a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
ionic bond
a chemical bond formed by the attraction between positive and negative ions
pseudopod
an extension of a cell's cytoplasm that enables it to crawl along a surface; literally "false feet"
photosynthesis
the process of converting light energy to chemical energy; in the process, CO2 and water are converted into oxygen and organic compounds
vacuole
a large membrane-enclosed sac in plant cells that stores large molecules and toxic substances
cytoskeleton
the structural support system on the inside of a cell
causation
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
variable
A condition or factor involved in an experiment.
polar molecule
a molecule with an uneven distribution of electrons
eukaryote
an organism consisting of one or more cells that contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus
scientific method
A logical, stepwise approach to solving a scientific problem.
spontaneous generation
a popular belief in the 19th century that living organisms can come from non-living things
mass
The amount of matter in a sample of a substance.
wavelength
the distance between two identical points on adjacent waves
microtubules
a component of the cytoskeleton that is made from tubulin proteins
translation
a process by which the information in messenger RNA is used to synthesize a polypeptide
anticodon
a sequence of three nucleotides on a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that is complementary to the nucleotides on a codon
nutrient
Any molecule necessary for or contributing to an organism's metabolism, growth, or other functioning.
ecosystem
all of the organisms in an area, together with the physical environment they inhabit.
complementary base pair
two nucleotides that lie across from one another on different strands of a DNA double helix, and form hydrogen bonds that help hold the helix together
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; a biological molecule that stores and transmits genetic information.
intermediate filaments
a component of the cytoskeleton that is made from keratin proteins
mutation
a change in the sequence of DNA
linear pathway
metabolic pathway that begins with one or more reactants and ends with different products
bioremediation
a strategy in which living organisms are used to eliminate undesired substances or to render them harmless
temperature
The measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance.
transgenic
an organism that contains the genetic material of more than one species
vector
a device used to carry foreign DNA into a host cell
nuclear transfer
a process in which the nucleus of one cell is transferred into another cell whose nucleus has been removed
infrared light
electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 750 and approximately 200,000 nanometers
nucleotide
molecule that consists of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group; used as the building block for nucleic acids
transformation
a process by which one organism is changed by the uptake of genetic material from another organism
quantitative observation
A measurement or any observation involving numbers.
control group
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is not exposed to the factor or condition being tested and which is used as a basis for comparison.
cytoplasm
the entire contents of a cell, other than the nucleus
facilitated diffusion
a form of diffusion that requires the assistance of a transport protein
carbohydrate
a "hydrate" of carbon; any molecule with the simplest formula CH₂O
phospholipid
a lipid molecule formed by the condensation reaction between glycerol, two fatty acid molecules, and a phosphate group
trace element
one of fourteen chemical elements required in minute quantities by an organism to maintain proper physical functioning
DNA fingerprinting
a laboratory technique in which genetic markers are used to identify the source of a DNA sample
hypothesis
A testable, possible explanation for a scientific problem.
organic
a molecule or compound that contains carbon
primary element
one of six chemical elements that make up more than 99% of living matter
protein
a polymer of amino acids
cytoplasmic streaming
a circular motion of the cytosol that enables substances to move through the cell more quickly
plasmid
a circular double-stranded DNA molecule found in bacteria and some yeast strains
unicellular
consisting of one cell
S phase
the second subphase of interphase, where DNA synthesis occurs
mitochondrion
an organelle that is the main site of energy conversion through cellular respiration
crossing over
an exchange of genetic material between members of a homologous pair of chromosomes
frameshifting mutations
changes in a DNA sequence caused by deletion or insertion of a nucleotide
ATP synthase
an enzyme that synthesizes ATP from ADP and an inorganic phosphate ion
DNA ligase
an enzyme that ties or ligates the ends of newly synthesized or inserted DNA
cyclic pathway
metabolic pathway that regenerates at least one of its starting materials
covalent bond
a chemical bond where the electrons are shared between atoms
photosystem
a cluster of chlorophyll and other molecules in a thylakoid that help to harvest light energy during photosynthesis
diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
independent variable
The condition or factor which can be manipulated in an experiment and which influences another factor.
nondisjunction
a failure of chromatids to separate correctly at the conclusion of meiosis or mitosis
biosphere
the air, water, and land that house all living things on earth
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the plasma membrane of plant cells and some bacteria in order to provide support for the cell
gene
a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein
carrier
an individual whose genotype includes one normal allele and one potentially harmful recessive allele
enzyme
a globular protein that functions as a biological catalyst
isotonic
having the same concentration of solutes as another solution
tumor
a mass of cells within normal tissue that arises when a cell no longer responds properly to the cell cycle checkpoint signals
G2 phase
the second gap phase in the cell cycle; the third subphase of interphase that occurs immediately before the cell reenters M phase
monomer
a small molecule that is used to form a larger molecule
anaphase
the third step of mitosis
cell
the smallest functional unit of life
pedigree
a diagram that represents the occurrence of inherited traits across two or more generations of a family
dependent variable
A condition or factor which is affected by another factor or factors.
polymer
a large molecule that is formed when smaller molecules are joined
tissue
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a distinct function
basic solution
a solution whose pH is greater than 7
chromosome
a combination of DNA and protein that is visible in a cell during cell division
metric system
The base ten measurement system used internationally by scientists.
liquid
a substance that has a fixed volume but no fixed shape
ion
a charged atom or molecule that results from the gain or loss of electrons
Punnett square
a tool in the form of a table that enables biologists to predict the probability of the genotypes and phenotypes that result from a cross
chromatin
a combination of DNA and protein that appears as a mass of long thin fibers in a non-dividing cell
saprobe
a heterotrophic organism that gets its nutrients from the remains of dead animals; also called a decomposer
polyploid
a condition in which a cell contains three or more sets of homologous chromosomes
element
a substance composed of atoms with an identical number of protons in each nucleus; cannot be reduced into simpler substances with normal chemical processes
correlation
A close relationship between two variables in an event or situation.
pentose
a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms
molecule
a group of atoms connected in a particular way
G0 phase
a resting phase in the cell cycle that can occur near the end of G1 phase
diploid
a condition in which a cell contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
reproduction
The sexual or asexual process by which organisms generate new individuals of the same kind.
transcription
a process by which the information in DNA is copied into a messenger RNA molecule
qualitative observation
An observation that does not involve or include numbers.
selectively permeable
a barrier that enables some molecules or substances to cross a membrane, but not others
golgi apparatus
an organelle that sorts, modifies, and packages proteins for transport within a cell or to other cells
gametes
haploid reproductive cells, either sperm or egg, serving for sexual reproduction
ATP
adenosine triphosphate; a large molecule made of an adenine molecule, a ribose molecule, and three phosphate groups
atom
the fundamental unit of chemical matter
telophase
the fourth and final step of mitosis
energy
the capacity to do work
G1 phase
the first gap phase in the cell cycle; the first subphase of interphase that occurs immediately following M phase
chemoautotroph
an organism that uses the chemical energy in inorganic substances like sulfur and ammonia to synthesize substances it needs for life
activation energy
the energy that must be added to a chemical reaction to get the reactants to reach their highest-energy state
life cycle
The progression through a series of differing stages of development.
controlled experiment
An experiment that only tests for one variable at a time, so that all other factors can be ruled out.
thylakoids
membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis
binary fission
a process of cell division in prokaryotes in which each daughter cell receives a copy of the cell's chromosome
tetrahedral molecule
a molecule in which four atoms are bound to a central atom, resulting in a tetrahedral shape; the atoms bonded to the central atom lie at the corners of a tetrahedron with 109.5° angles between them
neutral solution
a solution whose pH equals 7
glycolysis
a series of biochemical reactions that cells use to break down glucose and release its chemical energy
deoxyribose
a five-carbon monosaccharide found in DNA
promoter
a region of DNA that is involved in turning a gene on or off
replication bubble
a region of DNA, in front of the replication fork, where helicase has unwound the double helix
disaccharide
a carbohydrate with two sugar units
termination sequence
the region of DNA that tells a cell to stop transcribing a gene
point mutations
changes in a DNA sequence caused by substitution of one nucleotide for another
nucleosome
bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins
endosymbiotic theory
a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes
synapsis
a pairing of replicated chromosomes during meiosis
mutagen
a substance that can cause a change in a DNA sequence
globular protein
a protein that folds into a compact shape so that the polar and ionic amino acids are on the outside and the nonpolar amino acids are on the inside
organ
a specialized structure that carries out a specific function in living organisms
fermentation
an anaerobic process in which electrons produced in glycolysis are transferred onto a substance other than oxygen
sister chromatids
two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere
nuclear pore
a small perforation in the nuclear envelope that connects the cytoplasm with the interior of the nucleus
clone
an exact copy of a gene or an organism; to create an exact copy of a gene or an organism
prokaryotic cell
a cell that lacks a membrane-enclosed nucleus
x-ray crystallography
a laboratory technique that is used to determine the three-dimensional structure of biological molecules such as proteins and DNA
growth
A biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually fom a simple to a more complex level.
monosaccharide
a carbohydrate with just one sugar unit
F₁ generation
the first filial generation; the offspring of a genetic cross
passive transport
a transport process that does not require energy
heterotrophs
organisms that obtain energy by eating other organisms
sexual reproduction
Reproduction that requires genetic material from 2 parents. The offspring have a unique genetic makeup.
mutation
a change in the sequence of DNA
gel electrophoresis
a laboratory technique used to separate biological molecules on the basis of their movement through a gel in an electric field
triglyceride
a lipid molecule formed by a condensation reaction between glycerol and three fatty acid molecules
visible light
electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 380 and 750 nanometers
cancer
the uncontrolled growth of cells that results when cells lose their ability to respond correctly at checkpoints in the cell cycle
prophase
the first step of mitosis
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell that consists of distinct growth and division phases in eukaryotes
acidic solution
a solution whose pH is less than 7
greenhouse effect
the trapping of infrared light reflected off the earth's surface, by gaseous molecules in the Earth's atmosphere
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
acid
a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water
genetics
the study of inheritance of traits
M phase
the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
dominant allele
a form of a gene that appears to control a trait
active transport
a transport process that requires energy
stroma
an area within a chloroplast that lies between the thylakoid membranes; serves as the site of the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis
metaphase
the second step of mitosis
cytokinesis
the division of cytoplasm in M phase of the cell cycle
heterotroph
an organism that obtains energy by eating other organisms
microfilaments
a component of the cytoskeleton that is made from actin proteins
F₂ generation
second filial generation, the offspring of the offspring of a genetic cross
population
a group of individuals of the same species living together in the same area at the same time
absorption spectrum
a graph of absorbance versus wavelength
photoautotroph
an organism that uses light energy to produce carbohydrates, lipids (fats), and proteins
nucleolus
a large structure within a eukaryotic nucleus that makes the structures involved in protein synthesis
dihybrid cross
a genetic cross that involves following two traits to the offspring
community
a collection of organisms whose members interact with one another
cilia
short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell
homeostasis
The ability of an organism to maintain basic life functioning.

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