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Bio Midterm


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organism containing one cell
theodor schwann
concluded animals are made of cells
invented microscope
logistic growth
occurs when a population's growth slows or stops following exponential growth
Lazzaro Spallanzani
boiled 2 flasks of gravy-open one had life, closed didn't-concluded they were offspring from organisms entering from the air
threats to biodiversity
human activities such altering habitats, hunting, introducing toxic compounds, introducing foreign species
cannot be proven, supported by scientific evidence, accepted by scientific community
characteristics of living things
made up of cells, grow & develop, respond to environment, homeostasis, evolve, reproduce, DNA
independent variable
the variable that you change
invasive species
organisms introduced into new habitats and often reproduce rapidly
smallest unit of an organism that is alive, collection of living matter
John Needham
experiment with boiling gravy-concluded spontaneous generation could occur under the right conditions
have cell membranes and cytoplasm but don't have a nucleus
the area where an organism lives
convert food into energy
positively charged particle, in nucleus
rudolf virchow
cells come from existing cells
limiting factor
a factor that causes population growth to decrease
food chain
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
in nucleus, where the assembly of ribosomes begins
the center of an atom (contains protons and neutrons), or cell (contains heredity)
importance of biodiversity
different species provide different resources
eat both plants and animals
a species disappears from all or part of its range
jelly-like material in cell that contains and holds organelles in place
density-dependent limiting factor
include competition, predation, parasitism, and disease
primary succession
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
pH scale
measures how acidic or basic a solution is
the process by which organisms keep their internal conditions relatively stable
endangered species
when a population is declining and it is in danger of extinction
a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
process in which autotrophs use light energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbs/glucose and oxygen
units of measurement
Kilo, Hecto, Deka, deci, centi, milli
controlled experiment
An experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables should be kept unchanged, or controlled.
process where energy is used to convert carbs/glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water
assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area
Louis Pasteur
designed flask with long neck open to air-organisms did not get in until he broke the neck, proved spontaneous generation wrong
ozone depletions effect on humans
ozone depletion allows more UV to reach earth. UV can cause sunburn, cancer, eye damage, and decrease resistance to disease
age structure diagram
(a.k.a. population profile) graph the numbers of people in different age groups in the population
negatively charged particle, rotates around atom
directs activities, passes traits onto new cells made of DNA and RNA, helps make proteins
carrying capacity
the largest number of individuals a population can support
less solute on the outside of the membrane, water rushes in
temperate forest
Location-US, canada, europe, japan, china, australia, Weather-cold winter, warm summer, year round precipitation, Plants-herbs, flowering shrubs, Animals-deer, black bears
used to store energy or as part of biological membrane. (fats, oils, waxes) (C, H)
greenhouse effect
the natural situation in which heat is retained by the layer of greenhouse gases
selective permeability
some substances can pass through call membrane and others cannot
metric system
a decimal system of measurements based on certain physical standards, scaled in units of 10
biological magnification
concentrations of a harmful substance increase in organisms higher on food chains and webs
the movement of individuals into an area
CO2 cycle
released by respiration, human activity, decomposition, volcanic activity, taken in by photosynthesis
substance in which solute is dissolved in (water=universal solvent)
eat only animals
amino acid
acids with a amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end
Location-NW US and canada, california, alaska, Weather-mild, abundant precipitation, Plants-douglas fir, redwood, Animals-bears, owls
group of organisms so similar they can breed and produce fertile offspring
particle with no charge, in nucleus of atom
specialized structures in a cell that perform important cellular functions
the interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
abiotic factor
physical or nonliving factors that shape ecosystems
the scientific study of life
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Polar zones
high north, low south, very cold
the average year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
Tropic zones
near equator, warm
contains pigments that help capture energy from light, site of photosynthesis
ozone layer
concentration of ozone gas above earth's atmosphere
the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between them and their environment
loss of forests
a mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance
active transport
material moves from low concentrated areas to high concentrated areas using transport proteins, requires energy
contains the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists including land, water, air
cell wall
hard layer surrounding a plant cell that provides protection and support
sustainable use
a way of using natural resources at a rate that does not deplete them
characteristics of a population
geographic distribution, density, growth rate
Location-asia, N america, australia, europe, south america, Weather-warm, hot summers, cold winters, moderate, seasonal precipitation, Plants-perennial grasses and herbs, Animals-coyotes, snakes
Temperate zones
between polar and tropical, ranges from hot to cold
biotic factor
biological influences of organisms within an ecosystem
organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
contain nuclei
solution with a pH under 7, more H+ concentration, less OH-
the practice of farming
biomass pyramid
represents the amount of living tissue in each trophic level in an ecosystem
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
used by all types of cells as their basic energy source.
endoplasmic reticulum
transport proteins and other materials
Location-africa, asia, middle east, US, mexico, south america, australia, Weather-low precipitation, dry, Plants-cacti, creosote bush, Animals-mountain lions, kangaroo rats
protein catalyst-controls/speeds up rate of chemical reactions
saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbs
Location-northern north america, asia, europe, Weather-low precipitation, windy, cold, Plants-mosses, lichen, Animals-caribou, snowy owl
polymers of molecules called amino acids, used to form bones/muscles, control the rate of reactions, regulate cell processes, transport substances in or out of cells, help fight disease (C, H, O, N)
cell theory
1) all living things are composed of cells, 2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, 3) new cells are produced from existing cells
quantitative data
measures, anything with numbers
cell specialization
separate roles for each type of cell
density-independent limiting factor
such as natural disasters
habitat fragmentation
ecosystems split into pieces by development
qualitative data
collected with your senses
atomic number
number on the periodic table of elements, same as number of protons
levels of organization in biosphere
break down food molecules and old unused organelles
golgi apparatus
modifies and packages proteins
more solutes on the outside of the membrane, water rushes out
organisms that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and make their own food
tropical rainforest
Location-south/central america, SE asia, africa, india, australia, Weather-hot/wet year round, Plants-large woody vines, evergreen trees, Animals-sloths, frogs
soil erosion
the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind
nucleic acid
assembled from nucleotides, store and transmit heredity, (H, O, N, C, Phosphorus)
protein shape is changed
the sum total of the genetically based variety of organisms in the biosphere
global warming
the increase in average temperature due to the atmosphere capturing more heat
substrate specificity
each substrate (reaction) fits with a specific enzyme
a group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organisms struggle with each other for food
a possible explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.
renewable resource
can regenerate and are therefore replaceable
atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of an element's isotopes
trophic level
a step in a food chain or web
spontaneous generation
The idea that life could arise from nonliving matter.
cell membrane
thin flexible barrier around the cell that regulates what enters and leaves cell, provides protection and support
eat only plants
a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
break down organic matter
solution with a pH over 7, less H+ concentration, more OH-
many groups of tissues working together
dependent variable
the variable that responds to change
acid rain
acidic gases combine with water vapor in the air making rain acidic
ecological succession
the series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time
exponential growth
occurs when the number of individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
ozone layer depletion
CFCs were put in the air, they act as catalysts that enable the light to break up ozone molecules
one of the first widely used pesticides, good example of biological magnification
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
mathias schleiden
concluded plants are made of cells
food web
links all the food chains in an ecosystem together
living things use them as their main source of energy, (C, H, O)
process where molecules move from high concentrated areas to low concentrated areas without requiring the cell to use energy
the movement of individuals out of an area
organism containing multiple cells
nuclear envelope/membrane
surrounds nucleus, has pores that allow material in and out
the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
pioneer species
the first species to populate an area
ecological pyramid
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web(the most is at the base)
mass, length, volume
grams, meters, liters
population density
the number of individuals per unit area
living things come from living things (proved by louis pasteur)
equal concentration of solutes throughout
produce proteins
water cycle
evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, runoff, seepage, root uptake
any necessity or life
robert hooke
made word "cells"
nonrenewable resource
cannot replenish by natural processes
secondary succession
occurs when a disturbance of some kind changes an existing community without removing the soil
the basic unit of matter
elements with the same atomic number but a different number of neutrons
the role an organism plays in its environment

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