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Terms

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Impetigo
infection caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria
origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
Supinate
Turning appendage up (toward sky)
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Pastern Bone
The name of P-2 in large animals
Exostosis
Benign bone tumor
C-7/ T-18/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the horse
Anconeus - Origin
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus
Epiphyseal Plate
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
Osteoclast
Cells that break down bone
Frontalis
forehead muscle (Raises eyebrow andfacial expressions)
Ruminants
MT 3 and MT 4 are fused like in the front leg
Soleus
Fibula, tibia, calcaneal tendon onto calcaneus, plantarflexes foot
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Vastus Intermedius
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
Tendon
Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones
Stay Apparatus
In horses, allows for them to sleep standing up, locks leg in place, due to three patellar ligaments
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Semitendinosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Distal
Farther away from the body
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
involuntary muscles-d
under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments around joint
Cannon Bone
Metacarpal 3 forms this in equines
brachioradialis
Origin: long head- supraglenoid tubercle and glenohumeral labrum & short head- tip of the coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: radial tuberosity &bicipital aponeurosis Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow (when supinated) & supinates forearm from neutral & stabilizes anterior aspect of shoulder & flexes shoulder (weak if at all) Blood: muscular branches of brachial artery Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6
flexor carpi
flexion at the wrist
Active Tension
Tension due to muscle contraction
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Action
Flexion of the wrist, adduction of the wrist, together with the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak flexion of the elbow
smoth muscle
involuntary, found in the walls of the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels
Brachialis - Action
True flexion of the elbow
hamstrings
back of thigh
Thoracic
Vertebrae of the chest or thorax. Have large dorsal spines that tend to slant caudally. Small transverse process that articulate with the ribs
flexor carpi radialis
O: medial epicondyle of humerus | I: 2nd and 3rd metacarpels | A: flexes hand at the wrist; aids in wrist abduction
TERES MINOR
O-LATERAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A-ADDUCTS AND LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
gluteus maximus
butt
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Extensor pollicis longus - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position
Adduct
To move a limb back towards the body
gastrocnemius
o: distal femur; i: calcaneus; plantar flexes foot and knee
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
O-RAMUS OF THE ISCHIUM/ I-LINEA ASPERA/ O- ADDUCTS THIGH
Medullary Cavity
Hollow Center / Children - red bone marrow / adult - yellow bone marrow (fat)
fascia
fibrous connective tissue, extends to the tendons which attach to coverings of adjacent muscles
C-7/ T-13/ L-7/ S-3
Numbers of vertebrae in the dog and cat
Epiphysis
End of the bone
Sesamoids
Extra bones which are located in tendons on the caudal surface of the limb to give them extra leverage and strength
Extensor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
Hemoglobin
gives fair-skinned people a pink hue to their skin due to the lack of melanin in the epidermis, which makes it almost transparent
Anatomy
The study of structure of organisms
Vastus Lateralis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg, stabilizes knee
Aging of integumentary system
Thinner and more prone to damage, fewer immune cells, less vitamin D produced, decrease in melanocyte activity (gray hair), less secretion, skin dries easily, sweat glands less active, fewer capillaries to lose heat, dermis loses elasticity and strength (wrinkles)
rectus femoris
o: pelvis; i: tibial tuberosity; helps flex hip and extend knee
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
TERES MINOR
O-LATERAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A-ADDUCTS AND LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Acromion
Knob at end of scapula. Can feel in large animals, help guide injections
Splint Bones
MC-2 and MC-4 form these in equines. They are attached to the cannon bone by ligaments that can get inflamed and swell up to make blemishes
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
sarcomere
distance from one z line to the next
myosin
thick protien myofibril
Extensor pollicis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Femur
Long bone. Head articulates with the acetabulum. Distally it articulates with the patella.
Hamstrings
Posterior thigh muscle that causes knee flexion
Impacted Fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Microscopic
Need a microscope to see it
Abductor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior aspect of the radius and midshaft of the ulna
MASSETER
O-ZYGOMATIC ARCH AND BONE/ I-RAMUS OF MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND PROTRUDES MANDIBLE
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Action
Extension of the wrist, adduction of the wrist together with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak extension of the elbow
Medullary Cavity
Hollow Center / Children - red bone marrow / adult - yellow bone marrow (fat)
Palmaris longus - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Impacted Fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
gluteus maximus
O: iliac crest; sacrum; cocyx | I: femur | A: extends and laterally rotates thigh; abducts and adducts thigh
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
brachialis
flexes elbow
rectus abdominis
stomach
Pronator teres - Insertion
Middle third of the lateral surface of the radius
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of thoracic spine
Deltoid
Shoulder muscle that causes shoulder abduction
Tibialis Anterior
Tibia, first cuneiform and first metatarsals, dorsiflexes and inverts foot
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
digastric
opens jaw
SEMI MEMBRANOS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I-MEDIAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
external oblique
o: lower 8 ribs; i: illiac crest; flexes and rotates vertebral column
Transverse Plane
Right angles to the median plane
Platysmus
Neck muscle, helps frown
Semitendinosus
Lateral portion of the hamstring
Semimembranosus
Medial portion of the hamstring
Palmaris longus - Action
Flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
vastus medialis
O: femur | I: quadriceps tendon | A: extends knee
Extensor pollicis brevis - Origin
Posterior surface of the lower middle radius
Palmar
Caudal surface of front legs from wrist to toes
Osteocytes
Bone cells
Biceps Femoris
flex the knee
Plantaris
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Anconeus - Action
Extension of the elbow
Extensor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
tendon
the strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscles
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
Gastrocnemius
planter flextion of the foot, between knee and ankle
Navicular Disease
Degeneration of the navicular bone over time that leads to chronic lameness
Latissimus Dorsi
Back muscle that causes shoulder extension, adduction, horizontal abduction and horizontal abduction
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
Tarsus
Hock joint or ankle. Cuboidal bones similar to wrist bones. Usually 7 bones.
Brachialis - Origin
Distal half of the anterior shaft of the humerus
Fibula
Lateral to the tibia. Sort of like the ulna, can extend from stifle to tarsus, or may be fused with tibia, or only partially present like in the horse
Cribriform Plate
Has openings called ethmoid foramina, part of the ethmoid bones
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Kyphosis
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Cancellous
Spongy, light weight found near ends of bone for shock absorption
Meniscus
Inside the joint. Cartilage plates which help make the ends of the bones fit together better, can get torn
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Drawer Sign
Bend leg slightly, move femur and tibia in opposite directions to see if there is looseness, Tested if suspected torn cruciate ligament, + means that there is a problem and animal needs surgery
Biceps brachii - Origin
Long head- supraglenoid tubercle above the superior lip of the glenoid fossa, Short head- coracoid process of the scapula and upper lip of the glenoid fossa in conjunction with the proximal attachment of the coracobrachialis
hamstrings
back of thigh
Triceps brachii - Action
All heads- extension of the elbow, Long head- extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint
Nails
protect digits, plates of keratinezed epidermal cells
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Pronator quadratus - Action
Pronation of the forearm
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium, Iliotibial tract, Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
Extensor digitorum - Insertion
Four tendons to bases of middle and distal phalanxes of four fingers (dorsal surface)
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
Urticaria or hives
itching from allergy, stress or drug reactions
platysma
o: connective tissue covering chest muscles; i: tissue around mouth; pulls corner of mouth down
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Masseter
powerful chewing muscle
rectus abdominis
stomach
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity
Concentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by shortening
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
C-7/ T-13/ L-7/ S-3
Numbers of vertebrae in the dog and cat
Abductor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Sprain
Tearing or overstretching of a ligament. Ligaments attach bone to bone.
Olecranon Fossa
On caudal surface of distal humerus. Depression where anconeal process of olecranon locks when elbow is locked in extended position
Adduct
To move a limb back towards the body
Soleus
Innervation: Sciatic Nerve, tibial branch
Epiphyseal Line
No more growth
Supinator - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and neighboring posterior part of the ulna
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Jaundice
Liver can't excrete bile, get rid of bilirubin, skin and whites of eyes are yellow
Bipennate
feathered on two sides of the tendon.
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Caudal
Towards the tail
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Brachialis - Action
True flexion of the elbow
Pronation
Moving bones so radius and ulna are NOT parallel
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Cyanosis
blue, the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface
Pronator quadratus - Insertion
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the radius
Deep wound healing (injury beyond stratum basale)
Inflammatory phase (blood clot forms), migratory phase (cells migrate), proliferative phase (continues), maturation phase (scab falls off)
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Comminuted Fracture
fracture lines are multiple and the bone is splintered and crushed
Ethmoid Turninates
Curled sheets of bone sometimes called scrolls, which are covered in mucous membrane
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Epiphyseal Line
No more growth
Endosteum
Inner layer of the compact an cancellous bone
Agonist
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
Extensor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior lateral surface of the lower middle ulna
trapezius
O: occipital protuberance; C7; all T vertebrae | I: clavicle and scapular spine | A: retraction; elevation; depression; upward rotation of shoulder
Ewings
Malignant bone tumor
SEMI MEMBRANOS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I-MEDIAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Dermatitis
skin inflammation
Fetlock Bone
The name of P-1 in large animals
shin splints
soreness of the front lower leg, strain or flexor digitorium longus commonly caused by running or walking up and down hills
Articular Cavity
Space between bones
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
erector spinea
o: illiac crests, ribs 3-12, vertebrae; i: rubs thoracic and cervical vertebrae; extends back
Epiphysis
End of the bone
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Phalanges
Digits or fingers. 5 in dogs cats and humans. Each digit has 3 bones except thumb (digit one or dewclaw) which has 2
Smooth
Non-striated involuntary muscle w/only one nucleus- found on internal organs
Collagen
Fibrous tissue that adds strength to other tissues; gelatin, capsule around muscles
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Decubitis (pressure) ulcer
Bedsore
Foramen Magnum
A large hole in the occipital bone for the passage of nerves into the spinal cord
The Length-Tension Relation states that the number of sarcomeres can
change over time to optimize the length-tension relationship
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
pectoralis major
chest
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of cells
SOLEUS
A-PLANTAR FLEXES FOOT
Leukoplakia or vitiligo
condition of the mouth that involves the formation of white leathery spots on the mucous membranes of the tongue and inside of the mouth, vitiligo is similar but not in the mouth. possibly auto-immune
Ewings
Malignant bone tumor
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Osteochondrosis dessicans
OCD- degeneration of articular cartilage in joint-flaps
Rectus Femoris
Ilium, patella, tibia, extends knee, flexes thigh
Epiphyseal Plate
Area of long bone where growth occurs
Semimembranosus
Medial portion of the hamstring
Semitendinosus
Lateral portion of the hamstring
tendon
the strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones
Endosteum
Inner layer of the compact an cancellous bone
The Cell
The basic unit of living things
vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medius
o: femur; i: tibial tuberosity; extends knees powerfully
Tendon Sheath
Elongated bursa. Surrounds a tendon, Found along long tendons in bone
Wart
virus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Sprain
Tearing or overstretching of a ligament. Ligaments attach bone to bone.
Fibula
Lateral to the tibia. Sort of like the ulna, can extend from stifle to tarsus, or may be fused with tibia, or only partially present like in the horse
Phalanges
Digits or fingers. 5 in dogs cats and humans. Each digit has 3 bones except thumb (digit one or dewclaw) which has 2
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
deltoids
shoulder
Gross
What we can see with the naked eye
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
involuntary muscles-ex
smooth muscles found in the internal organs and cardiac muscles
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Abdomino-Pelvic
Surrounds all the organs in the 'belly,' intestine, uterus, kidneys etc...
endomysium
covering of the muscle fibers (cells)
Adductors
Muscles that cause adduction
Plantaris
Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of femur
Paresis
Muscle weakness or partial paralysis
cisternae
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum on both sides of the transvers tubules
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Nervous
Conducts never signals; found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Epidermis and dermis
Epidermis is superficial epithelium, dermis is underlying area of connective tissues
Cranial Nerve I
The olfactory nerve
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
tibialis posterior
O: interosseous membrane; tibia; fibula | I: metatarsels; tarsels |A: plantarflexion; inversion
Ethmoid Foramina
Openings that let the olfactory nerve leave the brain and enter the nasal passages
Layers of the epidermis
Bottom to top: Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum
Orbicularis oris muscle
muscle that allows you to move your lips
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Wart
virus
Leukoplakia or vitiligo
condition of the mouth that involves the formation of white leathery spots on the mucous membranes of the tongue and inside of the mouth, vitiligo is similar but not in the mouth. possibly auto-immune
Circumduction
moving bone or limb in a circle
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Condyles
Rounded knobs at distal end of humerus that articulate with radius and ulna to form elbow joint
Brachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve and sometimes branches from radial and median nerves (C5, C6)
Distal
Farther away from the body
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
O-RAMUS OF THE ISCHIUM/ I-LINEA ASPERA/ O- ADDUCTS THIGH
Plantaris
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
Palmaris longus - Insertion
Palmer aponeurosis of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals
What protein maintains the position of the myosin in the center and prevents it from being pulled apart
Titin
Pelvic Symphysis
Where the two halves of the pelvis join ventrally
Pronator teres - Action
Pronation of the forearm, weak flexion of the elbow
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Ishium
Most caudal of the three bones. Caudal prominence is called the tuber ischii.
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Deep
Near the center of the body
Vastus Medialis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Olecranon
Proximal part of ulna. Point of elbow. Funny bone. Has anconeal process that fits into the olecranon fossa
Extensor digitorum - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Gastrocnemius
Enables one to stand on tip toes & is enlarged in dancers (calf of leg)
Ribs
Same number as thoracic vertebrae. Articulate dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae, articulate ventrally with the sternum. Ventral portion is cartilage
motor end plate
specialized area of neuromuscular junction on the muscle fiber
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Pronation
Moving bones so radius and ulna are NOT parallel
Tarsus
Hock joint or ankle. Cuboidal bones similar to wrist bones. Usually 7 bones.
Patellar Luxation
If the trochlea is not deep enough , the patella can pop out of the groove and cause lameness, termed _________.
Muscle Tone
Resting tension that is set by the CNS
Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in birds, aka the wishbone
C-7/ T-13/ L-7/ S-3
Numbers of vertebrae in the dog and cat
Palmaris longus - Insertion
Palmer aponeurosis of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals
Ruminants
MT 3 and MT 4 are fused like in the front leg
Drawer Sign
Bend leg slightly, move femur and tibia in opposite directions to see if there is looseness, Tested if suspected torn cruciate ligament, + means that there is a problem and animal needs surgery
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
Extensor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Articulation
Another name for joint
Temporal Bones
Make up sides of head, has three sections
Physiology
Study of how things function
Talipes
Clubfoot - congenital anomalies
action
type of movement a muscle produces
quadriceps
thigh
Anconeus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
System
Groups of organs working together to do a common job
Strains
Tearing or overstretching of a muscle. Tendons attach muscles to bone.
Ilium
Largest of the three bones of the pelvis. Cranial portion of each ox coxae. wing, body
Joint Capsule
Surrounds the joint cavity, has 2 layers
Irregular
Unpaired bones. Ex: vertebrae, sternebrae, os penis, few skull bones
Dorsal Plane
Cuts body into upper and lower halves
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Smooth Muscle
completly involuntary
Median Plane
Cuts body in half longitudally
rectus abdominis
straight (rectus) abdominal muscle
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Four types of muscle fibers parallel to the tendon
Strap, Fusiform, Rhomboidal, Triangular
What are the 3 Types of Muscle Fibers
Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle fibers
Irregular Bones
Vertebrae, Malleus, incus, stapes
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
Adductor
Move the limb towards the body
Biceps Femoris
flex the knee
Abrasion
Scrape or surface damage, stratum basale cells migrate, mitosis
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
System
Groups of organs working together to do a common job
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: proximal medial surface of tibia
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-ILIAC CREAST AND INGUINAL LIGAMENTS AND THORACIC LUMBAR FASCIA/ I- LOWER RIBS ABD LINEA ASPERA/ A- CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Osteoclast
Cells that break down bone
Axis
C-2, has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
smoth muscle
involuntary, found in the walls of the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels
Gluteals
"Rump muscles" extend hip, and abduct limb ORIGIN: Ilium INSERTION: Greater Trochanter of the femur
Luxation
Dislocation- femur pops out of acetabulum
Pelvic Limb
Hind Leg
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Dewclaws
MC-2 and MC-5 form these in ruminants
Osteoblast
Cells that make bone
Eccentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by lengthening
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
Cranial Nerve I
The olfactory nerve
Degenerative Joint Disease
DJD- another name for arthritis, secondary to structural deformities that cause abnormal articulation of bones
Quadriceps Femoris
Cranial thigh muscles, extend stifle
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Dorsal
Towards the back
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
Pronator quadratus - Origin
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the ulna
Pronation
Moving bones so radius and ulna are NOT parallel
Rule of nines, lund and browder chart
Determine percentage of body burned in an injury
Pubis
Smallest of the three bones. Forms much of the ventral floor of the pelvic canal. Has a hole in it called the obturator foramen which make it more light weight. two halves meet at the pelvic symphysis
Scapula
Shoulder blade, flat bone, no boney attachment to rest of skeleton in most species
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Flexor
Bend the joint th way it wants to bend
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Posterior aspect of the proximal ulna
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
Functions of integumentary system
Thermoregulation, protection (physical and immune), sensory (in dermis and hypodermis), excretion (sensible and insensible), storage (nutrients, esp. adipose), blood reservoir (10% of vessels), synthesis (vitamin d3 and melanin), absorption (gases, UV light, water, vitamins)
fascia
fibrous connective tissue, extends to the tendons which attach to coverings of adjacent muscles
Anconeus - Insertion
Posterior surface of the lateral olecranon process and proximal one-fourth of the ulna
Abductor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior aspect of the radius and midshaft of the ulna
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
Calcaneus
Fibular tarsal bone (most important), heel bone/hock, large projection caudally, the achilles tendon attaches to it
Osteogenesis
Bone formation
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Origin
Lower third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral epicondyle of the humeral
Urticaria or hives
itching from allergy, stress or drug reactions
voluntary muscles-d
a person consciously shooses which muscles to contract and how long and how hard to contract them
trapezius
o: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae; i: scalpular spine and clavicle; extends neck and adducts
Anatomy
The study of structure of organisms
Is a Type IIB muscle fiber slow or fast twitch
Fast
Obturator Foramen
Holes in the pubis of the pelvis that make it more light weight
Stifle Joint
Formed by the articulation of the femur, patella and tibia
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Sarcomere
The smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
Atrophy
Muscle shrinkage, decrease in size of muscles
Adductor
Move the limb towards the body
Stratum corneum
Most superficial, "horn-like" cornified or keratinized, 15-30 layers flat and dead, 15-30 days from stratum basale then 10-14 days until lost, tightly connected
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium, Iliotibial tract, Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
abductor muscles
o: pelvis; i: femur; press thighs together
Pronator quadratus - Action
Pronation of the forearm
Jaundice
Liver can't excrete bile, get rid of bilirubin, skin and whites of eyes are yellow
Palmaris longus - Insertion
Palmer aponeurosis of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals
MASSETER
O-ZYGOMATIC ARCH AND BONE/ I-RAMUS OF MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND PROTRUDES MANDIBLE
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Deltoid
Common site for injections - Shoulder
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
Transverse Abdominis
Ilium, Linea alba and pubic crest, compresses abdominal wall
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
MASSETER
O-ZYGOMATIC ARCH AND BONE/ I-RAMUS OF MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND PROTRUDES MANDIBLE
Pectoralis Major
Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction
Hamstrings
Posterior thigh muscle that causes knee flexion
digastric
opens jaw
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Vastus Intermedius
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Paresis
Muscle weakness or partial paralysis
Stratum lucidum
only in soles or palms, 3-5 layers, clear with no nuclei, flat and dead
Abductor
Moves the limb away from the body
Extensor pollicis brevis - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Wrist abduction
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Osteology
The study of bones
Flexion
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Femoral condyles
Supinator - Action
Supination of the forearm
Osseous
Bone Tissue
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Talipes
Clubfoot - congenital anomalies
Gelatinous Marrow
Broken down marrow, in old and starving animals
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-METACARPALS 2 AND 3/ A-FLEXES AND ABDUCTS HANDS
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
Biceps brachii - Insertion
Tuberosity of the radius and bicipital aponeurosis
Tarsus
Hock joint or ankle. Cuboidal bones similar to wrist bones. Usually 7 bones.
gluteus minimus
O: ilium | I: greater trochanter of femur | A: abducts and medially rotates thigh
Short Bone Characteristic
Can withstand alot of pressure
Crainium
Bones that surround the cranial cavity
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Muscle spindles are responsible for
deep tendon reflexes
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, Middle two-fourths of the posterior border of the ulna
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Nails
protect digits, plates of keratinezed epidermal cells
Vestigial Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in cats
Short Bone Characteristic
Can withstand alot of pressure
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
Closed Reductions
manual manipulation of the ends of the fractured bone so that normal alignment is maintained
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Lateral
Away from the midline
Partial Thickness and full thickness
1st and 2nd degree burns are "partial thickness", 3rd are full thickness
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
Vestigial Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in cats
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of cells
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Plantaris
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Anterior Deltoid
Front part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder flexion and horizontal adduction
insertion
more moveable bone is considered to be where the muscle ends
Muscle Classification can be what to the tendon
Parallel or Oblique
Antagonist
Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
Gracilis
Pubis, tibia, adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg
Temporal Bulla
Bulb like cavity that contains the middle ear where the stirrup, anvil and hammer are
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
Short
More 'square' shock absorbers, wrist and ankle bones
Condyles
Rounded knobs at distal end of humerus that articulate with radius and ulna to form elbow joint
gluteus medius
O: ilium | I: greater trochanter of femur | A: abducts and medially rotates thigh
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Fixator
Muscles that stabilize proximally to allow the agonist to work effectively
Cartilage Bone
Made from cartilage bars in the fetus that become calcified over time
biceps
two, muscle in the upper arm that has two heads or connecting points
C-7/T-13/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the cow
vastus medialis
O: intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
temporalis
o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Onychectomy
Dewclaw procedure
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
Foramen magmum
Large opening in the occipital bone
triceps
back of arm
Wart
virus
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Epiphyseal Plate
Area of long bone where growth occurs
Extension
To straighten a joint
Chestnut
Remnant of MC-1 forms this on the medial side of the leg in equines
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Anconeus - Origin
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus
Axis
C-2, has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1
Dorsal Plane
Cuts body into upper and lower halves
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Deltoid
Common site for injections - Shoulder
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Orbicularis oculi
muscle that allows winking, blinking
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Tibialis Anterior
Tibia, first cuneiform and first metatarsals, dorsiflexes and inverts foot
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
digastric
opens jaw
Hypodermis
It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages
Flexor pollicis longus - Action
Flexion of the thumb carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Flexion of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist
peroneus brevis
O: lateral shaft of fibula; I: 5th metatarsal tendon
Anterior Deltoid
Front part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder flexion and horizontal adduction
Floating Ribs
Never join the sternum
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
1 square inch of the integumentary system contains
>3 million cells, 15 ft of blood vessels, 4 yards nerves, 650 sweat glands, 100 oil glands, 1500 sensory receptors
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Soleus
Origin: head and proximal fibula, posteromedial tibia
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Calcaneus
Fibular tarsal bone (most important), heel bone/hock, large projection caudally, the achilles tendon attaches to it
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Plantaris
Action: flexes knee; plantar flexes foot
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
gluteous maximus
rump area, large
Antagonists
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
Biceps Femoris
flex the knee
Extensor digitorum - Action
Extension of the second, third, fourth, and fifth phalanges at the metacarpophalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, weak extension of the elbow
Muscle
Used for movement- skeletal, striated and cardiac
Triceps brachii - Insertion
Olecranon process of the ulna
Superficial
Near the surface of the body
auricular
wiggle ears
Talipes
Clubfoot - congenital anomalies
Physiology
Study of how things function
Hemoglobin
gives fair-skinned people a pink hue to their skin due to the lack of melanin in the epidermis, which makes it almost transparent
myoneural junction
point of which the motor nerve contacts a muscle fiber
Plantar
Caudal surface of the hind legs from the ankle to the toes
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
abductor muscles
o: pelvis; i: femur; press thighs together
actin
thin protien myofibril
Extensor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior lateral surface of the lower middle ulna
Cartilage
Gristle type tissue. Discs between vertebrae, ear, joint surface
Coffin Bone
The name of P-3 in large animals
Latissimus Dorsi
Back muscle that causes shoulder extension, adduction, horizontal abduction and horizontal abduction
Pili
for protection from cold, sun, particles, produced by hair bulb and enclosed in hair follicle
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
Incisive Bone
Most rostral bone of upper jaw-contains upper incisors and forms part of the hard palate
Arch
Has 2 halves that curve upwards to meet on the midline. They are dorsal and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Sternocleidomastoid
Strong bandlike muscle involved in "wry neck" known as torticollis (flexes and rotates the head)
Foramen magmum
Large opening in the occipital bone
Greater Tubercle
Non-articular knob lateral to head. Point of shoulder when palpating joint
Humerus
Upper arm bone, long bone, 2 ends with shaft in middle
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Action
Flexion of the wrist, adduction of the wrist, together with the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak flexion of the elbow
Dorsal
Towards the back
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
latissimus dorsi
o: lower spine and illiac crest; i: proximal humerus; extends and adducts humerus
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones. Front 'knee' of horse and other large animals. 6-8 short bones in 2 rows
endomysium
covering of the muscle fibers (cells)
Internal Oblique
Lmbodorsal fascia, Lower 4 ribs, Flexion and rotation at waist
Cancellous
Spongy, light weight found near ends of bone for shock absorption
Extensor pollicis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Sphincter
Circular muscles around an opening
Semimembranosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Ethmoid Turninates
Curled sheets of bone sometimes called scrolls, which are covered in mucous membrane
Short
More 'square' shock absorbers, wrist and ankle bones
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Abductors
Muscles that cause abduction
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
gastrocnemius
O: 2 heads: medial and lateral epicondyle of fibula; I: calcaneal tuberosity
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Tibialis posterior
Action: Plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts food
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Olecranon Fossa
On caudal surface of distal humerus. Depression where anconeal process of olecranon locks when elbow is locked in extended position
deltoids
shoulder
Arch
Has 2 halves that curve upwards to meet on the midline. They are dorsal and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
Pronator quadratus - Innervation
Median nerve (palmar interosseous branch) (C6, C7)
Coracobrachialis
Origin: coracoid process of the scapula; Insertion: medial shaft of the humerus at about its middle; Action: flexes the humerus,assists to adduct the humerus; Blood: muscular branches of the brachial artery;Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6,(C7)
latissimus dorsi
O: thoracic vertebrae | I: humerus | A: extension; adduction; medial rotation
Paraplegia
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in th trunk and lower extremities
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Paraplegia
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in th trunk and lower extremities
Brachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve and sometimes branches from radial and median nerves (C5, C6)
Olecranon Fossa
On caudal surface of distal humerus. Depression where anconeal process of olecranon locks when elbow is locked in extended position
Supinator - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and neighboring posterior part of the ulna
Long
More length than width, used for locomotion ex: femur, humerus
Stifle Joint
Formed by the articulation of the femur, patella and tibia
Ergot
Remnant of MC-5 forms this on the palmar surface of the lower leg in equines
tibialis anterior
o: proximal tibia; i: 1st cuneiform (tarsal); dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Superficial
Near the surface of the body
4th step in muscle contration
calcium is released
Semimembranosus
Medial portion of the hamstring
Acetabulum
Hip socket. Formed by all three bones of the pelvis. Where the femur articulates
Trapezius
shoulder muscle that moves scapula
Caudal
Towards the tail
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
orbicularis oculi
o: frontal bone; i: tissue around eyes; blinks and closes eyes
Os Coxae
Hip, pelvis
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
VASTUS MEDIALIS
O- LINEA ASPERA/ I- TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-EXTENDS THE LEG
Concentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by shortening
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Adductor
Move the limb towards the body
Synovial Fluid
Lubricates, nourishes, and keeps the joint moveable
Gastrocnemius
planter flextion of the foot, between knee and ankle
Syndactyly
"mulefoot" in cattle, Recessive gene, foot looks like a horses foot, toes are fused together
Quadriceps
Anterior thigh muscle that causes extension at the knee
Ligament
Strong dense tissue that connects bone to bone
Tibialis posterior
Origin: proximal tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane
Dens
Cranial projection of the axis that fits into the atlas
Manubrium
First sterebrae, at the thoracic inlet
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Anconeus - Insertion
Posterior surface of the lateral olecranon process and proximal one-fourth of the ulna
Polydactyly
Extra fingers/toes
Stratum granulosum
Granular, 3-5 layers, flattened; accumulating proteins especially carotene
Energy in the form of what is needed to contract or release a muscle
ATP
Long
More length than width, used for locomotion ex: femur, humerus
Ilium
Largest of the three bones of the pelvis. Cranial portion of each ox coxae. wing, body
Extension
To straighten a joint
Hamstrings
Posterior thigh muscle that causes knee flexion
Axis
C-2, has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
rectus abdominis
stomach
Organ
Groups of tissues that work together
gastrocnemius
calf
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine; ilium | I: quadriceps tendon | A: extends knee; helps iliopsoas flex thigh at hip
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Triceps brachii - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Extensor digiti minimi - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Skeletal muscle
also called striated
Sacral
Vertebrae that articulates with the pelvis. Usually fused together in most species. Articulate with tuber sacrale of the ilium. Has dorsal process
Rectus Abdominis
Pubic bone, Ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process, flexion at waist
Adipose
Fat storage. White in most animals. Yellow in Gurnsey cattle and horses. Brown in newborns
Antagonist
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Insertion
Base of the second metacarpal (dorsal surface)
extensor carpi
extension at the wrist
Frontal Bones
More rostral to parietal bones, make up caudal part of eye socket, have large sinus under them that communicate with the nasal passages, location from which horns and antlers grow
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres; several are contained within one muscle fiber
Articular Surface
The end of the bone that is articulating with another bone joint, surfaces of bone are covered with cartilage which makes them shiny and smooth
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
TERES MINOR
O-LATERAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A-ADDUCTS AND LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Greater Tubercle
Non-articular knob lateral to head. Point of shoulder when palpating joint
tibialis posterior
Innervation: Sciatic nerve, tibial branch
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Vertebrae
Becomes progressively larger down to the sacrum and then become successively smaller.
Shoulder
Joint with greatest range of motion
Long Bones
Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
Epiphysis
End of the bone
Psoriasis
Chronic, noninfectious, raised, reddened round plaques covered by silvery white scales
Biceps brachii - Innervation
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Passive Tension
Tension due to stretch
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
Flexor pollicis longus - Origin
Middle anterior surface of the radius and the anterior medial border of the ulna just distal to the coronoid process; occasionally a small head is present attaching on the medial epicondyle of the humerus
Intercalated Discs
Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells
Zygomaticus
smiling muscle
Ringworm
fungus
Abduction
Moving bones or limb away from the midline
tendon
the strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones
Coffin Bone
The name of P-3 in large animals
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity
biceps
arm
Nervous
Conducts never signals; found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Supinator - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6)
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Comminuted Fracture
fracture lines are multiple and the bone is splintered and crushed
rectus abdominis
O: pubic bone | I: lower costal cartilage of ribs and xyphoid process of sternum | A: flexes vertebral column
Muscle
Used for movement- skeletal, striated and cardiac
Tissue
Specialized groups of cells with the same function
rectus abdominis
O: pubic bone | I: lower costal cartilage of ribs and xyphoid process of sternum | A: flexes vertebral column
gracilis
O: pubic bone | I: tibia | A: adducts thigh; flexes leg at knee
Insertion
attachment to a bone which moves in the ordinary active in the body (distal)
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in birds, aka the wishbone
Gastrocnemius
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion e.g. jumping
actin
thin protien myofibril
Isometric Contraction
Muscle contracts but there is no movement, muscle stays the same length
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
soleus
o: proximal tibia and fibula; i: calcaneus; plantar flexes the foot
The Cell
The basic unit of living things
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Flexor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (palmer surface)
Lesion
Wounded or damaged area
Basal cell carcinoma
Most common skin cancer, rarely fatal, but can be disfiguring
Albinism
melanocytes can't sythesize melanin
Agonist
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
Gelatinous Marrow
Broken down marrow, in old and starving animals
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
biceps femoris
O: 2 heads: long-ischial tuberosity, short: linea aspera of femur; I: head of fibula
Nasal Bones
Dorsal bones of face-form roof of nasal cavity
Gastrocnemius
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion e.g. jumping
Ventral
Towards the belly
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
Cyanosis
blue, the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Melanin
only melanin is made in the skin. Melanin can be gradated into many different shades. It is this ability of Melanin that gives different races different skin coloration. A special type of cells known as melanocytes produces melanin, Melanocytes are primarily found in the stratum germinativum. Whenever the skin has had an exposure to sunlight, the stratum germinativum cells, phagocytize or eat the skin pigment melanin. After an amount of time, melanin accumulates within the stratum germinativum cells, and tends to form a protective pigment "umbrella". These "umbrellas of melanin pigment shields DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Thoracic
Surrounds the heart and lungs
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Floating Ribs
Never join the sternum
Foramen Magnum
A large hole in the occipital bone for the passage of nerves into the spinal cord
tibialis posterior
Innervation: Sciatic nerve, tibial branch
h band
contain only myosin
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Cannon Bone
Metacarpals 3 & 4 are fused together to form this in ruminants
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Hot thermoregulation
Perspire, evaporation cools skin, vessels dilate, blood nears surface of skin
vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and linea aspera of femur | I: quadriceps tendon | A: extends knee
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
TRAPEZIUS
O-OCCIPITAL BONE AND SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE C7 TO T12 I-ACROMION PROCESS AND SPINE OF SCAPULA AND THE ACROMIAL END OF THE CLAVICLE/ A-UPPER PART EXTENDS HEAD AND ELEVATES SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE, LOWER PART DEPRESSES SCAPULA TOGETHER
Hypodermis
It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Transverse Process
Project laterally
Stratum granulosum
Granular, 3-5 layers, flattened; accumulating proteins especially carotene
Gastrocnemius
Insertion: Calcaneous via calcaneal tendon
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Xiphoid
Last sternebrae
Adduction
Moving bones or limb toward the midline
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
Gastrocnemius
Femur, via achilles tendon onto calcaneal tendon, flexes lower leg, plantarflexes foot
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
PSOAS MAJOR
O-BODY AND TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS/ A- WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
serratus anterior
O: first 8-9 ribs | I: inside of vertebral border of scapula | A: protraction and upward rotation of shoulder
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
Pubis
Smallest of the three bones. Forms much of the ventral floor of the pelvic canal. Has a hole in it called the obturator foramen which make it more light weight. two halves meet at the pelvic symphysis
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
Maxilla
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
Haversian Canals
Channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Tendon Sheath
Elongated bursa. Surrounds a tendon, Found along long tendons in bone
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
O-RAMUS OF THE ISCHIUM/ I-LINEA ASPERA/ O- ADDUCTS THIGH
Insertion
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
tibialis posterior
O: interosseous membrane; tibia; fibula | I: metatarsels; tarsels |A: plantarflexion; inversion
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Greater Trochanter
Large knob on the proximal end of the femur for muscle attachments
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on ONE side of the body
Hemiplegia
Type I Muscle Fiber
Slow twitch; built for endurance; red
Trochlea
Patella rides in this groove of the distal femur
Metatarsal Bones
Similar to metacarpal bones. Foot bones
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
White Marrow
Hard fatty marrow, cannot become active
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
PSOAS MAJOR
O-BODY AND TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS/ A- WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
O-RAMUS OF THE ISCHIUM/ I-LINEA ASPERA/ O- ADDUCTS THIGH
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Coracobrachialis
Origin: coracoid process of the scapula; Insertion: medial shaft of the humerus at about its middle; Action: flexes the humerus,assists to adduct the humerus; Blood: muscular branches of the brachial artery;Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6,(C7)
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity | I: medial epicondyle of tibia | A: flexes leg at knee; rotates flexed log laterally; extend thigh at hip joint
motor end plate
specialized area of neuromuscular junction on the muscle fiber
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Articular Cavity
Space between bones
motor neurons
of the nervous system and stimulates skeletal muscles
gluteus maximus
o: sacrum and illiam; i: proximal femur; extends hip
Urticaria or hives
itching from allergy, stress or drug reactions
Yellow Marrow
Fatty marrow that can become active
vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and linea aspera; I: tibial tuberosity
VASTUS MEDIALIS
O- LINEA ASPERA/ I- TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-EXTENDS THE LEG
Strap muscle fiber
long and narrow. Thigh.
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Tetraplegia
Paralysis of the trunk and LE's and some or all of the UE's
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Biceps brachii - Origin
Long head- supraglenoid tubercle above the superior lip of the glenoid fossa, Short head- coracoid process of the scapula and upper lip of the glenoid fossa in conjunction with the proximal attachment of the coracobrachialis
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Action
Flexion of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
Foramen magmum
Large opening in the occipital bone
Luxation
Dislocation- femur pops out of acetabulum
Compound Fracture
Open - bone pierces the skin
Collarbone
Boney attachment to scapula in humans
Occipital Bones
Back of head. Caudal bone of skull, articulates with atlas, Has large opening that allows the spinal cord to leave the brain to enter the spinal canal
extensor hallucis longus
O: fibula | I: big toe | A: extends big toe; assists in dorsiflexion
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Muscle
Made up of fasicicles
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Vastus Medialis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Layers of the epidermis
Bottom to top: Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
Periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
iliocostalis
O: posterior iliac crest of os coxa; I: posterior angle of ribs
Flexor digitorum profundus - Origin
Proximal three-fourths of the anterior and medial ulna
Ventral
Towards the belly
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
gastrocnemius
calf
pectoralis minor
O: ribs 3-5 | I: coracoid process of scapula | A: protraction, depression and downward rotation of shoulder
Muscle
Made up of fasicicles
Triceps bracii
extend the elbow joint
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Osteoblast
Cells that make bone
Temporal Bones
Make up sides of head, has three sections
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
latissimus dorsi
back
Antagonists
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
extensor digitorum longus
o: proximal tibia and radius; i: distal toes 2-5; extends toes and dorsiflexes foot
Deltoid
Shoulder muscle that causes shoulder abduction
Frontalis
forehead muscle (Raises eyebrow andfacial expressions)
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Adductor Femoris
Ischium and pubis, femur, adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh
sternocleidomastoid
stern/o (sternum), cleid/o (clavicle), single insertion (mastoid process)
White Marrow
Hard fatty marrow, cannot become active
Flat
Protection, skull bones and ribs
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
Tuber coxae
Lateral most projection, hook bone
Gross
What we can see with the naked eye
Extensor pollicis longus - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Action
Flexion of the wrist, adduction of the wrist, together with the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak flexion of the elbow
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
z line
dark line in the middle of the i band where actin attaches
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Calcaneus
Fibular tarsal bone (most important), heel bone/hock, large projection caudally, the achilles tendon attaches to it
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Muscles
ends in tendons
Titin is a
protein that connects M lines to Z lines
Active Tension
Tension due to muscle contraction
Foramen Magnum
A large hole in the occipital bone for the passage of nerves into the spinal cord
Arch
Has 2 halves that curve upwards to meet on the midline. They are dorsal and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen
Chestnut
Remnant of MC-1 forms this on the medial side of the leg in equines
Trapezius
shoulder muscle that moves scapula
Arthritis
Inflammation or infection of the joint
2nd step in muscle contration
ACH diffuese across synapitic cleft and attches to ACH reccepotrs on the sarcolemma
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Drawer Sign
Bend leg slightly, move femur and tibia in opposite directions to see if there is looseness, Tested if suspected torn cruciate ligament, + means that there is a problem and animal needs surgery
gluteus maximus
O: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx; I: gluteal tuberosity
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in birds, aka the wishbone
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Pronator teres - Origin
Distal part of the medial condyloid ridge of the humerus and medial side of the proximal ulna
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
Flexor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (palmer surface)
external oblique
o: lower 8 ribs; i: illiac crest; flexes and rotates vertebral column
Palmar
Caudal surface of front legs from wrist to toes
Sternocleidomastoid
Strong bandlike muscle involved in "wry neck" known as torticollis (flexes and rotates the head)
Osteocytes
Osteoblasts that have been surrounded by bone, and are trapped
Cardiac
Striated, involuntary muscle found exclusively on the heart
Dewclaws
MC-2 and MC-5 form these in ruminants
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Cervical Vertebrae - 2nd
Axes - allows for the rotation movement of the head
Head
Smooth, rounded proximal end of humerus that articulates with glenoid cavity
Osteocytes
Osteoblasts that have been surrounded by bone, and are trapped
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
gluteus maximus
o: sacrum and illiam; i: proximal femur; extends hip
Simple Fracture
Closed - Fracture does not pierce through the skin
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-ILIAC CREAST AND INGUINAL LIGAMENTS AND THORACIC LUMBAR FASCIA/ I- LOWER RIBS ABD LINEA ASPERA/ A- CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Gluteus Maximus
Ilium, sacrum, coccyx, femur, extension, and lateral rotation of thigh
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
Transverse Process
Project laterally
Closed Reductions
manual manipulation of the ends of the fractured bone so that normal alignment is maintained
Nasal Septum
Divides the nasal cavity in half
vastus medialis
O: intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
Agonists
Main muscle used to produce a movement
C-7/T-13/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the cow
triceps brachii
O: long head (scapula); medial & lateral heads (humerus) | I: ulna | A: extends elbow; extends shoulder
Osteocytes
Bone cells
Microscopic
Need a microscope to see it
iliopsoas
o: illium and lumbar vertebrae; i: femur; flexes hip
Ethmoid Bones
Are internal bones, they start at the most rostral portion of the cranial cavity and extend forward into the nasal passages
Meniscus
Inside the joint. Cartilage plates which help make the ends of the bones fit together better, can get torn
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Tibia, Phalanges of toes 2-5, extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Collarbone
Boney attachment to scapula in humans
Applied
Use knowledge of anatomy to help in diagnosis/treatment
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Abduction
Moving bones or limb away from the midline
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
Muscle Classification can be what to the tendon
Parallel or Oblique
Compact
Beneath periosteum, very dense, makes up shaft of bone
Phalanges
Digits or fingers. 5 in dogs cats and humans. Each digit has 3 bones except thumb (digit one or dewclaw) which has 2
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Tibia, Phalanges of toes 2-5, extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Ligament
Strong dense tissue that connects bone to bone
Scapula
Shoulder blade, flat bone, no boney attachment to rest of skeleton in most species
Golgi tendon organs are located in the tendon
both at the muscle origin and insertion
trapezius
o: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae; i: scalpular spine and clavicle; extends neck and adducts
Abrasion
Scrape or surface damage, stratum basale cells migrate, mitosis
action
type of movement a muscle produces
Psoriasis
Chronic, noninfectious, raised, reddened round plaques covered by silvery white scales
Properties of Dermis
vascularized (temperature, blood pressure, nutrients, metabolic waste), glands, follicles and receptors
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
TRAPEZIUS
O-OCCIPITAL BONE AND SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE C7 TO T12 I-ACROMION PROCESS AND SPINE OF SCAPULA AND THE ACROMIAL END OF THE CLAVICLE/ A-UPPER PART EXTENDS HEAD AND ELEVATES SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE, LOWER PART DEPRESSES SCAPULA TOGETHER
Synergist
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
Distal
Farther away from the body
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Impetigo
infection caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria
myosin
thick protien myofibril
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Extensor pollicis brevis - Insertion
Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
gluteous maximus
rump area, large
External oblique
broad, thin muscle that cover superior abdomen
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Occipital Bones
Back of head. Caudal bone of skull, articulates with atlas, Has large opening that allows the spinal cord to leave the brain to enter the spinal canal
Onychectomy
Dewclaw procedure
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Strains
Tearing or overstretching of a muscle. Tendons attach muscles to bone.
Soleus
Fibula, tibia, calcaneal tendon onto calcaneus, plantarflexes foot
peroneus brevis
O: lateral shaft of fibula; I: 5th metatarsal tendon
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
brachialis
flexes elbow
False Ribs
Are joined to the sternum by cartilage
Surface area of integumentary system
15-20 square feet
brachioradialis
Origin: long head- supraglenoid tubercle and glenohumeral labrum & short head- tip of the coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: radial tuberosity &bicipital aponeurosis Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow (when supinated) & supinates forearm from neutral & stabilizes anterior aspect of shoulder & flexes shoulder (weak if at all) Blood: muscular branches of brachial artery Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6
Sternomastoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, mastoid process, singly, rotates head to opposite shoulder, together, flexes head
a bands
dark areas, contain myosin and actin overlapping
Antagonist
Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
rectus abdominis
straight (rectus) abdominal muscle
Skeletal
Multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal, moves the bones of the skeleton
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
hamstrings
back of thigh
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, Middle two-fourths of the posterior border of the ulna
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Tuber sacrale
Dorsal-medial portion that articulates with the sacrum
Sarcomeres run from
Z line to Z line
Extension
Increasing the angle between bones
Type II B Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; built for power; white
Temporal Bulla
Bulb like cavity that contains the middle ear where the stirrup, anvil and hammer are
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
SEMI MEMBRANOS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I-MEDIAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Golgi tendon organs are located in the tendon
both at the muscle origin and insertion
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Supinator - Action
Supination of the forearm
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
O: ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ I: METATARSAL 1/ A: DORSIFLEXES THE FOOT
Gastrocnemius
Insertion: Calcaneous via calcaneal tendon
Nervous
Conducts never signals; found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Origin
end is attached to the relatively less movable bone (proximal)
Smooth
Non-striated involuntary muscle w/only one nucleus- found on internal organs
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Agonist
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
Anconeus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Parietal Bones
More rostral to occipital bones
pectineus
O: superior ramus of pubis; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
gluteus maximus
butt
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Insertion
Base of the third metacarpal (dorsal surface)
internal oblique
o: illiac crest; i: last 3 ribs; flexes and rotates vertebral column
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
When a muscle is completely shortened or lengthened
it can't produce much
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
Peroneus brevis
Action: Everts and plantar flexes foot
Greater Trochanter
Large knob on the proximal end of the femur for muscle attachments
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
auricular
wiggle ears
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Action
Extension of the wrist, adduction of the wrist together with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak extension of the elbow
Phalanges
Ruminants walk on their finger tips, each 'finger' has p-1, p-2, and p-3/ p-3 has hoof attached to it
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation to neutral from a fully supinated position
Sesamoids
Extra bones which are located in tendons on the caudal surface of the limb to give them extra leverage and strength
Cannon Bone
Metacarpal 3 forms this in equines
plantaris
O: femur | I: calcaneus | A: weakly assists plantarflexion
Actin
Protein that composes microfilaments. Found in cytoskeleton myofibrils of muscle fiber, spindle fibers during cell division
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Plantaris
Insertion: posterior portion of calcaneous
Arthritis
Inflammation or infection of the joint
digastric
opens jaw
Cartilage Bone
Made from cartilage bars in the fetus that become calcified over time
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Active Tension
Tension due to muscle contraction
Stratum lucidum
only in soles or palms, 3-5 layers, clear with no nuclei, flat and dead
Extensor digiti minimi - Action
Extension of the little finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Weak elbow extension
Isotonic Contraction
Involves movement of the muscle contracting
Abdomino-Pelvic
Surrounds all the organs in the 'belly,' intestine, uterus, kidneys etc...
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
voluntary muscles-ex
skeletal muscles of the arm and leg
Antagonist
Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Compact
Beneath periosteum, very dense, makes up shaft of bone
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones. Front 'knee' of horse and other large animals. 6-8 short bones in 2 rows
Supinator - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and neighboring posterior part of the ulna
Urticaria or hives
itching from allergy, stress or drug reactions
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and linea aspera; I: tibial tuberosity
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Isometric Contraction
Muscle contracts but there is no movement, muscle stays the same length
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior muscle that causes hip extension
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Cranium
Surrounds the brain
Contusion
bruise
Glands in integumentary system
In the dermis, all are exocrine. Sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum that softens and lubricates skin and hair. Sudoriferous (sweat glands) control temperature, excretes some waste materials (eccrine glands are all over, apocrine glands (in axillary, pubic and nipple regions), mammary glands, ceruminous glands (produce cerumen or earwax)
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Triceps brachii - Action
All heads- extension of the elbow, Long head- extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint
Sartorius
Ilium, tibia, flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh, flexes lower leg
Adduct
To move a limb back towards the body
antagonistic pairs
muscles are often arranged around joints, they produce opposite actions
Passive Tension
Tension due to muscle stretch
Greater Tubercle
Non-articular knob lateral to head. Point of shoulder when palpating joint
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Supinator - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6)
Extension
Increasing the angle between bones
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Palmaris longus - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
BICEPS FEMORIS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY AND THE LINEA ASPERA/ I-HEAD OF FIBULA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Synovial Joints
The classic joints, (stifle joint, elbow joint, fetlock joint).
Actin
Protein that composes microfilaments. Found in cytoskeleton myofibrils of muscle fiber, spindle fibers during cell division
Biceps bracii
flex the elbow joint
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Myofibrils
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells
Anconeus - Insertion
Posterior surface of the lateral olecranon process and proximal one-fourth of the ulna
Metacarpals
Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Frontal Bones
More rostral to parietal bones, make up caudal part of eye socket, have large sinus under them that communicate with the nasal passages, location from which horns and antlers grow
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
gracilis
O: pubic bone | I: tibia | A: adducts thigh; flexes leg at knee
sartorius
O: anterior superior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
SEMI MEMBRANOS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I-MEDIAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Epiphysis
End of the bone
antagonistic pairs
muscles are often arranged around joints, they produce opposite actions
Gluteus Medius
Ilium, femur, Abduction and medial rotation of thigh
Comminuted Fracture
fracture lines are multiple and the bone is splintered and crushed
Ethmoid Foramina
Openings that let the olfactory nerve leave the brain and enter the nasal passages
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
Ishium
Most caudal of the three bones. Caudal prominence is called the tuber ischii.
Adductors
Muscles that cause adduction
Triceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow extension
Cranium
Surrounds the brain
Palatine Bones
Form most caudal portion of hard palate
Vertebral arch
is posterior
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Tuber Ischii
Caudal prominence of the Ishium
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Onychectomy
Dewclaw procedure
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Illiopsoas
Anterior muscle that causes hip flexion
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Ethmoid Bones
Are internal bones, they start at the most rostral portion of the cranial cavity and extend forward into the nasal passages
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
pectoralis major
chest
Paraplegia
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in th trunk and lower extremities
Anatomy
The study of structure of organisms
Sacroiliac Joint
Where the two halves of the pelvis articulate dorsally
Plantaris
Action: flexes knee; plantar flexes foot
brachialis
flexes elbow
Osseous
Bone Tissue
Transverse Abdominis
Ilium, Linea alba and pubic crest, compresses abdominal wall
Scapula
Shoulder blade, flat bone, no boney attachment to rest of skeleton in most species
mysathemia gravis
delayed muscle contraction of weak facial and neck muscles; treatment remove antibodies or tymus, stop acetylcholinesterase activity
Body
Solid, rounded mass of bone that makes up the ventral part of vertebrae
Ishium
Most caudal of the three bones. Caudal prominence is called the tuber ischii.
Medullary Cavity
Hollow Center / Children - red bone marrow / adult - yellow bone marrow (fat)
Pronation
Moving bones so radius and ulna are NOT parallel
Rostral
On the head, towards the nose
DJD or Arthritis
Damage to joint can lead to this
Kyphosis
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Tissue
Specialized groups of cells with the same function
auricular
wiggle ears
Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
In contact with dermis, stem cells; mitosis, replace more superficial cells. Keratinocytes and melanocytes (produce keratine and menanin)
Thoracic
Surrounds the heart and lungs
Rotation
Moving the bone around in a central axis
gastrocnemius
O: 2 heads: medial and lateral epicondyle of fibula; I: calcaneal tuberosity
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
Abduct
To move a limb away from the body
Hypodermis
It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages
Ethmoid Turninates
Curled sheets of bone sometimes called scrolls, which are covered in mucous membrane
Peroneus brevis
Origin: midlateral margin of fibula
Fetlock Bone
The name of P-1 in large animals
Thoracic
Surrounds the heart and lungs
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
Petrous Temporal Bone
Contains the inner ear
Microscopic
Need a microscope to see it
Pronate
Turning appendage down (toward ground)
Thoracic
Vertebrae of the chest or thorax. Have large dorsal spines that tend to slant caudally. Small transverse process that articulate with the ribs
DJD or Arthritis
Damage to joint can lead to this
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
Titin
Connects from M line to Z line
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Origin
Proximal. The more stable of the attachment sites of the muscle
Palmaris longus - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Palmaris longus - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
BICEPS FEMORIS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY AND THE LINEA ASPERA/ I-HEAD OF FIBULA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Incisive Bone
Most rostral bone of upper jaw-contains upper incisors and forms part of the hard palate
Flexor digitorum profundus - Innervation
Median nerve (C8, T1) to the second and third fingers, Ulnar nerve (C8, T1) to the fourth and fifth fingers
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
O-RAMUS OF THE ISCHIUM/ I-LINEA ASPERA/ O- ADDUCTS THIGH
Cribriform Plate
Has openings called ethmoid foramina, part of the ethmoid bones
Tibialis posterior
Origin: proximal tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane
Flexor digitorum profundus - Innervation
Median nerve (C8, T1) to the second and third fingers, Ulnar nerve (C8, T1) to the fourth and fifth fingers
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of thoracic spine
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Tibia, Phalanges of toes 2-5, extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle
Nails
protect digits, plates of keratinezed epidermal cells
Ligament
Strong dense tissue that connects bone to bone
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
Pelvic Limb
Hind Leg
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Sternum
Makes up the floor of the chest (ventral) Made of individual sternebrae, that have cartilage between them. Eventually all fuse together with age, typically 7 or 8 found in common species
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Shingles
chickenpox virus
Multipennate
multi-tendons and multi-feathered. Deltoid.
Osteogenesis
Bone formation
temporalis
o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw
Dorsal Plane
Cuts body into upper and lower halves
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
Fibrous Joint
No joint cavity, bones are held together by fibrous tissue, found between splints and cannon bone. Found between skull bones (sutures) teeth in sockets
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
Obturator Foramen
Holes in the pubis of the pelvis that make it more light weight
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
vastus intermedius
O: anterolateral surface of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
Patellar Ligaments
Really a tendon, Important to keep patella riding in the patellar groove
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
O-SACRUM AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF ILIUM/ I-GLUTEAL TUBEROSITY OF FEMUR/ A- EXTENDS FEMUR ADN LATERALLY ROTATES FEMUR
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Adduction
Moving bones or limb toward the midline
Cranial Nerve I
The olfactory nerve
Greater Trochanter
Large knob on the proximal end of the femur for muscle attachments
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
gluteus maximus
O: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx; I: gluteal tuberosity
Type I Muscle Fiber
Slow twitch; built for endurance; red
Athelete's foot (tinea pedis)
fungus of foot
Temporal Bulla
Bulb like cavity that contains the middle ear where the stirrup, anvil and hammer are
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, Middle two-fourths of the posterior border of the ulna
Mandible
Has 2 halves, they join at the symphysis which is a common area for fractures, articulates with the temporal bone to form temporo-mandibular-joint. contains all lower teeth
Stratum corneum
Most superficial, "horn-like" cornified or keratinized, 15-30 layers flat and dead, 15-30 days from stratum basale then 10-14 days until lost, tightly connected
Anconeus - Origin
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus
Synovial Joints
The classic joints, (stifle joint, elbow joint, fetlock joint).
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Flexor digitorum profundus - Action
Flexion of the four fingers at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist
triceps
back of arm
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Degenerative Joint Disease
DJD- another name for arthritis, secondary to structural deformities that cause abnormal articulation of bones
Gluteus Medius
Ilium, femur, Abduction and medial rotation of thigh
Polydactyly
Extra fingers/toes
Ribs
Same number as thoracic vertebrae. Articulate dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae, articulate ventrally with the sternum. Ventral portion is cartilage
Long Bones - Characteristic
Very Strong, Broad at ends where they join other bones, large surface area for muscle attachment
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
flexor hallucis longus
O: fibula; interosseous membrane | I: base of distal phalanx of big toe | A: flexes big toe; plantarflexion; helps propel feet during walking and running
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Coccygeal
Vertebrae of the tail. Variable number
sartorius
o: illium; i: proximal tibia; flexes thigh on hip
Median Plane
Cuts body in half longitudally
gastrocnemius
O: 2 heads: medial and lateral epicondyle of fibula; I: calcaneal tuberosity
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Peroneus brevis
Insertion: base of metatarsal 5
extensor hallucis longus
O: fibula | I: big toe | A: extends big toe; assists in dorsiflexion
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
sartorius
O: anterior superior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
3rd step in muscle contration
Sodium diffues into the cell
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Rhomboidal
Wide, flat muscle. Rectangular. Rhomboids
trapezius
o: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae; i: scalpular spine and clavicle; extends neck and adducts
Muscle Fiber
One single muscle tissue cell. Has its own components that make a cell.
Extensor pollicis brevis - Origin
Posterior surface of the lower middle radius
sternocleidomastoid
stern/o (sternum), cleid/o (clavicle), single insertion (mastoid process)
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia
Gross
What we can see with the naked eye
Titin
Connects from M line to Z line
Superficial
Near the surface of the body
auricular
wiggle ears
Adduct
To move a limb back towards the body
Illiopsoas
Anterior muscle that causes hip flexion
vastus intermedius
O: anterolateral surface of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
Head
Smooth, rounded proximal end of humerus that articulates with glenoid cavity
intercostals muscles
o: bottom half of ribs ; i: top half of ribs ; raise and depress ribcage for breathing
Talipes
Clubfoot - congenital anomalies
quadriceps
thigh
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Posterior aspect of the proximal ulna
Biceps brachii - Action
Flexian of the elbow, supination of the forearm, weak flexion of the shoulder joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation
Sphincter
Circular muscles around an opening
iliopsoas
o: illium and lumbar vertebrae; i: femur; flexes hip
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
Contusion
bruise
Subluxation
Partial dislocation- vertebrae
myoneural junction
point of which the motor nerve contacts a muscle fiber
Peristalsis
A rythmic, wavelike motion that progressively moves through a tube organ such as the small intestine
Gluteals
"Rump muscles" extend hip, and abduct limb ORIGIN: Ilium INSERTION: Greater Trochanter of the femur
transverse tubules
channels perpendicular to myofibrils that extend through fiber
TRAPEZIUS
O-OCCIPITAL BONE AND SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE C7 TO T12 I-ACROMION PROCESS AND SPINE OF SCAPULA AND THE ACROMIAL END OF THE CLAVICLE/ A-UPPER PART EXTENDS HEAD AND ELEVATES SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE, LOWER PART DEPRESSES SCAPULA TOGETHER
Flexor digitorum profundus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanxes of the four fingers
rigor mortis
a few hours after death Ca is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum causeing a muscle contraction, since no ATP is produced Ca cant actively be pumped back in. muscle contraction is continuous
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Malignant melanoma
worst kind, most rare but deadliest
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Tarsus
Hock joint or ankle. Cuboidal bones similar to wrist bones. Usually 7 bones.
Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
In contact with dermis, stem cells; mitosis, replace more superficial cells. Keratinocytes and melanocytes (produce keratine and menanin)
Long
More length than width, used for locomotion ex: femur, humerus
mitochondria
has many for more energy
Atlas
C-1, Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull
Cervical
Vertebrae of the neck, most cranial
Gastrocnemius
Femur, via achilles tendon onto calcaneal tendon, flexes lower leg, plantarflexes foot
Cribriform Plate
Has openings called ethmoid foramina, part of the ethmoid bones
Palmaris longus - Action
Flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Extensor
Straighten out the joint
biceps
arm
Cardiac muscle
has branched cells
visceral muscle
the muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach
biceps brachii
O: scapula | I: radial tuberosity (radius) | A: flexes shoulder; flexes elbow; supinates hand
Exostosis
Benign bone tumor
Syndactyly
"mulefoot" in cattle, Recessive gene, foot looks like a horses foot, toes are fused together
Cranium
Surrounds the brain
Pectoral
Chest muscles-adduct the thoracic limbs
Squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, mouth, esophagus, prostate, lungs, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation.
Haversian Canals
Channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
6th step in muscle contation
myosin head attaches to myosin binding site and bends cause actin and myosin and myofilaments to slide past each other
Plantaris
Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of femur
subscapularis
O: inner surface of scapula | I: lesser tubercle of humerus | A: medial rotation of humerus
biceps
two, muscle in the upper arm that has two heads or connecting points
2nd step in muscle contration
ACH diffuese across synapitic cleft and attches to ACH reccepotrs on the sarcolemma
Insertion
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
three types of muscles
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, caridac muscle
Applied
Use knowledge of anatomy to help in diagnosis/treatment
Palmaris longus - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Phalanges
Equines walk on their middle finger, which has P-1, P-2 and P-3, P-3 has the hoof attached to it
Anconeus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Erythema
Reddening of skin
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Closed Reductions
manual manipulation of the ends of the fractured bone so that normal alignment is maintained
Hip Dysplasia
Shallow acetabulum and deformed femoral head... leads to arthritis, genetic in larger breeds, especially german shepards
Triangular
Pectoralis Major
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
masseter
o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw
Luxation
Dislocation- femur pops out of acetabulum
Sacroiliac Joint
Where the two halves of the pelvis articulate dorsally
external obliques
O: lower 8 ribs | I: iliac spine and crest; linea alba | A: compresses abdominal contents
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Cranial
Towards the head
tibialis anterior
o: proximal tibia; i: 1st cuneiform (tarsal); dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
deltoid
o: scalpular spine and clavicle; i: humerus (deltoid tuberosity); abducts the arm
Extensor digiti minimi - Action
Extension of the little finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Weak elbow extension
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Insertion
Base of the third metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Simple Fracture
Closed - Fracture does not pierce through the skin
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Ethmoid Bones
Are internal bones, they start at the most rostral portion of the cranial cavity and extend forward into the nasal passages
Brachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve and sometimes branches from radial and median nerves (C5, C6)
Synergists
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Glands in integumentary system
In the dermis, all are exocrine. Sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum that softens and lubricates skin and hair. Sudoriferous (sweat glands) control temperature, excretes some waste materials (eccrine glands are all over, apocrine glands (in axillary, pubic and nipple regions), mammary glands, ceruminous glands (produce cerumen or earwax)
Squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, mouth, esophagus, prostate, lungs, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation.
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
brachialis
flexes elbow
Femur
Long bone. Head articulates with the acetabulum. Distally it articulates with the patella.
Cartilage
Gristle type tissue. Discs between vertebrae, ear, joint surface
Frontalis
forehead muscle (Raises eyebrow andfacial expressions)
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Sternocleidomastoid
Strong bandlike muscle involved in "wry neck" known as torticollis (flexes and rotates the head)
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Femoral condyles
Properties of Dermis
vascularized (temperature, blood pressure, nutrients, metabolic waste), glands, follicles and receptors
Median Plane
Cuts body in half longitudally
Membrane Bone
Made as fibrous membrane templates are calcified in the fetus (skull bones-fontanel)
Nasal Bones
Dorsal bones of face-form roof of nasal cavity
orbicularis oris
o: mandible and maxilla; i: skin and muscle around mouth; closes and protrudes lips
Deltoid
Common site for injections - Shoulder
Tibialis Anterior
Tibia, first cuneiform and first metatarsals, dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Palmaris longus - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Flexion
To bend a joint
Paralysis
Complete loss of muscle function
Plantar
Caudal surface of the hind legs from the ankle to the toes
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
extensor digitorum longus
O: tibia; fibula | I: middle and distal phalnges of toes | A: dorsiflexion; extends toes
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Muscle Spindle
Lie parallel to the muscle fibers; detect changes in muscle length and speed
Plantaris
Action: flexes knee; plantar flexes foot
biceps femoris
o: ischial tuberosity; i: proximal tibia; flex knee and extend hip
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Sagittal Plane
Slices that are parallel to the median plane
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Muscle spindles detect changes in muscle ? and ? of length change
length speed
Lumbar
Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Muscles
ends in tendons
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Olecranon
Proximal part of ulna. Point of elbow. Funny bone. Has anconeal process that fits into the olecranon fossa
Pronate
Turning appendage down (toward ground)
myoneural junction
point of which the motor nerve contacts a muscle fiber
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
O: ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ I: METATARSAL 1/ A: DORSIFLEXES THE FOOT
involuntary muscles-d
under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Cannon Bone
Metacarpals 3 & 4 are fused together to form this in ruminants
striated muscle
another name for skeletal muscle
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
internal oblique
o: illiac crest; i: last 3 ribs; flexes and rotates vertebral column
Trapezius
shoulder muscle that moves scapula
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Long Bones - Characteristic
Very Strong, Broad at ends where they join other bones, large surface area for muscle attachment
Extension
To straighten a joint
Slow twitch muscles are built for
endurance
external obliques
O: lower 8 ribs | I: iliac spine and crest; linea alba | A: compresses abdominal contents
vastus medialis
O: intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
muscles
bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
striated muscle
another name for skeletal muscle
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Circumduction
moving bone or limb in a circle
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Gluteals
"Rump muscles" extend hip, and abduct limb ORIGIN: Ilium INSERTION: Greater Trochanter of the femur
rectus abdominis
o: pubis; i: sternum ; flexes vertebral column
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Simple Fracture
Closed - Fracture does not pierce through the skin
Gluteus Maximus
Ilium, sacrum, coccyx, femur, extension, and lateral rotation of thigh
Atrophy
Loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation
Lumbar
Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
SOLEUS
A-PLANTAR FLEXES FOOT
Gastrocnemius
Femur, via achilles tendon onto calcaneal tendon, flexes lower leg, plantarflexes foot
Adipose
Fat storage. White in most animals. Yellow in Gurnsey cattle and horses. Brown in newborns
sarcolemma
cell membrane
biceps
arm
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Coracobrachialis
Origin: coracoid process of the scapula; Insertion: medial shaft of the humerus at about its middle; Action: flexes the humerus,assists to adduct the humerus; Blood: muscular branches of the brachial artery;Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6,(C7)
Atrophy
Loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
Is a Type IIB muscle fiber slow or fast twitch
Fast
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
orbicularis oculi
o: frontal bone; i: tissue around eyes; blinks and closes eyes
Hamstrings
Posterior thigh muscle that causes knee flexion
Stay Apparatus
In horses, allows for them to sleep standing up, locks leg in place, due to three patellar ligaments
Palatine Bones
Form most caudal portion of hard palate
Ossification
Process by which bone forms in body
Bone
Calcified cartilage. Living tissue constantly being remodled
Osteogenesis
Bone formation
biceps femoris
O: 2 heads: long-ischial tuberosity, short: linea aspera of femur; I: head of fibula
Myosin
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
Acetabulum
Hip socket. Formed by all three bones of the pelvis. Where the femur articulates
epimysium
covering of the muscle
gluteus medius
o: illiam; i: proximal femur; abducts thigh
Fibrosis
formation of scar tissue
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
pectineus
O: superior ramus of pubis; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
SARTORIUS
O-ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF THE ILIUM/ I-PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- FLEXES AND ROTATES THIGH LATERALLY AND FLEXES THE LEG THUS PLACING THE HEAL ON OPPOSITE KNEE
Dorsal
Towards the back
SOLEUS
A-PLANTAR FLEXES FOOT
Loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation
Atrophy
Sprain
Tearing or overstretching of a ligament. Ligaments attach bone to bone.
Dewclaws
MC-2 and MC-5 form these in ruminants
Proximal
Near to the body proper
External oblique
broad, thin muscle that cover superior abdomen
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
infraspinatus
O: infraspinous fossa of scapula | I: greater tubercle of humerus | A: lateral rotation of humerus
Tibia
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
Temporal Bulla
Bulb like cavity that contains the middle ear where the stirrup, anvil and hammer are
Erythema
Reddening of skin
Ossification
Process by which bone forms in body
1 square inch of the integumentary system contains
>3 million cells, 15 ft of blood vessels, 4 yards nerves, 650 sweat glands, 100 oil glands, 1500 sensory receptors
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that wrap around each muscle
Thick Filaments
Myosin proteins
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
PSOAS MAJOR
O-BODY AND TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS/ A- WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Hypodermis
It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages
auricular
wiggle ears
Palmaris longus - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Pelvic Symphysis
Where the two halves of the pelvis join ventrally
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres
sternocleidomastoid
o: sternum, clavicle; i: temporal bone; flexes neck, rotates head
frontalis
o: cranial aponeurosis; i: skin of eyebrows; raises brows
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C7, C8, and T1)
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Synergist
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Adductor Femoris
Ischium and pubis, femur, adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
Phalanges
Ruminants walk on their finger tips, each 'finger' has p-1, p-2, and p-3/ p-3 has hoof attached to it
Lateral
Away from the midline
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Adductors
Muscles that cause adduction
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Equines
MT 3 forms the cannon bone. MT 2 and MT 4 form the splint bones
Buccinator
compresses cheeks
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Insertion
Base of the second metacarpal (dorsal surface)
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity | I: medial epicondyle of tibia | A: flexes leg at knee; rotates flexed log laterally; extend thigh at hip joint
Phalanges
Equines walk on their middle finger, which has P-1, P-2 and P-3, P-3 has the hoof attached to it
Vertebrae
3 main parts, body, and arch- 2 halves. All of them lined up end to end form the vertebral canal
Short Bone Characteristic
Can withstand alot of pressure
Osteochondrosis dessicans
OCD- degeneration of articular cartilage in joint-flaps
Transverse Plane
Right angles to the median plane
Extensor digiti minimi - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
auricular
wiggle ears
Three types of muscle fibers oblique to the tendon
Unipennate, Bipennate, Multipennate
Fusiform muscle fiber
Fat in the middle. Biceps.
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Luxation
Dislocation- femur pops out of acetabulum
Cloven Hoofed
2 toed animal
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
Irregular Bone Characteristics
Protective
latissimus dorsi
back
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
Abduction
Moving bones or limb away from the midline
Ossification
Process by which bone forms in body
Extensor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior lateral surface of the lower middle ulna
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
Olecranon Fossa
On caudal surface of distal humerus. Depression where anconeal process of olecranon locks when elbow is locked in extended position
mysathemia gravis
delayed muscle contraction of weak facial and neck muscles; treatment remove antibodies or tymus, stop acetylcholinesterase activity
Xiphoid
Last sternebrae
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Triceps bracii
extend the elbow joint
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
i bands
light areas, contain only actin
Atlas
C-1, Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Flexion
To bend a joint
Sesamoids
Extra bones which are located in tendons on the caudal surface of the limb to give them extra leverage and strength
TESOR FASCIAE LATAE
O-ILIAC CREST/ I-BY WAY OF ILIOTIBIAL TRACT OF TIBIA/ A- ASSIST IN FLEXION, ABDUCTION AND MEDIAL ROTATION OF THE THIGH
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
brachioradialis
Origin: long head- supraglenoid tubercle and glenohumeral labrum & short head- tip of the coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: radial tuberosity &bicipital aponeurosis Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow (when supinated) & supinates forearm from neutral & stabilizes anterior aspect of shoulder & flexes shoulder (weak if at all) Blood: muscular branches of brachial artery Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
involuntary muscles-ex
smooth muscles found in the internal organs and cardiac muscles
Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
In contact with dermis, stem cells; mitosis, replace more superficial cells. Keratinocytes and melanocytes (produce keratine and menanin)
Palmaris longus - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Hamstrings
Posterior thigh muscle that causes knee flexion
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
rectus abdominis
o: pubis; i: sternum ; flexes vertebral column
Navicular Disease
Degeneration of the navicular bone over time that leads to chronic lameness
digastric
opens jaw
triceps brachii
o: shoulder girdle and proximal humerus; i: olecrenon process of ulna; extends elbow
Elastic
Stretches and returns to original shape... around abdomen and walls of arteries
TERES MINOR
O-LATERAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A-ADDUCTS AND LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Pronator teres - Action
Pronation of the forearm, weak flexion of the elbow
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Vertebrae
Becomes progressively larger down to the sacrum and then become successively smaller.
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Burns
First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)
sternocleidomastoid
stern/o (sternum), cleid/o (clavicle), single insertion (mastoid process)
Ventral
Towards the belly
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Posterior aspect of the proximal ulna
Palmaris longus - Insertion
Palmer aponeurosis of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals
Gastrocnemius
Insertion: Calcaneous via calcaneal tendon
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Thick Filaments
Myosin proteins
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
Strains
Tearing or overstretching of a muscle. Tendons attach muscles to bone.
Tissue
Specialized groups of cells with the same function
Condyles
Rounded knobs at distal end of humerus that articulate with radius and ulna to form elbow joint
Foramen Magnum
A large hole in the occipital bone for the passage of nerves into the spinal cord
supraspinatus
O: supraspinous fossa of scapula | I: greater tubercle of humerus | A: enforce joint security of glenohumeral joint; abduction
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Sternum
Makes up the floor of the chest (ventral) Made of individual sternebrae, that have cartilage between them. Eventually all fuse together with age, typically 7 or 8 found in common species
Wart
virus
Golgi Tendon Organ
Located in the tendon, both at muscle origin and insertion; detect changes in tendon tension
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Golgi Tendon Organ
Located in the tendon, both at muscle origin and insertion; detect changes in tendon tension
Frontal Bones
More rostral to parietal bones, make up caudal part of eye socket, have large sinus under them that communicate with the nasal passages, location from which horns and antlers grow
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
Connective
Binds other tissues together, protection and leverage
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, Middle two-fourths of the posterior border of the ulna
Phalanges
Ruminants walk on their finger tips, each 'finger' has p-1, p-2, and p-3/ p-3 has hoof attached to it
Extensor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior lateral surface of the lower middle ulna
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Osteogenesis
Bone formation
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Pronator teres - Origin
Distal part of the medial condyloid ridge of the humerus and medial side of the proximal ulna
buccinator
o: maxilla and mandible; i: orbicularis oris; holds food in mouth, sucks in cheeks
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
Exogenous Infection
Created by a puncture into the joint
Rule of nines, lund and browder chart
Determine percentage of body burned in an injury
Subluxation
Partial dislocation- vertebrae
Characteristics of Epidermis
Stratified squamous epithelium, outermost layers dead, most have 4 layers but soles of feet and palms of hands have 5, avascular (no blood vessels)
Gastrocnemius
Enables one to stand on tip toes & is enlarged in dancers (calf of leg)
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Insertion
Base of the second metacarpal (dorsal surface)
SOLEUS
A-PLANTAR FLEXES FOOT
Synovial Fluid
Lubricates, nourishes, and keeps the joint moveable
flexor carpi
flexion at the wrist
internal oblique
o: illiac crest; i: last 3 ribs; flexes and rotates vertebral column
Thermoregulation
Negative feedback, thermoreceptors to brain, temperature control center sends message to effectors
Gastrocnemius
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion e.g. jumping
Collarbone
Boney attachment to scapula in humans
Brachialis - Action
True flexion of the elbow
Sternomastoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, mastoid process, singly, rotates head to opposite shoulder, together, flexes head
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Spinous Process
Dorsal or ventral projections
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Long
More length than width, used for locomotion ex: femur, humerus
Quadriceps
Anterior thigh muscle that causes extension at the knee
Anconeus - Action
Extension of the elbow
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in the trunk and LE's
Paraplegia
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Surface area of integumentary system
15-20 square feet
Antagonist
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-METACARPAL 5/ A-EXTEND AND ADDUCTS THE HAND
Buccinator
compresses cheeks
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Kaposi's sarcoma
bruise like cancer
Peroneus brevis
Innveration: superficial peroneal nerve
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
Abrasion
Scrape or surface damage, stratum basale cells migrate, mitosis
Microscopic
Need a microscope to see it
Osteochondrosis dessicans
OCD- degeneration of articular cartilage in joint-flaps
quadriceps
thigh
involuntary muscles-d
under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain
Fibrous Joint
No joint cavity, bones are held together by fibrous tissue, found between splints and cannon bone. Found between skull bones (sutures) teeth in sockets
frontalis
o: cranial aponeurosis; i: skin of eyebrows; raises brows
vastus medialis
O: intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
Irregular Bones
Vertebrae, Malleus, incus, stapes
Soleus
Fibula, tibia, calcaneal tendon onto calcaneus, plantarflexes foot
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
popliteus
O: lateral epicondyle of femur; I: posterior surface of tibia (Proximal)
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Unipennate
feathered on one side of tendon. Hamstrng
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Dens
Cranial projection of the axis that fits into the atlas
triceps brachii
O: long head (scapula); medial & lateral heads (humerus) | I: ulna | A: extends elbow; extends shoulder
Radius and Ulna
2 bones of forearm. Side by side. Fused together in cows and horses. If fused, flexibility is lost
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscles
trapezius
o: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae; i: scalpular spine and clavicle; extends neck and adducts
Latissimus Dorsi
Back muscle that causes shoulder extension, adduction, horizontal abduction and horizontal abduction
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Sternohyoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, hyoid bone, depresses hyoid and larynx
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
O-RAMUS OF THE ISCHIUM/ I-LINEA ASPERA/ O- ADDUCTS THIGH
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
O- SUPERIOR RAMUS OF PUBIS/ I- XIPHOID PROCESS AND COSTAL CARTILAGE OF RIBS 5 TO 7/ A- COMPRESS ABDOMEN AND FLEX VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Tibialis posterior
Origin: proximal tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
biceps
two, muscle in the upper arm that has two heads or connecting points
Sagittal Plane
Slices that are parallel to the median plane
Anatomy
The study of structure of organisms
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Shingles
chickenpox virus
Extensor pollicis longus - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
Adduction
Moving bones or limb toward the midline
Diaphysis
Shaft or middle region of long bone that contains layer of spongy bone
Phalanges
Ruminants walk on their finger tips, each 'finger' has p-1, p-2, and p-3/ p-3 has hoof attached to it
Impetigo
infection caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria
Thick Filaments
Myosin proteins
Connective
Binds other tissues together, protection and leverage
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Shoulder
Joint with greatest range of motion
Adduct
To move a limb back towards the body
Gracilis
Pubis, tibia, adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
O-SACRUM AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF ILIUM/ I-GLUTEAL TUBEROSITY OF FEMUR/ A- EXTENDS FEMUR ADN LATERALLY ROTATES FEMUR
deltoid
o: scalpular spine and clavicle; i: humerus (deltoid tuberosity); abducts the arm
vastus medialis
O: intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
Deep wound healing (injury beyond stratum basale)
Inflammatory phase (blood clot forms), migratory phase (cells migrate), proliferative phase (continues), maturation phase (scab falls off)
Albinism
melanocytes can't sythesize melanin
Applied
Use knowledge of anatomy to help in diagnosis/treatment
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: proximal medial surface of tibia
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Adductors
Muscles that cause adduction
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior muscle that causes hip extension
Lumbar
Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
Sprain
Tearing or overstretching of a ligament. Ligaments attach bone to bone.
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Collagen
Fibrous tissue that adds strength to other tissues; gelatin, capsule around muscles
Gelatinous Marrow
Broken down marrow, in old and starving animals
Passive Tension
Tension due to muscle stretch
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
Palmaris longus - Action
Flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
Rectus Femoris
Ilium, patella, tibia, extends knee, flexes thigh
Extensor
Straighten out the joint
Coccygeal
Vertebrae of the tail. Variable number
Epithelial
Covers and lines the body; skin, mucous membranes...
Pronator teres - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
TERES MINOR
O-LATERAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A-ADDUCTS AND LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Fetlock Bone
The name of P-1 in large animals
Coxofemoral Luxation
Dislocated hip
Crainium
Bones that surround the cranial cavity
Tuber sacrale
Dorsal-medial portion that articulates with the sacrum
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Extensor digiti minimi - Action
Extension of the little finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Weak elbow extension
gastrocnemius
O: femur | I: calcaneal tendon | A: plantarflexion; flexes leg at knee; raises heel during walking
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Vertebrae
3 main parts, body, and arch- 2 halves. All of them lined up end to end form the vertebral canal
Passive Tension
Tension due to muscle stretch
action
type of movement a muscle produces
Comminuted Fracture
fracture lines are multiple and the bone is splintered and crushed
Cold thermoregulation
Shiver (ATP produces heat): shivering thermogenesis. Blood moves deeper. Arrector pili raised (goose bumps) smooth muscle
Nasal Septum
Divides the nasal cavity in half
Gross
What we can see with the naked eye
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Anterior Deltoid
Front part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder flexion and horizontal adduction
Pronator quadratus - Action
Pronation of the forearm
Sternocleidomastoid
Strong bandlike muscle involved in "wry neck" known as torticollis (flexes and rotates the head)
SARTORIUS
O-ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF THE ILIUM/ I-PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- FLEXES AND ROTATES THIGH LATERALLY AND FLEXES THE LEG THUS PLACING THE HEAL ON OPPOSITE KNEE
Pastern Bone
The name of P-2 in large animals
Cranial
Towards the head
Tuber sacrale
Dorsal-medial portion that articulates with the sacrum
motor neurons
of the nervous system and stimulates skeletal muscles
Circumduction
moving bone or limb in a circle
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
Abductor
Moves the limb away from the body
Diaphysis
Shaft or middle region of long bone that contains layer of spongy bone
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Insertion
Base of the second metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Mandible
Has 2 halves, they join at the symphysis which is a common area for fractures, articulates with the temporal bone to form temporo-mandibular-joint. contains all lower teeth
Dewclaws
MC-2 and MC-5 form these in ruminants
Cartilaginous Joints
Have no joint cavity, Bones held together by cartilage. Examples are growth plates, disks between vertebrae and the pelvic symphysis
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
1st step in muscle contration
depolarization of axonal termincal, causes synaptic vesicles to release ACH into synaptice cleft
Open Reductions
manipulating ends of fractures under direct vision using an incision
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
myocardium
cardiac muscle
visceral muscle
the muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach
Exogenous Infection
Created by a puncture into the joint
Plantaris
Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of femur
Atlas
C-1, Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull
Elastic
Stretches and returns to original shape... around abdomen and walls of arteries
Diaphysis
Shaft or middle region of long bone that contains layer of spongy bone
Thin Filaments
Actin proteins
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Tendon Sheath
Elongated bursa. Surrounds a tendon, Found along long tendons in bone
Isotonic Contraction
Involves movement of the muscle contracting
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
O-SACRUM AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF ILIUM/ I-GLUTEAL TUBEROSITY OF FEMUR/ A- EXTENDS FEMUR ADN LATERALLY ROTATES FEMUR
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-METACARPALS 2 AND 3/ A-FLEXES AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior muscle that causes hip extension
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Flexion
To bend a joint
Phalanges
Equines walk on their middle finger, which has P-1, P-2 and P-3, P-3 has the hoof attached to it
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscles
Thin protein filaments
Actin
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
brachioradialis
o: humerus; i: radius; elbow/forearm flexion
tendon
the strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones
Characteristics of Epidermis
Stratified squamous epithelium, outermost layers dead, most have 4 layers but soles of feet and palms of hands have 5, avascular (no blood vessels)
Tibialis posterior
Origin: proximal tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane
semimembranosus
o: ischial tuberosity; i: proximal tibia; flex knee and extend hip
Flexor pollicis longus - Action
Flexion of the thumb carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Flexion of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist
Gastrocnemius
Enables one to stand on tip toes & is enlarged in dancers (calf of leg)
Abduct
To move a limb away from the body
True Ribs
Articulate with the sternum on their own
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
brachialis
o: humerus; i: ulna; elbow flexion
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Base of the fifth metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Biceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
Ishium
Most caudal of the three bones. Caudal prominence is called the tuber ischii.
Impetigo
infection caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
deltoid
O: clavicle; acromion; scapular spine | I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus | A: flexion; extension; abduction
Fusiform muscle fiber
Fat in the middle. Biceps.
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Ergot
Remnant of MC-5 forms this on the palmar surface of the lower leg in equines
Palmaris longus - Action
Flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Endosteum
Inner layer of the compact an cancellous bone
3 pigments of skin
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin (not resident)
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
peroneus brevis
O: lateral shaft of fibula; I: 5th metatarsal tendon
VASTUS MEDIALIS
O- LINEA ASPERA/ I- TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-EXTENDS THE LEG
Stratum spinosum
8-10 layers, keratin causes spiny appearance, little mitosis
Flexor digitorum profundus - Origin
Proximal three-fourths of the anterior and medial ulna
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Insertion
Each tendon splits and attaches to the sides of the middle phalanx of four fingers (palmer surface)
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
Pectoralis Major
Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that wrap around each muscle
Transverse Plane
Right angles to the median plane
Acromion
Knob at end of scapula. Can feel in large animals, help guide injections
Zygomaticus
smiling muscle
serratus anterior
O: first 8-9 ribs | I: inside of vertebral border of scapula | A: protraction and upward rotation of shoulder
Deep wound healing (injury beyond stratum basale)
Inflammatory phase (blood clot forms), migratory phase (cells migrate), proliferative phase (continues), maturation phase (scab falls off)
Biceps brachii - Origin
Long head- supraglenoid tubercle above the superior lip of the glenoid fossa, Short head- coracoid process of the scapula and upper lip of the glenoid fossa in conjunction with the proximal attachment of the coracobrachialis
Cartilaginous Joints
Have no joint cavity, Bones held together by cartilage. Examples are growth plates, disks between vertebrae and the pelvic symphysis
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
Agonist
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
adductor longus
O: public bone | I: linea aspera of femur | A: adducts the thigh
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that wrap around each muscle
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Sacral
Vertebrae that articulates with the pelvis. Usually fused together in most species. Articulate with tuber sacrale of the ilium. Has dorsal process
supraspinatus
O: supraspinous fossa of scapula | I: greater tubercle of humerus | A: enforce joint security of glenohumeral joint; abduction
Epithelial
Covers and lines the body; skin, mucous membranes...
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Action
Flexion of the wrist, adduction of the wrist, together with the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak flexion of the elbow
Osteoclast
Cells that break down bone
Ringworm
fungus
Joint Capsule
Surrounds the joint cavity, has 2 layers
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
Linea Alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
Brachialis - Insertion
Coronoid process of the ulna
Myofibrils
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells
Flexion
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones
biceps femoris
O: long = ischial tuberosity; short = linea aspera of femur | I: lateral side of fibula | A: flexes leg; rotates tibia laterally; long = extends thigh/hip
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-METACARPAL 5/ A-EXTEND AND ADDUCTS THE HAND
Pronator quadratus - Insertion
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the radius
Stay Apparatus
In horses, allows for them to sleep standing up, locks leg in place, due to three patellar ligaments
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia
peroneus brevis
O: lateral shaft of fibula; I: 5th metatarsal tendon
muscular dystrophy
disorder that causes proteins in muscle cells to weaken and deteriorate, some types are inherited, most common Duchenne
biceps femoris
O: 2 heads: long-ischial tuberosity, short: linea aspera of femur; I: head of fibula
Insertion
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
System
Groups of organs working together to do a common job
Flexor
Bend the joint th way it wants to bend
Palmar
Caudal surface of front legs from wrist to toes
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Short
More 'square' shock absorbers, wrist and ankle bones
Pectoral
Chest muscles-adduct the thoracic limbs
Metatarsal Bones
Similar to metacarpal bones. Foot bones
Abductor
Moves the limb away from the body
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Sternomastoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, mastoid process, singly, rotates head to opposite shoulder, together, flexes head
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Triceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow extension
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity | I: tibia | A: flexes knee; medially rotates tibia; extends thigh/hip
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
MASSETER
O-ZYGOMATIC ARCH AND BONE/ I-RAMUS OF MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND PROTRUDES MANDIBLE
Brachialis - Origin
Distal half of the anterior shaft of the humerus
Synergist
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres; several are contained within one muscle fiber
Biceps Femoris
flex the knee
External Oblique
Lower 8 ribs, Ilium and linea alba, flexion and rotation at waist
Extensor
Straighten out the joint
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
GASTROCNEMIUS
O-ABOVE LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR/ I-CALCANEUS BY WAY OF ACHILLES TENDON/ A-PLANTAR FLEXES THE FOOR AND FLEXES LEG
Phalanges
Digits or fingers. 5 in dogs cats and humans. Each digit has 3 bones except thumb (digit one or dewclaw) which has 2
Osteoclast
Cells that break down bone
Linea Alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
trapezius
upper back
pectoralis major
chest
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
Deep
Near the center of the body
Supinator - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and neighboring posterior part of the ulna
Abductors
Muscles that cause abduction
Dogs & Cats
MT 2-5, MT 1 is usually absent unless a dewclaw is present
Tendon
Strong dense tissue that connects muscle to bone
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
temporalis
o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: proximal medial surface of tibia
Palmaris longus - Insertion
Palmer aponeurosis of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
O- SUPERIOR RAMUS OF PUBIS/ I- XIPHOID PROCESS AND COSTAL CARTILAGE OF RIBS 5 TO 7/ A- COMPRESS ABDOMEN AND FLEX VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Vastus Lateralis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg, stabilizes knee
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Peroneus brevis
Insertion: base of metatarsal 5
Buccinator
compresses cheeks
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Equines
MT 3 forms the cannon bone. MT 2 and MT 4 form the splint bones
fasciculi
muscles made of bundles called
Loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation
Atrophy
Kaposi's sarcoma
bruise like cancer
Supinator - Insertion
Lateral surface of the proximal radius just below the head
Type II B Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; built for power; white
Abductor
Moves the limb away from the body
Active insufficiency is most noticeable in
a 2-joint muscle. Hamstrings and finger flexors
Skeletal
Multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal, moves the bones of the skeleton
Manubrium
First sterebrae, at the thoracic inlet
Posterior Deltoid
Rear part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder extension and horizntal abduction
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
Gastrocnemius
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion e.g. jumping
What protein maintains the position of the myosin in the center and prevents it from being pulled apart
Titin
Actin
Protein that composes microfilaments. Found in cytoskeleton myofibrils of muscle fiber, spindle fibers during cell division
buccinator
o: maxilla and mandible; i: orbicularis oris; holds food in mouth, sucks in cheeks
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Pisiform, hamate, and base of the fifth metacarpal (palmer surface)
perimysium
covering of the fasciculi
Yellow Marrow
Fatty marrow that can become active
Chestnut
Remnant of MC-1 forms this on the medial side of the leg in equines
Plantaris
Insertion: posterior portion of calcaneous
Sternohyoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, hyoid bone, depresses hyoid and larynx
Bursa
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
Supinator - Action
Supination of the forearm
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Calcaneus
Fibular tarsal bone (most important), heel bone/hock, large projection caudally, the achilles tendon attaches to it
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Extensor digitorum - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Shingles
chickenpox virus
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation to neutral from a fully supinated position
Triceps brachii - Insertion
Olecranon process of the ulna
Fibula
Lateral to the tibia. Sort of like the ulna, can extend from stifle to tarsus, or may be fused with tibia, or only partially present like in the horse
Vertebrae
3 main parts, body, and arch- 2 halves. All of them lined up end to end form the vertebral canal
Impacted Fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
Patellar Ligaments
Really a tendon, Important to keep patella riding in the patellar groove
Cardiac
Striated, involuntary muscle found exclusively on the heart
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Adduction
Moving bones or limb toward the midline
platysma
o: connective tissue covering chest muscles; i: tissue around mouth; pulls corner of mouth down
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
iliocostalis
O: posterior iliac crest of os coxa; I: posterior angle of ribs
Extensor
Straighten out the joint
Biceps brachii - Action
Flexian of the elbow, supination of the forearm, weak flexion of the shoulder joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Fibularis Longus
Fibula, first metatarsal, plantar flexion
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Semimembranosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Cervical Vertebrae - 2nd
Axes - allows for the rotation movement of the head
sternocleidomastoid
o: sternum, clavicle; i: temporal bone; flexes neck, rotates head
Rectus Femoris
Ilium, patella, tibia, extends knee, flexes thigh
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Ergot
Remnant of MC-5 forms this on the palmar surface of the lower leg in equines
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
Dermatitis
skin inflammation
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Patellar Ligaments
Really a tendon, Important to keep patella riding in the patellar groove
Cartilage Bone
Made from cartilage bars in the fetus that become calcified over time
Peroneus brevis
Action: Everts and plantar flexes foot
Quadriceps
Anterior thigh muscle that causes extension at the knee
Muscle Fiber
A single muscle tissue cell
Peroneus brevis
Origin: midlateral margin of fibula
Ilium
Largest of the three bones of the pelvis. Cranial portion of each ox coxae. wing, body
BICEPS FEMORIS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY AND THE LINEA ASPERA/ I-HEAD OF FIBULA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
iliocostalis
O: posterior iliac crest of os coxa; I: posterior angle of ribs
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
myoneural junction
point of which the motor nerve contacts a muscle fiber
flexor carpi
flexion at the wrist
Cartilage
Gristle type tissue. Discs between vertebrae, ear, joint surface
External oblique
broad, thin muscle that cover superior abdomen
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
Typical vertebra
is anterior
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-METACARPAL 5/ A-EXTEND AND ADDUCTS THE HAND
Flexor digitorum profundus - Action
Flexion of the four fingers at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist
peroneus brevis
O: lateral shaft of fibula; I: 5th metatarsal tendon
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Athelete's foot (tinea pedis)
fungus of foot
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Synovial Joints
The classic joints, (stifle joint, elbow joint, fetlock joint).
Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in birds, aka the wishbone
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
Epiphyseal Line
No more growth
Gastrocnemius
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
flexor carpi
flexion at the wrist
Vastus Lateralis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg, stabilizes knee
Compound Fracture
Open - bone pierces the skin
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Superficial
Near the surface of the body
Passive Tension
Tension due to muscle stretch
Plantaris
Insertion: posterior portion of calcaneous
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
Fibrous Joint
No joint cavity, bones are held together by fibrous tissue, found between splints and cannon bone. Found between skull bones (sutures) teeth in sockets
Supination
moving bones so radius and ulna are parallel
Stifle Joint
Formed by the articulation of the femur, patella and tibia
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Palatine Bones
Form most caudal portion of hard palate
Flexor digitorum profundus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanxes of the four fingers
Passive Insufficiency
Motion of joint limited by length of 2-joint muscle due to being unable to stretch across both joints. Hamstrings
Cranium
Surrounds the brain
Fixators
Muscles that stabilize proximally to allow the agonist to work effectively
flexor digitorum longus
O: tibia | I: bases of distal phlanges of toes | A: flexes 4 lateral digits; plantarflexion; aids with inversion; supports foot longitudinal arches; helps toes grip the ground
Extensor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
Rotation
Moving the bone around in a central axis
Process
Projections from the vertebrae
Pelvic Symphysis
Where the two halves of the pelvis join ventrally
Lesion
Wounded or damaged area
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Osteocytes
Bone cells
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
Golgi tendon organs detect changes in tendon
tension
Flexor digitorum profundus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanxes of the four fingers
Sphincter
Circular muscles around an opening
Vestigial Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in cats
Tendon
Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
Flat
Protection, skull bones and ribs
Thick protein filaments
Myocin
Peroneus brevis
Insertion: base of metatarsal 5
Ringworm
fungus
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
MASSETER
O-ZYGOMATIC ARCH AND BONE/ I-RAMUS OF MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND PROTRUDES MANDIBLE
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-METACARPALS 2 AND 3/ A-FLEXES AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Patellar Ligaments
Really a tendon, Important to keep patella riding in the patellar groove
Marrow
Fills up the center of most living bones, where blood cells are made
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Flexion
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones
Golgi Tendon Organ
Located in the tendon, both at muscle origin and insertion; detect changes in tendon tension
Triceps
Extends elbow, ORIGIN: scapula/humerus INSERTION: Olecranon of ulna
Mandible
Has 2 halves, they join at the symphysis which is a common area for fractures, articulates with the temporal bone to form temporo-mandibular-joint. contains all lower teeth
Internal Oblique
Lmbodorsal fascia, Lower 4 ribs, Flexion and rotation at waist
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Pisiform, hamate, and base of the fifth metacarpal (palmer surface)
Medial
Close to the midline
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones. Front 'knee' of horse and other large animals. 6-8 short bones in 2 rows
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
rhomboideus
O: C7; T1; T2-T5 | I: medial border of scapula | A: retraction of shoulder
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
Muscle spindles lie
parallel to the muscle fibers
voluntary muscles-ex
skeletal muscles of the arm and leg
Extensor digiti minimi - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
Paralysis
Complete loss of muscle function
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
three types of muscles
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, caridac muscle
Nasal Bones
Dorsal bones of face-form roof of nasal cavity
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
erector spinae
O: iliac crest; sacrum; lumbar spinous processes | I: iliocostalis = ribs; spinalis = spinous processes & skull; longissimus = ribs, transverse processes & mastoid process | A: extend vertebral column; maintain upright posture
Microscopic
Need a microscope to see it
erector spinea
o: illiac crests, ribs 3-12, vertebrae; i: rubs thoracic and cervical vertebrae; extends back
gluteus maximus
butt
Greater Trochanter
Large knob on the proximal end of the femur for muscle attachments
Antagonist
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
Osteology
The study of bones
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Semimembranosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Obturator Foramen
Holes in the pubis of the pelvis that make it more light weight
When a muscle is completely shortened or lengthened
it can't produce much
Flexor digitorum profundus - Action
Flexion of the four fingers at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist
Ergot
Remnant of MC-5 forms this on the palmar surface of the lower leg in equines
Biceps Femoris
Ischium and femur, tibia, fibula, extends thigh and flexes lower leg
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C7, C8, and T1)
antagonistic pairs
muscles are often arranged around joints, they produce opposite actions
Extensor digitorum - Insertion
Four tendons to bases of middle and distal phalanxes of four fingers (dorsal surface)
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Zygomaticus
smiling muscle
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Skeletal
Multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal, moves the bones of the skeleton
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Triceps brachii - Action
All heads- extension of the elbow, Long head- extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint
popliteus
O: lateral epicondyle of femur; I: posterior surface of tibia (Proximal)
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
platysma
o: connective tissue covering chest muscles; i: tissue around mouth; pulls corner of mouth down
Neoplasms (tumors)
Benign or malignant
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
sternocleidomastoid muscle
O: sternum and clavicle | I: mastoid process of temporal bone | A: tilts head
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
Stratum granulosum
Granular, 3-5 layers, flattened; accumulating proteins especially carotene
3 pigments of skin
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin (not resident)
gluteous maximus
rump area, large
iliocostalis
O: posterior iliac crest of os coxa; I: posterior angle of ribs
hamstrings
back of thigh
adductor magnus
O: pubic bone; ischium | I: gluteal tuberosity of femur; linea aspera of femur | A: adducts thigh
Pectoralis Major
Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction
Carotene
has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles
TRAPEZIUS
O-OCCIPITAL BONE AND SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE C7 TO T12 I-ACROMION PROCESS AND SPINE OF SCAPULA AND THE ACROMIAL END OF THE CLAVICLE/ A-UPPER PART EXTENDS HEAD AND ELEVATES SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE, LOWER PART DEPRESSES SCAPULA TOGETHER
Anconeus - Action
Extension of the elbow
Transverse Abdominis
Ilium, Linea alba and pubic crest, compresses abdominal wall
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Extensor pollicis brevis - Insertion
Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Melanin
only melanin is made in the skin. Melanin can be gradated into many different shades. It is this ability of Melanin that gives different races different skin coloration. A special type of cells known as melanocytes produces melanin, Melanocytes are primarily found in the stratum germinativum. Whenever the skin has had an exposure to sunlight, the stratum germinativum cells, phagocytize or eat the skin pigment melanin. After an amount of time, melanin accumulates within the stratum germinativum cells, and tends to form a protective pigment "umbrella". These "umbrellas of melanin pigment shields DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation
Sacral
Vertebrae that articulates with the pelvis. Usually fused together in most species. Articulate with tuber sacrale of the ilium. Has dorsal process
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
Adductors
Muscles that cause adduction
Short Bone Characteristic
Can withstand alot of pressure
Intercalated Discs
Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
Process
Projections from the vertebrae
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Type II B Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; built for power; white
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Anconeus - Action
Extension of the elbow
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Irregular
Unpaired bones. Ex: vertebrae, sternebrae, os penis, few skull bones
Tuber Ischii
Caudal prominence of the Ishium
Glenoid Cavity
Articulates with humerus to form shoulder joint
biceps brachii
o: scalpula of shoulder girdle; i: proximal radius; flexes elbow and supinates forearm
Articular Surface
The end of the bone that is articulating with another bone joint, surfaces of bone are covered with cartilage which makes them shiny and smooth
Type II A Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; can be trained to act like I or II B; red
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
trapezius
upper back
Obturator Foramen
Holes in the pubis of the pelvis that make it more light weight
Collagen
Fibrous tissue that adds strength to other tissues; gelatin, capsule around muscles
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Ventral
Towards the belly
Facial Bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
involuntary muscles-ex
smooth muscles found in the internal organs and cardiac muscles
intercostals muscles
o: bottom half of ribs ; i: top half of ribs ; raise and depress ribcage for breathing
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of cells
SUPRASPINATUS
O-SUPRASINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER RUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- INITIATES ABDUCTION OF THE HUMERUS
Hemiplegia
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Vertebrae
Becomes progressively larger down to the sacrum and then become successively smaller.
Cartilage Bone
Made from cartilage bars in the fetus that become calcified over time
Sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
Vestigial Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in cats
Rostral
On the head, towards the nose
biceps
two, muscle in the upper arm that has two heads or connecting points
Marrow
Fills up the center of most living bones, where blood cells are made
Metacarpals
Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral
Quadriceps
Anterior thigh muscle that causes extension at the knee
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
orbicularis oculi
o: frontal bone; i: tissue around eyes; blinks and closes eyes
biceps femoris
O: long = ischial tuberosity; short = linea aspera of femur | I: lateral side of fibula | A: flexes leg; rotates tibia laterally; long = extends thigh/hip
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular
Triceps brachii - Insertion
Olecranon process of the ulna
origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
Adipose
Fat storage. White in most animals. Yellow in Gurnsey cattle and horses. Brown in newborns
Phalanx
3 bones in each digit (except digit 1), known as P-1, P-2, P-3, or proximal, middle and distal. P-3 has the nail attached to it
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
Abductor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior aspect of the radius and midshaft of the ulna
Tibialis posterior
Action: Plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts food
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Extensor digitorum - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Sprain
Tearing or overstretching of a ligament. Ligaments attach bone to bone.
False Ribs
Are joined to the sternum by cartilage
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
Fasicicle
Bundle of muscle fibers. Several thousands in a muscle
Muscle spindles lie
parallel to the muscle fibers
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Ruminants
MT 3 and MT 4 are fused like in the front leg
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Neck
Between the head and shaft of the femur, sawed off to relieve symptoms of hip dysplasia
Adductor Femoris
Ischium and pubis, femur, adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh
Triceps brachii - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Dens
Cranial projection of the axis that fits into the atlas
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
External Oblique
Lower 8 ribs, Ilium and linea alba, flexion and rotation at waist
6th step in muscle contation
myosin head attaches to myosin binding site and bends cause actin and myosin and myofilaments to slide past each other
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
O-SACRUM AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF ILIUM/ I-GLUTEAL TUBEROSITY OF FEMUR/ A- EXTENDS FEMUR ADN LATERALLY ROTATES FEMUR
The Cell
The basic unit of living things
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Insertion
attachment to a bone which moves in the ordinary active in the body (distal)
Pronator quadratus - Action
Pronation of the forearm
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Agonist
The main muscle used to produce a movement
Synergist
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Epiphyseal Plate
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
sternocleidomastoid muscle
O: sternum and clavicle | I: mastoid process of temporal bone | A: tilts head
Gluteals
"Rump muscles" extend hip, and abduct limb ORIGIN: Ilium INSERTION: Greater Trochanter of the femur
gluteus maximus
butt
Aging of integumentary system
Thinner and more prone to damage, fewer immune cells, less vitamin D produced, decrease in melanocyte activity (gray hair), less secretion, skin dries easily, sweat glands less active, fewer capillaries to lose heat, dermis loses elasticity and strength (wrinkles)
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Rhomboidal
Wide, flat muscle. Rectangular. Rhomboids
Supinator - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6)
SARTORIUS
O-ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF THE ILIUM/ I-PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- FLEXES AND ROTATES THIGH LATERALLY AND FLEXES THE LEG THUS PLACING THE HEAL ON OPPOSITE KNEE
Gastrocnemius
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
Glenoid Cavity
Articulates with humerus to form shoulder joint
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
Extensor pollicis brevis - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Wrist abduction
Articular Cavity
Space between bones
GASTROCNEMIUS
O-ABOVE LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR/ I-CALCANEUS BY WAY OF ACHILLES TENDON/ A-PLANTAR FLEXES THE FOOR AND FLEXES LEG
3 pigments of skin
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin (not resident)
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-METACARPALS 2 AND 3/ A-FLEXES AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
Energy in the form of what is needed to contract or release a muscle
ATP
Vertebral arch
is posterior
Vertebral arch
is posterior
Muscle spindles detect changes in muscle ? and ? of length change
length speed
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Skeletal muscle
also called striated
Extensor digiti minimi - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
sternocleidomastoid
stern/o (sternum), cleid/o (clavicle), single insertion (mastoid process)
DJD or Arthritis
Damage to joint can lead to this
pectoralis major
chest
Osseous
Bone Tissue
RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR
O-SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE T2 TO T5/ I-MEDIAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ A-ADDUCTS THE SCAPULA
Pectoralis major
abducts humerus
Burns
First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)
Atrophy
Muscle shrinkage, decrease in size of muscles
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Connective
Binds other tissues together, protection and leverage
Hip Dysplasia
Shallow acetabulum and deformed femoral head... leads to arthritis, genetic in larger breeds, especially german shepards
Compact
Beneath periosteum, very dense, makes up shaft of bone
Splint Bones
MC-2 and MC-4 form these in equines. They are attached to the cannon bone by ligaments that can get inflamed and swell up to make blemishes
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Supinator - Insertion
Lateral surface of the proximal radius just below the head
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Smooth
Non-striated involuntary muscle w/only one nucleus- found on internal organs
Articulation
Another name for joint
Humerus
Upper arm bone, long bone, 2 ends with shaft in middle
Soleus
Insertion: calcaneous via calcanal tendon
Phalanges
Equines walk on their middle finger, which has P-1, P-2 and P-3, P-3 has the hoof attached to it
Muscle Fibers
Actin and Myosin
gastrocnemius
calf
Equines
MT 3 forms the cannon bone. MT 2 and MT 4 form the splint bones
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Cannon Bone
Metacarpal 3 forms this in equines
TESOR FASCIAE LATAE
O-ILIAC CREST/ I-BY WAY OF ILIOTIBIAL TRACT OF TIBIA/ A- ASSIST IN FLEXION, ABDUCTION AND MEDIAL ROTATION OF THE THIGH
pectoralis minor
O: ribs 3-5 | I: coracoid process of scapula | A: protraction, depression and downward rotation of shoulder
sartorius
O: anterior superior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
buccinator
o: maxilla and mandible; i: orbicularis oris; holds food in mouth, sucks in cheeks
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Sternocleidomastoid
Strong bandlike muscle involved in "wry neck" known as torticollis (flexes and rotates the head)
Squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, mouth, esophagus, prostate, lungs, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation.
striated muscle
another name for skeletal muscle
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Action
Extension of the wrist, adduction of the wrist together with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak extension of the elbow
Medial
Close to the midline
Pronator quadratus - Origin
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the ulna
Biceps brachii - Insertion
Tuberosity of the radius and bicipital aponeurosis
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Endogenous Infection
Caused by a navel infection, occurs in young animals
Flat Bones
Cranial, sternum, ribs and scapula
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that wrap around each muscle
Trapezius
shoulder muscle that moves scapula
Palatine Bones
Form most caudal portion of hard palate
motor neurons
of the nervous system and stimulates skeletal muscles
Is a Type I Muscle Fiber slow or fast twitch
Slow
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Action
Flexion of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Thoracic
Surrounds the heart and lungs
vastus intermedius
O: anterolateral surface of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
involuntary muscles-ex
smooth muscles found in the internal organs and cardiac muscles
Pronator quadratus - Innervation
Median nerve (palmar interosseous branch) (C6, C7)
Soleus
Action: Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Calcaneus
Fibular tarsal bone (most important), heel bone/hock, large projection caudally, the achilles tendon attaches to it
Biceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Frontalis
forehead muscle (Raises eyebrow andfacial expressions)
Flexion
To bend a joint
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
Peristalsis
A rythmic, wavelike motion that progressively moves through a tube organ such as the small intestine
Adipose
Fat storage. White in most animals. Yellow in Gurnsey cattle and horses. Brown in newborns
Orbicularis oris muscle
muscle that allows you to move your lips
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Dorsal
Towards the back
Brachialis - Origin
Distal half of the anterior shaft of the humerus
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Supinate
Turning appendage up (toward sky)
Closed Reductions
manual manipulation of the ends of the fractured bone so that normal alignment is maintained
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Anconeus - Origin
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Palmar
Caudal surface of front legs from wrist to toes
Muscle
Used for movement- skeletal, striated and cardiac
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
System
Groups of organs working together to do a common job
Irregular
Unpaired bones. Ex: vertebrae, sternebrae, os penis, few skull bones
Sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
Ribs
Same number as thoracic vertebrae. Articulate dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae, articulate ventrally with the sternum. Ventral portion is cartilage
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
SEMI MEMBRANOS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I-MEDIAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Nasal Septum
Divides the nasal cavity in half
Extensor digitorum - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Eccentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by lengthening
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
The Cell
The basic unit of living things
Carotene
has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
occipitalis
o: occiptal bone; i: scalp; pulls scalp posteriorly
Ethmoid Turninates
Curled sheets of bone sometimes called scrolls, which are covered in mucous membrane
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Pisiform, hamate, and base of the fifth metacarpal (palmer surface)
Connective
Binds other tissues together, protection and leverage
C-7/ T-18/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the horse
Maxilla
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Atlas
C-1, Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull
Muscle Fibers
Actin and Myosin
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Articular Cavity
Space between bones
Tuber coxae
Lateral most projection, hook bone
GASTROCNEMIUS
O-ABOVE LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR/ I-CALCANEUS BY WAY OF ACHILLES TENDON/ A-PLANTAR FLEXES THE FOOR AND FLEXES LEG
Muscle spindles are responsible for
deep tendon reflexes
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Caudal
Towards the tail
Cardiac
Striated, involuntary muscle found exclusively on the heart
biceps
arm
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
Ringworm
fungus
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
plantaris
O: femur | I: calcaneus | A: weakly assists plantarflexion
pectoralis major
O: clavicle; sternum | I: humerus | A: adduction; medial rotation; extension; flexion
Os Coxae
Hip, pelvis
Axis
C-2, has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1
flexor carpi radialis
O: medial epicondyle of humerus | I: 2nd and 3rd metacarpels | A: flexes hand at the wrist; aids in wrist abduction
muscles
bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers
Median Plane
Cuts body in half longitudally
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Biceps brachii - Innervation
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
What are the 3 Types of Muscle Fibers
Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Cardiac muscle
Found only in the heart
Tuber Ischii
Caudal prominence of the Ishium
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-ILIAC CREAST AND INGUINAL LIGAMENTS AND THORACIC LUMBAR FASCIA/ I- LOWER RIBS ABD LINEA ASPERA/ A- CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Paraplegia
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in th trunk and lower extremities
triceps
back of arm
Vastus Intermedius
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Tibialis Anterior
Shin muscle that causes dorsiflexion e.g bringing toes towards the shin
digastric
opens jaw
Sarcomere
The smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
Ruminants
MT 3 and MT 4 are fused like in the front leg
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Sarcomere
The smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
masseter
O: zygomatic arch | I: mandible and coronoid process | A: elevates mandible; closes jaw
Gastrocnemius
Enables one to stand on tip toes & is enlarged in dancers (calf of leg)
Gracilis
Pubis, tibia, adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg
Proximal
Near to the body proper
infraspinatus
O: infraspinous fossa of scapula | I: greater tubercle of humerus | A: lateral rotation of humerus
muscles
bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers
Intercalated Discs
Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells
Flexor pollicis longus - Innervation
Median nerve, palmar interosseous branch (C8, T1)
Papillary layer
Top 1/5 of dermis, most is areolar connective tissue, dermal papillae "fingerprints"
Haversian Canals
Channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Soleus
Fibula, tibia, calcaneal tendon onto calcaneus, plantarflexes foot
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
supinator
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus | I: radius | A: supinate forearm
auricular
wiggle ears
Sliding Filament Theory
The Theory of how muscles generate force.
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Peristalsis
A rythmic, wavelike motion that progressively moves through a tube organ such as the small intestine
Abductor pollicis longus - Action
Abduction of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Abduction of the wrist, Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position, Weak flexion of the wrist joint
SARTORIUS
O-ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF THE ILIUM/ I-PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- FLEXES AND ROTATES THIGH LATERALLY AND FLEXES THE LEG THUS PLACING THE HEAL ON OPPOSITE KNEE
Compound Fracture
Open - bone pierces the skin
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments around joint
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Flat Bones
Cranial, sternum, ribs and scapula
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular
Olecranon
Proximal part of ulna. Point of elbow. Funny bone. Has anconeal process that fits into the olecranon fossa
Cardiac
Striated, involuntary muscle found exclusively on the heart
Stratum lucidum
only in soles or palms, 3-5 layers, clear with no nuclei, flat and dead
STERNOCLEOIDMASTOID
O-CLAVICLE AND MANUBRIUM/ I-MASTOID PROCESS/ A- CONTRACTION OF 1 ROTATES HEAD TOWARD OPPOSITE SIDE
Joint Capsule
Surrounds the joint cavity, has 2 layers
Supinate
Turning appendage up (toward sky)
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
O- SUPERIOR RAMUS OF PUBIS/ I- XIPHOID PROCESS AND COSTAL CARTILAGE OF RIBS 5 TO 7/ A- COMPRESS ABDOMEN AND FLEX VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Peroneus brevis
Origin: midlateral margin of fibula
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
auricular
wiggle ears
False Ribs
Are joined to the sternum by cartilage
Quadriceps Femoris
Cranial thigh muscles, extend stifle
Myofibrils
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells
Xiphoid
Last sternebrae
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Osteocytes
Osteoblasts that have been surrounded by bone, and are trapped
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Pili
for protection from cold, sun, particles, produced by hair bulb and enclosed in hair follicle
Active Tension
Tension due to muscle contraction
striated muscle
another name for skeletal muscle
Incisive Bone
Most rostral bone of upper jaw-contains upper incisors and forms part of the hard palate
Gluteus Maximus
Ilium, sacrum, coccyx, femur, extension, and lateral rotation of thigh
Slow twitch muscles are built for
endurance
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in the trunk and LE's
Paraplegia
myocardium
cardiac muscle
myocardium
cardiac muscle
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Composition of Bone
1/3 Organic matter. 2/3 Ca++ and Phosphorus hydorapatite
Biceps bracii
flex the elbow joint
Biceps Femoris
Ischium and femur, tibia, fibula, extends thigh and flexes lower leg
soleus
O: fibula; tibia | I: calcaneal tendon | A: plantarflexion
Subluxation
Partial dislocation- vertebrae
Muscle Spindle
Lie parallel to the muscle fibers; detect changes in muscle length and speed
aponeuroses
broad fibrous sheets attaches to coverings of adjacent muscles
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Layers of the epidermis
Bottom to top: Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum
Biceps brachii - Action
Flexian of the elbow, supination of the forearm, weak flexion of the shoulder joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation
auricular
wiggle ears
Trochlea
Patella rides in this groove of the distal femur
Short
More 'square' shock absorbers, wrist and ankle bones
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Origin
Lower third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral epicondyle of the humeral
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
Sphincter
Circular muscles around an opening
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Stratum granulosum
Granular, 3-5 layers, flattened; accumulating proteins especially carotene
Osteoblast
Cells that make bone
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Exogenous Infection
Created by a puncture into the joint
Type I Muscle Fiber
Slow twitch; built for endurance; red
Yellow Marrow
Fatty marrow that can become active
adductor magnus
O: pubic bone; ischium | I: gluteal tuberosity of femur; linea aspera of femur | A: adducts thigh
Biceps
Flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
Crainium
Bones that surround the cranial cavity
Degenerative Joint Disease
DJD- another name for arthritis, secondary to structural deformities that cause abnormal articulation of bones
shin splints
soreness of the front lower leg, strain or flexor digitorium longus commonly caused by running or walking up and down hills
Plantar
Caudal surface of the hind legs from the ankle to the toes
Articulation
Another name for joint
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Short Bones
Carpal, Tarsal
Malignant melanoma
worst kind, most rare but deadliest
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Petrous Temporal Bone
Contains the inner ear
Biceps
Flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Nervous
Conducts never signals; found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
O: ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ I: METATARSAL 1/ A: DORSIFLEXES THE FOOT
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Exostosis
Benign bone tumor
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Coxofemoral Luxation
Dislocated hip
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
O-SACRUM AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF ILIUM/ I-GLUTEAL TUBEROSITY OF FEMUR/ A- EXTENDS FEMUR ADN LATERALLY ROTATES FEMUR
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
3 pigments of skin
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin (not resident)
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
Fetlock Bone
The name of P-1 in large animals
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Composition of Bone
1/3 Organic matter. 2/3 Ca++ and Phosphorus hydorapatite
Decubitis (pressure) ulcer
Bedsore
Dorsal
Towards the back
Is a Type IIA muscle fiber slow or fast twitch
Fast
Osseous
Bone Tissue
Long Bones
Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
voluntary muscles-ex
skeletal muscles of the arm and leg
Myosin
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Spinous Process
Dorsal or ventral projections
Carotene
has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles
Extension
To straighten a joint
Posterior Deltoid
Rear part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder extension and horizntal abduction
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Anconeus - Action
Extension of the elbow
skeletal muscle
voluntary, have more than one nucleus
Cervical Vertebrae - 1st
Atlas - allows for the rotation movement of the head
Splint Bones
MC-2 and MC-4 form these in equines. They are attached to the cannon bone by ligaments that can get inflamed and swell up to make blemishes
Acne
Blocked sebaceous glands
Floating Ribs
Never join the sternum
Cervical
Vertebrae of the neck, most cranial
Cloven Hoofed
2 toed animal
Triceps
Extends elbow, ORIGIN: scapula/humerus INSERTION: Olecranon of ulna
Pronator teres - Origin
Distal part of the medial condyloid ridge of the humerus and medial side of the proximal ulna
Cannon Bone
Metacarpals 3 & 4 are fused together to form this in ruminants
gluteus maximus
O: iliac crest; sacrum; cocyx | I: femur | A: extends and laterally rotates thigh; abducts and adducts thigh
Gastrocnemius
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
White Marrow
Hard fatty marrow, cannot become active
Tendon
Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones
Impacted Fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
Soleus
Innervation: Sciatic Nerve, tibial branch
Crainium
Bones that surround the cranial cavity
Flat Bones
Cranial, sternum, ribs and scapula
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
Spinous Process
Dorsal or ventral projections
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of thoracic spine
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Semitendinosus
Lateral portion of the hamstring
Flat Bones
Cranial, sternum, ribs and scapula
Maxilla
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
visceral muscle
the muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach
Exostosis
Benign bone tumor
Palmar
Caudal surface of front legs from wrist to toes
cardiac muscle
involuntary, found only in yhe heart, cells can contract without being stimulated by an electrical impulse
False Ribs
Are joined to the sternum by cartilage
perimysium
covering of the fasciculi
Incisive Bone
Most rostral bone of upper jaw-contains upper incisors and forms part of the hard palate
Anconeus - Insertion
Posterior surface of the lateral olecranon process and proximal one-fourth of the ulna
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Insertion
Each tendon splits and attaches to the sides of the middle phalanx of four fingers (palmer surface)
Agonists
Main muscle used to produce a movement
Ishium
Most caudal of the three bones. Caudal prominence is called the tuber ischii.
Illiopsoas
Anterior muscle that causes hip flexion
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Antagonist
Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
5th step in muscle contration
calcium moves troponin complex and tropomyosin out of the way
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
Membrane Bone
Made as fibrous membrane templates are calcified in the fetus (skull bones-fontanel)
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
Degenerative Joint Disease
DJD- another name for arthritis, secondary to structural deformities that cause abnormal articulation of bones
Pectoralis Major
Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction
Stifle Joint
Formed by the articulation of the femur, patella and tibia
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Flexor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (palmer surface)
zygomaticus
o: zygomatic bone; i: skin and muscle at corner of lips; raises corners of mouth
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
Condyles
Rounded knobs at distal end of humerus that articulate with radius and ulna to form elbow joint
Spinous Process
Dorsal or ventral projections
Peroneus brevis
Innveration: superficial peroneal nerve
SOLEUS
A-PLANTAR FLEXES FOOT
Neck
Between the head and shaft of the femur, sawed off to relieve symptoms of hip dysplasia
Melanin
only melanin is made in the skin. Melanin can be gradated into many different shades. It is this ability of Melanin that gives different races different skin coloration. A special type of cells known as melanocytes produces melanin, Melanocytes are primarily found in the stratum germinativum. Whenever the skin has had an exposure to sunlight, the stratum germinativum cells, phagocytize or eat the skin pigment melanin. After an amount of time, melanin accumulates within the stratum germinativum cells, and tends to form a protective pigment "umbrella". These "umbrellas of melanin pigment shields DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation
Facial Bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
Abductor pollicis longus - Action
Abduction of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Abduction of the wrist, Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position, Weak flexion of the wrist joint
Ethmoid Foramina
Openings that let the olfactory nerve leave the brain and enter the nasal passages
popliteus
O: lateral epicondyle of femur; I: posterior surface of tibia (Proximal)
Flexor digitorum profundus - Origin
Proximal three-fourths of the anterior and medial ulna
Kyphosis
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
rectus femoris
o: pelvis; i: tibial tuberosity; helps flex hip and extend knee
Phalanx
3 bones in each digit (except digit 1), known as P-1, P-2, P-3, or proximal, middle and distal. P-3 has the nail attached to it
Muscle
Contains several fascicles
Cranial Nerve I
The olfactory nerve
Bone
Calcified cartilage. Living tissue constantly being remodled
Articular Surface
The end of the bone that is articulating with another bone joint, surfaces of bone are covered with cartilage which makes them shiny and smooth
Sagittal Plane
Slices that are parallel to the median plane
three types of muscles
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, caridac muscle
Isotonic Contraction
Involves movement of the muscle contracting
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
What protein is pulled toward the center of the sarcomere by the myocin during contraction
Actin
BICEPS FEMORIS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY AND THE LINEA ASPERA/ I-HEAD OF FIBULA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Osteoblast
Cells that make bone
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
Membrane Bone
Made as fibrous membrane templates are calcified in the fetus (skull bones-fontanel)
Complete loss of muscle function
Paralysis
muscle spasms
quick involuntary contraction and relaxation of a single muscle in a group of muscles
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Rectus Abdominis
Pubic bone, Ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process, flexion at waist
Peroneus brevis
Origin: midlateral margin of fibula
Dogs & Cats
MT 2-5, MT 1 is usually absent unless a dewclaw is present
Abrasion
Scrape or surface damage, stratum basale cells migrate, mitosis
Chondroclasts
Cells that beak down cartilage
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-ILIAC CREAST AND INGUINAL LIGAMENTS AND THORACIC LUMBAR FASCIA/ I- LOWER RIBS ABD LINEA ASPERA/ A- CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Patellar Luxation
If the trochlea is not deep enough , the patella can pop out of the groove and cause lameness, termed _________.
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
Triceps brachii - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Gastrocnemius
Enables one to stand on tip toes & is enlarged in dancers (calf of leg)
aponeuroses
broad fibrous sheets attaches to coverings of adjacent muscles
7th step in muscle contation
ATP unsticks the myosin heads and recocks it for next movement
latissimus dorsi
back
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Short Bones
Carpal, Tarsal
Gastrocnemius
Action: Flexes knee; plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Biceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
Pelvic Limb
Hind Leg
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
Tibia
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
Epiphyseal Plate
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
Cranial
Towards the head
sarcoplasmic reticulim
channels
PSOAS MAJOR
O-BODY AND TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS/ A- WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Head
Smooth, rounded proximal end of humerus that articulates with glenoid cavity
Soleus
Innervation: Sciatic Nerve, tibial branch
Marrow
Fills up the center of most living bones, where blood cells are made
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-METACARPAL 5/ A-EXTEND AND ADDUCTS THE HAND
Deep
Near the center of the body
Vastus Medialis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Intercalated Discs
Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells
Neoplasms (tumors)
Benign or malignant
Sternomastoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, mastoid process, singly, rotates head to opposite shoulder, together, flexes head
Patellar Luxation
If the trochlea is not deep enough , the patella can pop out of the groove and cause lameness, termed _________.
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Brachialis - Action
True flexion of the elbow
Pronate
Turning appendage down (toward ground)
Tibia
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
pectineus
O: superior ramus of pubis; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
Cloven Hoofed
2 toed animal
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Brachialis - Insertion
Coronoid process of the ulna
latissimus dorsi
o: lower spine and illiac crest; i: proximal humerus; extends and adducts humerus
DJD or Arthritis
Damage to joint can lead to this
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Posterior aspect of the proximal ulna
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Nails
protect digits, plates of keratinezed epidermal cells
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Metatarsal Bones
Similar to metacarpal bones. Foot bones
Supinator - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6)
Tendon
Strong dense tissue that connects muscle to bone
Chondroclasts
Cells that beak down cartilage
Head
Smooth, rounded proximal end of humerus that articulates with glenoid cavity
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
sternocleidomastoid
o: sternum, clavicle; i: temporal bone; flexes neck, rotates head
Thermoregulation
Negative feedback, thermoreceptors to brain, temperature control center sends message to effectors
Stifle Joint
Formed by the articulation of the femur, patella and tibia
rectus abdominis
stomach
Long
More length than width, used for locomotion ex: femur, humerus
Periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Applied
Use knowledge of anatomy to help in diagnosis/treatment
Gluteus Medius
Ilium, femur, Abduction and medial rotation of thigh
Abduction
Moving bones or limb away from the midline
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
mitochondria
has many for more energy
Abduct
To move a limb away from the body
Stay Apparatus
In horses, allows for them to sleep standing up, locks leg in place, due to three patellar ligaments
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Triceps brachii - Insertion
Olecranon process of the ulna
Skeletal
Multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal, moves the bones of the skeleton
Rectus abdominis
flexes veribral column, runs down medial stmoach
brachialis
flexes elbow
Radius and Ulna
2 bones of forearm. Side by side. Fused together in cows and horses. If fused, flexibility is lost
Pronator teres - Origin
Distal part of the medial condyloid ridge of the humerus and medial side of the proximal ulna
Skeletal Muscle
voluntary
Compact
Beneath periosteum, very dense, makes up shaft of bone
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Cardiac muscle
has branched cells
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
PSOAS MAJOR
O-BODY AND TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS/ A- WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
cardiac muscle
involuntary, found only in yhe heart, cells can contract without being stimulated by an electrical impulse
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
O: ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ I: METATARSAL 1/ A: DORSIFLEXES THE FOOT
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Flexor digitorum profundus - Origin
Proximal three-fourths of the anterior and medial ulna
Anconeus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Soleus
Insertion: calcaneous via calcanal tendon
Brachialis - Origin
Distal half of the anterior shaft of the humerus
Fibularis Longus
Fibula, first metatarsal, plantar flexion
neuromuscular junction
connesction to a fiber from a motor neuron
Triceps brachii - Origin
Long head- infraglenoid tubercle below inferior lip of glenoid fossa of the scapula, Lateral head- upper half of the posterior surface of the humerus, Medial head- distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the humerus
orbicularis oris
o: mandible and maxilla; i: skin and muscle around mouth; closes and protrudes lips
pectineus
O: superior ramus of pubis; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
Gastrocnemius
Femur, via achilles tendon onto calcaneal tendon, flexes lower leg, plantarflexes foot
Aging of integumentary system
Thinner and more prone to damage, fewer immune cells, less vitamin D produced, decrease in melanocyte activity (gray hair), less secretion, skin dries easily, sweat glands less active, fewer capillaries to lose heat, dermis loses elasticity and strength (wrinkles)
Extensor digiti minimi - Insertion
Base of the middle and distal phalanxes of the fifth phalange (dorsal surface)
Type II A Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; can be trained to act like I or II B; red
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Pisiform, hamate, and base of the fifth metacarpal (palmer surface)
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments around joint
Albinism
melanocytes can't sythesize melanin
Paralysis
Complete loss of muscle function
GASTROCNEMIUS
O-ABOVE LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR/ I-CALCANEUS BY WAY OF ACHILLES TENDON/ A-PLANTAR FLEXES THE FOOR AND FLEXES LEG
Soleus
Action: Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-METACARPALS 2 AND 3/ A-FLEXES AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Semimembranosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Tuber coxae
Lateral most projection, hook bone
Biceps bracii
flex the elbow joint
Agonist
The main muscle used to produce a movement
Coffin Bone
The name of P-3 in large animals
Comminuted Fracture
fracture lines are multiple and the bone is splintered and crushed
Sacroiliac Joint
Where the two halves of the pelvis articulate dorsally
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Peroneus brevis
Innveration: superficial peroneal nerve
Jaundice
Liver can't excrete bile, get rid of bilirubin, skin and whites of eyes are yellow
Pronator quadratus - Origin
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the ulna
Nervous
Conducts never signals; found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Trochlea
Patella rides in this groove of the distal femur
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
The Length-Tension Relation states that the number of sarcomeres can
change over time to optimize the length-tension relationship
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
gluteous maximus
rump area, large
Flexor pollicis longus - Action
Flexion of the thumb carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Flexion of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist
Organ
Groups of tissues that work together
voluntary muscles-d
a person consciously shooses which muscles to contract and how long and how hard to contract them
Tuber Ischii
Caudal prominence of the Ishium
Abduct
To move a limb away from the body
Flat Bones
Cranial, sternum, ribs and scapula
Endogenous Infection
Caused by a navel infection, occurs in young animals
Collarbone
Boney attachment to scapula in humans
Connective
Binds other tissues together, protection and leverage
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments around joint
tibialis anterior
O: tibia | I: tarsel | A: dorsiflexion; inversion
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
Biceps brachii - Insertion
Tuberosity of the radius and bicipital aponeurosis
Is a Type IIA muscle fiber slow or fast twitch
Fast
brachialis
flexes elbow
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
Mandible
Has 2 halves, they join at the symphysis which is a common area for fractures, articulates with the temporal bone to form temporo-mandibular-joint. contains all lower teeth
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Psoriasis
Chronic, noninfectious, raised, reddened round plaques covered by silvery white scales
Exostosis
Benign bone tumor
Transverse Process
Project laterally
Process
Projections from the vertebrae
GRACILIS
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/ I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and linea aspera; I: tibial tuberosity
Rostral
On the head, towards the nose
Obturator Foramen
Holes in the pubis of the pelvis that make it more light weight
Brachialis - Insertion
Coronoid process of the ulna
Strains
Tearing or overstretching of a muscle. Tendons attach muscles to bone.
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Antagonist
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
Extensor digitorum - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Humerus
Upper arm bone, long bone, 2 ends with shaft in middle
Lateral
Away from the midline
Osteochondrosis dessicans
OCD- degeneration of articular cartilage in joint-flaps
Cribriform Plate
Has openings called ethmoid foramina, part of the ethmoid bones
Soleus
Insertion: calcaneous via calcanal tendon
External Oblique
Lower 8 ribs, Ilium and linea alba, flexion and rotation at waist
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Abductor pollicis longus - Action
Abduction of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Abduction of the wrist, Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position, Weak flexion of the wrist joint
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Ulnar head- medial coronoid process, Radial head- upper two-thirds of anterior border of radius just distal to the radial tuberosity
Pubis
Smallest of the three bones. Forms much of the ventral floor of the pelvic canal. Has a hole in it called the obturator foramen which make it more light weight. two halves meet at the pelvic symphysis
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-METACARPAL 5/ A-EXTEND AND ADDUCTS THE HAND
Complete loss of muscle function
Paralysis
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Irregular Bones
Vertebrae, Malleus, incus, stapes
Muscle
Contains several fascicles
Origin
Proximal. The more stable of the attachment sites of the muscle
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
brachialis
flexes elbow
insertion
more moveable bone is considered to be where the muscle ends
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Pectoral
Chest muscles-adduct the thoracic limbs
Quadriceps Femoris
Cranial thigh muscles, extend stifle
sarcomere
distance from one z line to the next
Epidermis and dermis
Epidermis is superficial epithelium, dermis is underlying area of connective tissues
adductor brevis
O: pubic bone | I: linea aspera of femur | A: adducts thigh; can flex and medially rotate thigh
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Pronator teres - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Triceps brachii - Action
All heads- extension of the elbow, Long head- extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint
BICEPS FEMORIS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY AND THE LINEA ASPERA/ I-HEAD OF FIBULA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Petrous Temporal Bone
Contains the inner ear
Ethmoid Foramina
Openings that let the olfactory nerve leave the brain and enter the nasal passages
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Bursa
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
sartorius
O: anterior superior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
three types of muscles
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, caridac muscle
Gluteus Maximus
Ilium, sacrum, coccyx, femur, extension, and lateral rotation of thigh
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
Nasal Septum
Divides the nasal cavity in half
Agonist
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
biceps femoris
O: 2 heads: long-ischial tuberosity, short: linea aspera of femur; I: head of fibula
occipitalis
o: occiptal bone; i: scalp; pulls scalp posteriorly
DJD or Arthritis
Damage to joint can lead to this
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
muscle spasms
quick involuntary contraction and relaxation of a single muscle in a group of muscles
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
As a muscle gets longer
passive tension increases
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
pectoralis major
o:sternum, clavicle, 1-6 ribs ; i: proximal humerous ; adducts and flexes humerus
adductor longus
O: public bone | I: linea aspera of femur | A: adducts the thigh
External Oblique
Lower 8 ribs, Ilium and linea alba, flexion and rotation at waist
Atlas
C-1, Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull
Extensor digitorum - Action
Extension of the second, third, fourth, and fifth phalanges at the metacarpophalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, weak extension of the elbow
Pectoralis major
abducts humerus
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium, Iliotibial tract, Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
Sartorius
Ilium, tibia, flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh, flexes lower leg
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Hemoglobin
gives fair-skinned people a pink hue to their skin due to the lack of melanin in the epidermis, which makes it almost transparent
TEMPORALIS
O-TEMPORAL BONE/ I-CORONOID PROCESS OF THE MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND RETRACTS MANDIBLE
Flexion
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
Sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
Abduction
Moving bones or limb away from the midline
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
Osteoclast
Cells that break down bone
iliopsoas
O: lumbar vertebrae; ilium | I: lesser trochanter of femur | A: flexes hip joint
Mandible
Has 2 halves, they join at the symphysis which is a common area for fractures, articulates with the temporal bone to form temporo-mandibular-joint. contains all lower teeth
rectus abdominis
straight (rectus) abdominal muscle
C-7/ T-13/ L-7/ S-3
Numbers of vertebrae in the dog and cat
Yellow Marrow
Fatty marrow that can become active
intercostals muscles
o: bottom half of ribs ; i: top half of ribs ; raise and depress ribcage for breathing
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Triceps brachii - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones. Front 'knee' of horse and other large animals. 6-8 short bones in 2 rows
Floating Ribs
Never join the sternum
Accessory structures of integumentary system
Hair (pili), glands, and nails
Supinate
Turning appendage up (toward sky)
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation to neutral from a fully supinated position
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Maxilla
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
Multipennate
multi-tendons and multi-feathered. Deltoid.
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
Ligament
Strong dense tissue that connects bone to bone
Antagonist
Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
Muscles
ends in tendons
temporalis
O: temporal bone | I: coronoid process of mandible | A: elevates and retracts mandible; closes jaw
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Talipes
Clubfoot - congenital anomalies
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium, Iliotibial tract, Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
Nasal Bones
Dorsal bones of face-form roof of nasal cavity
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Burns
First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)
muscle fibers
each fasciuli is made of..
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Marrow
Fills up the center of most living bones, where blood cells are made
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
Tibialis posterior
Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsal 2-4
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
Passive Tension
Tension due to stretch
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
Vertebral arch
is posterior
Irregular Bones
Vertebrae, Malleus, incus, stapes
Fibula
Lateral to the tibia. Sort of like the ulna, can extend from stifle to tarsus, or may be fused with tibia, or only partially present like in the horse
Cervical
Vertebrae of the neck, most cranial
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Sternohyoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, hyoid bone, depresses hyoid and larynx
Temporal Bones
Make up sides of head, has three sections
Tibialis Anterior
Shin muscle that causes dorsiflexion e.g bringing toes towards the shin
Pronator quadratus - Action
Pronation of the forearm
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Facial Bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
Hip Dysplasia
Shallow acetabulum and deformed femoral head... leads to arthritis, genetic in larger breeds, especially german shepards
semitendinosus
o: ischial tuberosity; i: proximal tibia; flex knee and extend hip
Phalanx
3 bones in each digit (except digit 1), known as P-1, P-2, P-3, or proximal, middle and distal. P-3 has the nail attached to it
Short
More 'square' shock absorbers, wrist and ankle bones
Biceps brachii - Innervation
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Lumbar
Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
Orbicularis oculi
muscle that allows winking, blinking
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Supination
moving bones so radius and ulna are parallel
Spinous Process
Dorsal or ventral projections
Fibula
Lateral to the tibia. Sort of like the ulna, can extend from stifle to tarsus, or may be fused with tibia, or only partially present like in the horse
4th step in muscle contration
calcium is released
Triceps
Extends elbow, ORIGIN: scapula/humerus INSERTION: Olecranon of ulna
Gluteus Medius
Ilium, femur, Abduction and medial rotation of thigh
vastus intermedius
O: anterolateral surface of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Insertion
Base of the third metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Flexor digitorum profundus - Action
Flexion of the four fingers at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist
Soleus
Innervation: Sciatic Nerve, tibial branch
muscle fibers
each fasciuli is made of..
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
Coccygeal
Vertebrae of the tail. Variable number
Isotonic Contraction
Involves movement of the muscle contracting
vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and linea aspera; I: tibial tuberosity
Irregular Bone Characteristics
Protective
Vastus Medialis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
gastrocnemius
O: 2 heads: medial and lateral epicondyle of fibula; I: calcaneal tuberosity
biceps femoris
o: ischial tuberosity; i: proximal tibia; flex knee and extend hip
Cannon Bone
Metacarpal 3 forms this in equines
intercostals muscles
o: bottom half of ribs ; i: top half of ribs ; raise and depress ribcage for breathing
Stratum corneum
Most superficial, "horn-like" cornified or keratinized, 15-30 layers flat and dead, 15-30 days from stratum basale then 10-14 days until lost, tightly connected
Adductor
Move the limb towards the body
Cervical Vertebrae - 1st
Atlas - allows for the rotation movement of the head
Syndactyly
"mulefoot" in cattle, Recessive gene, foot looks like a horses foot, toes are fused together
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
Golgi tendon organs detect changes in tendon
tension
Linea Alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
Impacted Fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Cardiac
Striated, involuntary muscle found exclusively on the heart
Sphincter
Circular muscles around an opening
Passive Insufficiency
Motion of joint limited by length of 2-joint muscle due to being unable to stretch across both joints. Hamstrings
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
Radius and Ulna
2 bones of forearm. Side by side. Fused together in cows and horses. If fused, flexibility is lost
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Biceps brachii - Action
Flexian of the elbow, supination of the forearm, weak flexion of the shoulder joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
Type II B Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; built for power; white
Open Reductions
manipulating ends of fractures under direct vision using an incision
gluteus maximus
O: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx; I: gluteal tuberosity
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Tibia, Phalanges of toes 2-5, extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Gastrocnemius
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion e.g. jumping
Ribs
Same number as thoracic vertebrae. Articulate dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae, articulate ventrally with the sternum. Ventral portion is cartilage
Bursa
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Arthritis
Inflammation or infection of the joint
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
Surface area of integumentary system
15-20 square feet
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Phalanges
Ruminants walk on their finger tips, each 'finger' has p-1, p-2, and p-3/ p-3 has hoof attached to it
sternocleidomastoid
o: sternum, clavicle; i: temporal bone; flexes neck, rotates head
Partial Thickness and full thickness
1st and 2nd degree burns are "partial thickness", 3rd are full thickness
Deltoid
Shoulder muscle that causes shoulder abduction
Pelvic Limb
Hind Leg
Sacral
Vertebrae that articulates with the pelvis. Usually fused together in most species. Articulate with tuber sacrale of the ilium. Has dorsal process
soleus
O: fibula; tibia | I: calcaneal tendon | A: plantarflexion
Elastic
Stretches and returns to original shape... around abdomen and walls of arteries
Ribs
Same number as thoracic vertebrae. Articulate dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae, articulate ventrally with the sternum. Ventral portion is cartilage
Tetraplegia
Paralysis of the trunk and LE's and some or all of the UE's
Posterior Deltoid
Rear part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder extension and horizntal abduction
Olecranon
Proximal part of ulna. Point of elbow. Funny bone. Has anconeal process that fits into the olecranon fossa
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Tibialis posterior
Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsal 2-4
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
Ethmoid Foramina
Openings that let the olfactory nerve leave the brain and enter the nasal passages
Concentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by shortening
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
Spine
Ridge down middle of scapula, can palpate in thin animals
Phalanges
Digits or fingers. 5 in dogs cats and humans. Each digit has 3 bones except thumb (digit one or dewclaw) which has 2
Hemiplegia
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body
Rotation
Moving the bone around in a central axis
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
Tibialis posterior
Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsal 2-4
Cervical
Vertebrae of the neck, most cranial
pectineus
O: pubic bone | I: femur | A: adducts and flexes thigh; assists with medial rotation of thigh
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Cribriform Plate
Has openings called ethmoid foramina, part of the ethmoid bones
myoneural junction
point of which the motor nerve contacts a muscle fiber
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
biceps
two, muscle in the upper arm that has two heads or connecting points
Transverse Abdominis
Ilium, Linea alba and pubic crest, compresses abdominal wall
Extension
Increasing the angle between bones
Masseter
powerful chewing muscle
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior muscle that causes hip extension
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Distal
Farther away from the body
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
Active insufficiency is most noticeable in
a 2-joint muscle. Hamstrings and finger flexors
Epithelial
Covers and lines the body; skin, mucous membranes...
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Composition of Bone
1/3 Organic matter. 2/3 Ca++ and Phosphorus hydorapatite
brachioradialis
o: humerus; i: radius; elbow/forearm flexion
Endosteum
Inner layer of the compact an cancellous bone
Frontal Bones
More rostral to parietal bones, make up caudal part of eye socket, have large sinus under them that communicate with the nasal passages, location from which horns and antlers grow
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
Abductors
Muscles that cause abduction
Osteogenesis
Bone formation
Gastrocnemius
Femur, via achilles tendon onto calcaneal tendon, flexes lower leg, plantarflexes foot
latissimus dorsi
o: lower spine and illiac crest; i: proximal humerus; extends and adducts humerus
Flat Bone Characteristic
Gives a lot of protection
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Triceps brachii - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Abdomino-Pelvic
Surrounds all the organs in the 'belly,' intestine, uterus, kidneys etc...
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
flexor carpi ulnaris
O: medial epicondyle of humerus; olecranon of ulna | I: pisiform bone; 5th metacarpel | A: flexes and adducts hand at the wrist
Plantaris
Action: flexes knee; plantar flexes foot
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
auricular
wiggle ears
Superficial
Near the surface of the body
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation to neutral from a fully supinated position
Medial
Close to the midline
Abductor
Moves the limb away from the body
Short Bones
Carpal, Tarsal
Insertion
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
skeletal muscle
voluntary, have more than one nucleus
Vastus Medialis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
Coffin Bone
The name of P-3 in large animals
Soleus
Action: Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Metacarpals
Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral
GASTROCNEMIUS
O-ABOVE LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR/ I-CALCANEUS BY WAY OF ACHILLES TENDON/ A-PLANTAR FLEXES THE FOOR AND FLEXES LEG
Tendon Sheath
Elongated bursa. Surrounds a tendon, Found along long tendons in bone
Leukoplakia or vitiligo
condition of the mouth that involves the formation of white leathery spots on the mucous membranes of the tongue and inside of the mouth, vitiligo is similar but not in the mouth. possibly auto-immune
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Tibialis Anterior
Shin muscle that causes dorsiflexion e.g bringing toes towards the shin
Femur
Long bone. Head articulates with the acetabulum. Distally it articulates with the patella.
Endosteum
Inner layer of the compact an cancellous bone
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
antagonistic pairs
muscles are often arranged around joints, they produce opposite actions
Aging of integumentary system
Thinner and more prone to damage, fewer immune cells, less vitamin D produced, decrease in melanocyte activity (gray hair), less secretion, skin dries easily, sweat glands less active, fewer capillaries to lose heat, dermis loses elasticity and strength (wrinkles)
Pubis
Smallest of the three bones. Forms much of the ventral floor of the pelvic canal. Has a hole in it called the obturator foramen which make it more light weight. two halves meet at the pelvic symphysis
Platysmus
Neck muscle, helps frown
Agonist
The main muscle used to produce a movement
muscle cramps
continuous muscle contraction caused by over relaxation, lack of ATP cant pump Ca back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres; several are contained within one muscle fiber
Epiphyseal Plate
Area of long bone where growth occurs
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
tibialis posterior
Innervation: Sciatic nerve, tibial branch
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Triceps brachii - Origin
Long head- infraglenoid tubercle below inferior lip of glenoid fossa of the scapula, Lateral head- upper half of the posterior surface of the humerus, Medial head- distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the humerus
C-7/T-13/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the cow
Subluxation
Partial dislocation- vertebrae
Bursa
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Body
Solid, rounded mass of bone that makes up the ventral part of vertebrae
Chestnut
Remnant of MC-1 forms this on the medial side of the leg in equines
trapezius
upper back
Compound Fracture
Open - bone pierces the skin
Supinator - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6)
Biceps Femoris
Ischium and femur, tibia, fibula, extends thigh and flexes lower leg
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
Coxofemoral Luxation
Dislocated hip
Soleus
Action: Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Temporal Bulla
Bulb like cavity that contains the middle ear where the stirrup, anvil and hammer are
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Insertion
Each tendon splits and attaches to the sides of the middle phalanx of four fingers (palmer surface)
Synergists
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
Semitendinosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Biceps brachii - Innervation
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Sternohyoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, hyoid bone, depresses hyoid and larynx
Soleus
Origin: head and proximal fibula, posteromedial tibia
Pronator quadratus - Insertion
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the radius
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Meniscus
Inside the joint. Cartilage plates which help make the ends of the bones fit together better, can get torn
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
platysma
o: connective tissue covering chest muscles; i: tissue around mouth; pulls corner of mouth down
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Scapula
Shoulder blade, flat bone, no boney attachment to rest of skeleton in most species
extensor digitorum longus
o: proximal tibia and radius; i: distal toes 2-5; extends toes and dorsiflexes foot
h band
contain only myosin
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
VASTUS MEDIALIS
O- LINEA ASPERA/ I- TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-EXTENDS THE LEG
Triceps
Extends elbow, ORIGIN: scapula/humerus INSERTION: Olecranon of ulna
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity | I: tibia | A: flexes knee; medially rotates tibia; extends thigh/hip
Characteristics of Epidermis
Stratified squamous epithelium, outermost layers dead, most have 4 layers but soles of feet and palms of hands have 5, avascular (no blood vessels)
Cardiac muscle
Intercalated discs
Adductor
Move the limb towards the body
ILIACUS
O-ILIAC FOSSA/ I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS TO FEMUR/ A-WITH PSOAS MAJOR FLEXES THIGH; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
O- SUPERIOR RAMUS OF PUBIS/ I- XIPHOID PROCESS AND COSTAL CARTILAGE OF RIBS 5 TO 7/ A- COMPRESS ABDOMEN AND FLEX VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Frontalis
forehead muscle (Raises eyebrow andfacial expressions)
Cold thermoregulation
Shiver (ATP produces heat): shivering thermogenesis. Blood moves deeper. Arrector pili raised (goose bumps) smooth muscle
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
Parietal Bones
More rostral to occipital bones
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments around joint
Flat Bone Characteristic
Gives a lot of protection
Sliding Filament Theory
The Theory of how muscles generate force.
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in birds, aka the wishbone
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
triceps brachii
o: shoulder girdle and proximal humerus; i: olecrenon process of ulna; extends elbow
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
Pronator quadratus - Innervation
Median nerve (palmar interosseous branch) (C6, C7)
Acromion
Knob at end of scapula. Can feel in large animals, help guide injections
Functions of integumentary system
Thermoregulation, protection (physical and immune), sensory (in dermis and hypodermis), excretion (sensible and insensible), storage (nutrients, esp. adipose), blood reservoir (10% of vessels), synthesis (vitamin d3 and melanin), absorption (gases, UV light, water, vitamins)
Acne
Blocked sebaceous glands
Decubitis (pressure) ulcer
Bedsore
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Irregular Bones
Vertebrae, Malleus, incus, stapes
zygomaticus
o: zygomatic bone; i: skin and muscle at corner of lips; raises corners of mouth
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: proximal medial surface of tibia
Active Tension
Tension due to muscle contraction
digastric
opens jaw
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
three types of muscles
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, caridac muscle
Facial Bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
C-7/T-13/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the cow
Palmaris longus - Action
Flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Phalanges
Equines walk on their middle finger, which has P-1, P-2 and P-3, P-3 has the hoof attached to it
Extensor pollicis brevis - Insertion
Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
action
type of movement a muscle produces
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
O-SACRUM AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF ILIUM/ I-GLUTEAL TUBEROSITY OF FEMUR/ A- EXTENDS FEMUR ADN LATERALLY ROTATES FEMUR
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle fibers
Lesion
Wounded or damaged area
Long Bones
Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
Anconeus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
Fast twitch muscles are built for
power
Flexor digitorum profundus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanxes of the four fingers
Adipose
Fat storage. White in most animals. Yellow in Gurnsey cattle and horses. Brown in newborns
Adductor Femoris
Ischium and pubis, femur, adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh
Tibia
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
Synovial Fluid
Lubricates, nourishes, and keeps the joint moveable
Irregular
Unpaired bones. Ex: vertebrae, sternebrae, os penis, few skull bones
gluteus medius
O: ilium | I: greater trochanter of femur | A: abducts and medially rotates thigh
Insertion
attachment to a bone which moves in the ordinary active in the body (distal)
Muscle Fibers
Actin and Myosin
Cardiac muscle
Found only in the heart
Tendon
Strong dense tissue that connects muscle to bone
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Cranium
Surrounds the brain
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular
Articular Cavity
Space between bones
digastric
opens jaw
Origin
end is attached to the relatively less movable bone (proximal)
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Accessory structures of integumentary system
Hair (pili), glands, and nails
Foramen Magnum
A large hole in the occipital bone for the passage of nerves into the spinal cord
Pectoralis major
abducts humerus
Hemoglobin
gives fair-skinned people a pink hue to their skin due to the lack of melanin in the epidermis, which makes it almost transparent
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Transverse Process
Project laterally
TRAPEZIUS
O-OCCIPITAL BONE AND SPINOUS PROCESS OF VERTEBRAE C7 TO T12 I-ACROMION PROCESS AND SPINE OF SCAPULA AND THE ACROMIAL END OF THE CLAVICLE/ A-UPPER PART EXTENDS HEAD AND ELEVATES SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE, LOWER PART DEPRESSES SCAPULA TOGETHER
pectoralis major
o:sternum, clavicle, 1-6 ribs ; i: proximal humerous ; adducts and flexes humerus
Condyles
Rounded knobs at distal end of humerus that articulate with radius and ulna to form elbow joint
Arch
Has 2 halves that curve upwards to meet on the midline. They are dorsal and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen
gluteus maximus
O: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx; I: gluteal tuberosity
Fibrosis
formation of scar tissue
Osteocytes
Bone cells
Supinator - Insertion
Lateral surface of the proximal radius just below the head
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of cells
Muscle Fibers
Actin and Myosin
Pronate
Turning appendage down (toward ground)
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
Coccygeal
Vertebrae of the tail. Variable number
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of thoracic spine
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Applied
Use knowledge of anatomy to help in diagnosis/treatment
Vertebrae
3 main parts, body, and arch- 2 halves. All of them lined up end to end form the vertebral canal
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Open Reductions
manipulating ends of fractures under direct vision using an incision
biceps brachii
o: scalpula of shoulder girdle; i: proximal radius; flexes elbow and supinates forearm
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Origin
end is attached to the relatively less movable bone (proximal)
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
Extensor digitorum - Insertion
Four tendons to bases of middle and distal phalanxes of four fingers (dorsal surface)
Triceps brachii - Action
All heads- extension of the elbow, Long head- extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Spine
Ridge down middle of scapula, can palpate in thin animals
Properties of Dermis
vascularized (temperature, blood pressure, nutrients, metabolic waste), glands, follicles and receptors
Coccygeal
Vertebrae of the tail. Variable number
Irregular Bone Characteristics
Protective
gluteus maximus
O: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx; I: gluteal tuberosity
5th step in muscle contration
calcium moves troponin complex and tropomyosin out of the way
Brachialis - Insertion
Coronoid process of the ulna
Hemiplegia
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body
Synovial Joints
The classic joints, (stifle joint, elbow joint, fetlock joint).
Syndactyly
"mulefoot" in cattle, Recessive gene, foot looks like a horses foot, toes are fused together
Coffin Bone
The name of P-3 in large animals
Plantaris
Insertion: posterior portion of calcaneous
involuntary muscles-d
under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain
Quadriceps
Anterior thigh muscle that causes extension at the knee
Concentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by shortening
Layers of the epidermis
Bottom to top: Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum
brachialis
flexes elbow
Sternum
Makes up the floor of the chest (ventral) Made of individual sternebrae, that have cartilage between them. Eventually all fuse together with age, typically 7 or 8 found in common species
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Haversian Canals
Channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Cervical Vertebrae - 2nd
Axes - allows for the rotation movement of the head
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
Vastus Intermedius
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Metacarpals
Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Supinator - Action
Supination of the forearm
Triceps
Extends elbow, ORIGIN: scapula/humerus INSERTION: Olecranon of ulna
Flexor pollicis longus - Innervation
Median nerve, palmar interosseous branch (C8, T1)
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Hip Dysplasia
Shallow acetabulum and deformed femoral head... leads to arthritis, genetic in larger breeds, especially german shepards
Short Bone Characteristic
Can withstand alot of pressure
Humerus
Upper arm bone, long bone, 2 ends with shaft in middle
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
Extensor pollicis brevis - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Wrist abduction
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
Partial Thickness and full thickness
1st and 2nd degree burns are "partial thickness", 3rd are full thickness
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Action
Flexion of the wrist, adduction of the wrist, together with the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak flexion of the elbow
Physiology
Study of how things function
Characteristics of Epidermis
Stratified squamous epithelium, outermost layers dead, most have 4 layers but soles of feet and palms of hands have 5, avascular (no blood vessels)
Polydactyly
Extra fingers/toes
Myosin
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
Vastus Intermedius
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
Acetabulum
Hip socket. Formed by all three bones of the pelvis. Where the femur articulates
Tetraplegia
Paralysis of the trunk and LE's and some or all of the UE's
Abductor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Muscle Spindle
Lie parallel to the muscle fibers; detect changes in muscle length and speed
a bands
dark areas, contain myosin and actin overlapping
digastric
opens jaw
Flat Bone Characteristic
Gives a lot of protection
Red Marrow
Active bone marrow
Melanin
only melanin is made in the skin. Melanin can be gradated into many different shades. It is this ability of Melanin that gives different races different skin coloration. A special type of cells known as melanocytes produces melanin, Melanocytes are primarily found in the stratum germinativum. Whenever the skin has had an exposure to sunlight, the stratum germinativum cells, phagocytize or eat the skin pigment melanin. After an amount of time, melanin accumulates within the stratum germinativum cells, and tends to form a protective pigment "umbrella". These "umbrellas of melanin pigment shields DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation
rhomboideus
O: C7; T1; T2-T5 | I: medial border of scapula | A: retraction of shoulder
Stratum spinosum
8-10 layers, keratin causes spiny appearance, little mitosis
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Ulnar head- medial coronoid process, Radial head- upper two-thirds of anterior border of radius just distal to the radial tuberosity
Soleus
Origin: head and proximal fibula, posteromedial tibia
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Muscle Fiber
A single muscle tissue cell
Tarsus
Hock joint or ankle. Cuboidal bones similar to wrist bones. Usually 7 bones.
Vestigial Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in cats
Os Coxae
Hip, pelvis
erector spinea
o: illiac crests, ribs 3-12, vertebrae; i: rubs thoracic and cervical vertebrae; extends back
Ergot
Remnant of MC-5 forms this on the palmar surface of the lower leg in equines
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
Extensor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Osteology
The study of bones
Vertebrae
3 main parts, body, and arch- 2 halves. All of them lined up end to end form the vertebral canal
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
Manubrium
First sterebrae, at the thoracic inlet
Cardiac muscle
Intercalated discs
Muscle Fiber
One single muscle tissue cell. Has its own components that make a cell.
Simple Fracture
Closed - Fracture does not pierce through the skin
muscles
bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers
Epidermis and dermis
Epidermis is superficial epithelium, dermis is underlying area of connective tissues
Active Insufficiency
When muscles aren't able to generate as much force in a shortened or lengthened position.
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
orbicularis oculi
o: frontal bone; i: tissue around eyes; blinks and closes eyes
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Base of the fifth metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Semitendinosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Extensor digitorum - Insertion
Four tendons to bases of middle and distal phalanxes of four fingers (dorsal surface)
Epiphyseal Plate
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Ethmoid Turninates
Curled sheets of bone sometimes called scrolls, which are covered in mucous membrane
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
Titin is a
protein that connects M lines to Z lines
Long Bones - Characteristic
Very Strong, Broad at ends where they join other bones, large surface area for muscle attachment
Temporal Bones
Make up sides of head, has three sections
Jaundice
Liver can't excrete bile, get rid of bilirubin, skin and whites of eyes are yellow
Extensor digitorum - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Extensor pollicis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-MEDIAL CARPALS AND METACARPAL 5/ A-FLEXES AND ADDUCTS HANDS
diaphragm
O: xiphoid process; costal cartilage of lower 6 ribs; L1-L3 vertebrae | I: central tendon (connects two 1/2's of diaphragm) | A: increases volume of thoracic cavity during inspiration
Short Bones
Carpal, Tarsal
latissimus dorsi
O: thoracic vertebrae | I: humerus | A: extension; adduction; medial rotation
Articulation
Another name for joint
Caudal
Towards the tail
Masseter
powerful chewing muscle
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium, Iliotibial tract, Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
Zygomaticus
smiling muscle
Abduct
To move a limb away from the body
Fibrosis
formation of scar tissue
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Foramen magmum
Large opening in the occipital bone
VASTUS LATERALIS
O-LINEA ASPERA/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A- EXTENDS THE LEG
Spine
Ridge down middle of scapula, can palpate in thin animals
Bone
Calcified cartilage. Living tissue constantly being remodled
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Ulnar head- medial coronoid process, Radial head- upper two-thirds of anterior border of radius just distal to the radial tuberosity
C-7/T-13/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the cow
Vertebrae
Becomes progressively larger down to the sacrum and then become successively smaller.
Articulation
Another name for joint
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Nasal Septum
Divides the nasal cavity in half
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
Burns
First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
deltoids
shoulder
digastric
opens jaw
involuntary muscles-d
under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain
Albinism
melanocytes can't sythesize melanin
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that wrap around each muscle
Lateral
Away from the midline
Luxation
Dislocation- femur pops out of acetabulum
Functions of integumentary system
Thermoregulation, protection (physical and immune), sensory (in dermis and hypodermis), excretion (sensible and insensible), storage (nutrients, esp. adipose), blood reservoir (10% of vessels), synthesis (vitamin d3 and melanin), absorption (gases, UV light, water, vitamins)
levator scapulae
O: C1-C4 transverse processes | I: superior medial border of scapula | A: elevation of shoulder
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Exogenous Infection
Created by a puncture into the joint
Manubrium
First sterebrae, at the thoracic inlet
Ossification
Process by which bone forms in body
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Xiphoid
Last sternebrae
Gastrocnemius
planter flextion of the foot, between knee and ankle
Transverse Plane
Right angles to the median plane
Sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
Maxilla
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
Collagen
Fibrous tissue that adds strength to other tissues; gelatin, capsule around muscles
Extensor digiti minimi - Insertion
Base of the middle and distal phalanxes of the fifth phalange (dorsal surface)
Flexor
Bend the joint th way it wants to bend
Athelete's foot (tinea pedis)
fungus of foot
gastrocnemius
O: femur | I: calcaneal tendon | A: plantarflexion; flexes leg at knee; raises heel during walking
Occipital Bones
Back of head. Caudal bone of skull, articulates with atlas, Has large opening that allows the spinal cord to leave the brain to enter the spinal canal
brachialis
o: humerus; i: ulna; elbow flexion
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
O- SUPERIOR RAMUS OF PUBIS/ I- XIPHOID PROCESS AND COSTAL CARTILAGE OF RIBS 5 TO 7/ A- COMPRESS ABDOMEN AND FLEX VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Distal
Farther away from the body
Semitendinosus
Lateral portion of the hamstring
Cartilage
Gristle type tissue. Discs between vertebrae, ear, joint surface
muscular dystrophy
disorder that causes proteins in muscle cells to weaken and deteriorate, some types are inherited, most common Duchenne
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
Thick Filaments
Myosin proteins
Arch
Has 2 halves that curve upwards to meet on the midline. They are dorsal and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
levator scapulae
O: C1-C4 transverse processes | I: superior medial border of scapula | A: elevation of shoulder
Deltoid
Common site for injections - Shoulder
Long Bones
Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
True Ribs
Articulate with the sternum on their own
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Insertion
Base of the third metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
brachioradialis
Origin: long head- supraglenoid tubercle and glenohumeral labrum & short head- tip of the coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: radial tuberosity &bicipital aponeurosis Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow (when supinated) & supinates forearm from neutral & stabilizes anterior aspect of shoulder & flexes shoulder (weak if at all) Blood: muscular branches of brachial artery Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Biceps Femoris
Ischium and femur, tibia, fibula, extends thigh and flexes lower leg
Membrane Bone
Made as fibrous membrane templates are calcified in the fetus (skull bones-fontanel)
Greater Tubercle
Non-articular knob lateral to head. Point of shoulder when palpating joint
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
Extensor pollicis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Vastus Lateralis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg, stabilizes knee
Paresis
Muscle weakness or partial paralysis
Pronator teres - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Papillary layer
Top 1/5 of dermis, most is areolar connective tissue, dermal papillae "fingerprints"
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Supinate
Turning appendage up (toward sky)
GASTROCNEMIUS
O-ABOVE LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR/ I-CALCANEUS BY WAY OF ACHILLES TENDON/ A-PLANTAR FLEXES THE FOOR AND FLEXES LEG
Concentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by shortening
Insertion
attachment to a bone which moves in the ordinary active in the body (distal)
visceral muscle
the muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Dogs & Cats
MT 2-5, MT 1 is usually absent unless a dewclaw is present
semitendinosus
o: ischial tuberosity; i: proximal tibia; flex knee and extend hip
Spine
Ridge down middle of scapula, can palpate in thin animals
Fixator
Muscles that stabilize proximally to allow the agonist to work effectively
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Reticular layer
Collagen, elastin, strong and stretchable. If stretched too far, it tears causing striae or linea albicans (stretch marks). It's innervated, has effectors (muscles, glands) and receptors
Chondroclasts
Cells that beak down cartilage
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
O: ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ I: METATARSAL 1/ A: DORSIFLEXES THE FOOT
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
Paralysis
Complete loss of muscle function
Physiology
Study of how things function
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
Axis
C-2, has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1
Cold thermoregulation
Shiver (ATP produces heat): shivering thermogenesis. Blood moves deeper. Arrector pili raised (goose bumps) smooth muscle
Flat
Protection, skull bones and ribs
Spine
Ridge down middle of scapula, can palpate in thin animals
Abductor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior aspect of the radius and midshaft of the ulna
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Osteoblast
Cells that make bone
Myofibrils
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells
BRACHIALIS
A-PRINICIPLE FLEXOR OF FOREARM
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Brachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve and sometimes branches from radial and median nerves (C5, C6)
Sarcomeres run from
Z line to Z line
Sacral
Vertebrae that articulates with the pelvis. Usually fused together in most species. Articulate with tuber sacrale of the ilium. Has dorsal process
Sesamoids
Extra bones which are located in tendons on the caudal surface of the limb to give them extra leverage and strength
latissimus dorsi
back
Tuber coxae
Lateral most projection, hook bone
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Chondroclasts
Cells that beak down cartilage
Muscle
Used for movement- skeletal, striated and cardiac
soleus
o: proximal tibia and fibula; i: calcaneus; plantar flexes the foot
Abductor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the first metacarpal (dorsal lateral surface)
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Insertion
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
Origin
end is attached to the relatively less movable bone (proximal)
Deep wound healing (injury beyond stratum basale)
Inflammatory phase (blood clot forms), migratory phase (cells migrate), proliferative phase (continues), maturation phase (scab falls off)
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Tendon
Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones
BUCCINATOR
O-AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE/ I-ORBICULARIS ORIS/ A- COMPRESSES CHEAK AS IF BLOWING OR SUCKING
Deep
Near the center of the body
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
flexor carpi ulnaris
O: medial epicondyle of humerus; olecranon of ulna | I: pisiform bone; 5th metacarpel | A: flexes and adducts hand at the wrist
involuntary muscles-ex
smooth muscles found in the internal organs and cardiac muscles
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Flexor
Bend the joint th way it wants to bend
Onychectomy
Dewclaw procedure
Kaposi's sarcoma
bruise like cancer
action
type of movement a muscle produces
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
Rectus Abdominis
Pubic bone, Ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process, flexion at waist
supinator
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus | I: radius | A: supinate forearm
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
Pronator teres - Action
Pronation of the forearm, weak flexion of the elbow
Thin protein filaments
Actin
Insertion
attachment to a bone which moves in the ordinary active in the body (distal)
Tuber Ischii
Caudal prominence of the Ishium
Surface area of integumentary system
15-20 square feet
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
External oblique
broad, thin muscle that cover superior abdomen
Periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Anterior Deltoid
Front part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder flexion and horizontal adduction
Athelete's foot (tinea pedis)
fungus of foot
Adduction
Moving bones or limb toward the midline
Bone
Calcified cartilage. Living tissue constantly being remodled
muscles
bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers
Triceps bracii
extend the elbow joint
Gastrocnemius
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Petrous Temporal Bone
Contains the inner ear
Cyanosis
blue, the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface
Endogenous Infection
Caused by a navel infection, occurs in young animals
iliocostalis
O: posterior iliac crest of os coxa; I: posterior angle of ribs
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-ILIAC CREAST AND INGUINAL LIGAMENTS AND THORACIC LUMBAR FASCIA/ I- LOWER RIBS ABD LINEA ASPERA/ A- CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
Lumbar
Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
Biceps brachii - Action
Flexian of the elbow, supination of the forearm, weak flexion of the shoulder joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Bursa
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
MASSETER
O-ZYGOMATIC ARCH AND BONE/ I-RAMUS OF MANDIBLE/ A-ELEVATES AND PROTRUDES MANDIBLE
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Shingles
chickenpox virus
Pronator teres - Insertion
Middle third of the lateral surface of the radius
TESOR FASCIAE LATAE
O-ILIAC CREST/ I-BY WAY OF ILIOTIBIAL TRACT OF TIBIA/ A- ASSIST IN FLEXION, ABDUCTION AND MEDIAL ROTATION OF THE THIGH
Irregular Bone Characteristics
Protective
Neoplasms (tumors)
Benign or malignant
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Cloven Hoofed
2 toed animal
origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
antagonistic pairs
muscles are often arranged around joints, they produce opposite actions
Sacroiliac Joint
Where the two halves of the pelvis articulate dorsally
Peristalsis
A rythmic, wavelike motion that progressively moves through a tube organ such as the small intestine
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Medial
Close to the midline
Epiphysis
End of the bone
Skeletal Muscle
voluntary
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
DIGASTRIC
O-MASTOID PROCESS/ I- MANDIBLE VIA A PULLY TENDON ON THE HYOID/ A- DEPRESSES THE MANDIBLE
Rectus Abdominis
Pubic bone, Ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process, flexion at waist
Triceps brachii - Origin
Long head- infraglenoid tubercle below inferior lip of glenoid fossa of the scapula, Lateral head- upper half of the posterior surface of the humerus, Medial head- distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the humerus
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Deltoid
Shoulder muscle that causes shoulder abduction
Coxofemoral Luxation
Dislocated hip
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Tibia, Phalanges of toes 2-5, extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle
voluntary muscles-ex
skeletal muscles of the arm and leg
Stratum corneum
Most superficial, "horn-like" cornified or keratinized, 15-30 layers flat and dead, 15-30 days from stratum basale then 10-14 days until lost, tightly connected
Sarcomere
The smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Extensor pollicis brevis - Origin
Posterior surface of the lower middle radius
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
voluntary muscles-ex
skeletal muscles of the arm and leg
White Marrow
Hard fatty marrow, cannot become active
TERES MINOR
O-LATERAL BORDER OF THE SCAPULA/ I-GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A-ADDUCTS AND LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Organ
Groups of tissues that work together
Ilium
Largest of the three bones of the pelvis. Cranial portion of each ox coxae. wing, body
Flexor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (palmer surface)
Triceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow extension
SUBSCAPULARIS
O-SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA OF SCAPULA/ I- LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- MEDIALLY ROTATES THE ARM
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Basal cell carcinoma
Most common skin cancer, rarely fatal, but can be disfiguring
Palmaris longus - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Cartilage Bone
Made from cartilage bars in the fetus that become calcified over time
Os Coxae
Hip, pelvis
Yellow Marrow
Fatty marrow that can become active
Biceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Gastrocnemius
planter flextion of the foot, between knee and ankle
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
latissimus dorsi
o: lower spine and illiac crest; i: proximal humerus; extends and adducts humerus
Kyphosis
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Hemiplegia
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Rule of nines, lund and browder chart
Determine percentage of body burned in an injury
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Circumduction
moving bone or limb in a circle
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Articular Surface
The end of the bone that is articulating with another bone joint, surfaces of bone are covered with cartilage which makes them shiny and smooth
Metatarsal Bones
Similar to metacarpal bones. Foot bones
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
Tibialis posterior
Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsal 2-4
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Triceps brachii - Origin
Long head- infraglenoid tubercle below inferior lip of glenoid fossa of the scapula, Lateral head- upper half of the posterior surface of the humerus, Medial head- distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the humerus
Acromion
Knob at end of scapula. Can feel in large animals, help guide injections
Palmaris longus - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
TESOR FASCIAE LATAE
O-ILIAC CREST/ I-BY WAY OF ILIOTIBIAL TRACT OF TIBIA/ A- ASSIST IN FLEXION, ABDUCTION AND MEDIAL ROTATION OF THE THIGH
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres; several are contained within one muscle fiber
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Stratum spinosum
8-10 layers, keratin causes spiny appearance, little mitosis
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-RIBS 5 TO 12/ I-ILIAC CREAST AND LINEA ALBA/ A-CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Extensor pollicis brevis - Insertion
Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
Soleus
Insertion: calcaneous via calcanal tendon
Platysmus
Neck muscle, helps frown
Partial Thickness and full thickness
1st and 2nd degree burns are "partial thickness", 3rd are full thickness
Composition of Bone
1/3 Organic matter. 2/3 Ca++ and Phosphorus hydorapatite
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
Smooth Muscle
completly involuntary
Glands in integumentary system
In the dermis, all are exocrine. Sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum that softens and lubricates skin and hair. Sudoriferous (sweat glands) control temperature, excretes some waste materials (eccrine glands are all over, apocrine glands (in axillary, pubic and nipple regions), mammary glands, ceruminous glands (produce cerumen or earwax)
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Abductors
Muscles that cause abduction
Pubis
Smallest of the three bones. Forms much of the ventral floor of the pelvic canal. Has a hole in it called the obturator foramen which make it more light weight. two halves meet at the pelvic symphysis
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
TESOR FASCIAE LATAE
O-ILIAC CREST/ I-BY WAY OF ILIOTIBIAL TRACT OF TIBIA/ A- ASSIST IN FLEXION, ABDUCTION AND MEDIAL ROTATION OF THE THIGH
C-7/ T-18/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the horse
Sagittal Plane
Slices that are parallel to the median plane
Tuber sacrale
Dorsal-medial portion that articulates with the sacrum
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
sartorius
o: illium; i: proximal tibia; flexes thigh on hip
Hot thermoregulation
Perspire, evaporation cools skin, vessels dilate, blood nears surface of skin
Shoulder
Joint with greatest range of motion
Semitendinosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Gastrocnemius
Action: Flexes knee; plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Rule of nines, lund and browder chart
Determine percentage of body burned in an injury
Parietal Bones
More rostral to occipital bones
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
Subluxation
Partial dislocation- vertebrae
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle fibers
Osteocytes
Osteoblasts that have been surrounded by bone, and are trapped
RECTUS FEMORIS
O-ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE/ I-TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-FLEXES THIGH
Petrous Temporal Bone
Contains the inner ear
Neck
Between the head and shaft of the femur, sawed off to relieve symptoms of hip dysplasia
Dorsal Plane
Cuts body into upper and lower halves
orbicularis oris
o: mandible and maxilla; i: skin and muscle around mouth; closes and protrudes lips
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
Rostral
On the head, towards the nose
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
O- SUPERIOR RAMUS OF PUBIS/ I- XIPHOID PROCESS AND COSTAL CARTILAGE OF RIBS 5 TO 7/ A- COMPRESS ABDOMEN AND FLEX VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Contusion
bruise
Platysmus
Neck muscle, helps frown
Linea Alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
Pili
for protection from cold, sun, particles, produced by hair bulb and enclosed in hair follicle
Golgi Tendon Organ
Located in the tendon, both at muscle origin and insertion; detect changes in tendon tension
Temporal Bones
Make up sides of head, has three sections
Medial
Close to the midline
flexor hallucis longus
O: fibula; interosseous membrane | I: base of distal phalanx of big toe | A: flexes big toe; plantarflexion; helps propel feet during walking and running
Anconeus - Origin
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus
Sternomastoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, mastoid process, singly, rotates head to opposite shoulder, together, flexes head
Radius and Ulna
2 bones of forearm. Side by side. Fused together in cows and horses. If fused, flexibility is lost
Squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, mouth, esophagus, prostate, lungs, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation.
masseter
O: zygomatic arch | I: mandible and coronoid process | A: elevates mandible; closes jaw
Strains
Tearing or overstretching of a muscle. Tendons attach muscles to bone.
striated muscle
another name for skeletal muscle
Extension
Increasing the angle between bones
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
Parietal Bones
More rostral to occipital bones
INFRASPINATUS
O-INFRASPINOUS FOSSA OF THE SCAPULA/ I- GREATER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS/ A- LATERALLY ROTATES HUMERUS
Smooth
Non-striated involuntary muscle w/only one nucleus- found on internal organs
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Cartilage
Gristle type tissue. Discs between vertebrae, ear, joint surface
Extensor digitorum - Action
Extension of the second, third, fourth, and fifth phalanges at the metacarpophalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, weak extension of the elbow
Decubitis (pressure) ulcer
Bedsore
gastrocnemius
calf
Epiphyseal Plate
Area of long bone where growth occurs
Cancellous
Spongy, light weight found near ends of bone for shock absorption
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Femoral condyles
Origin
Proximal. The more stable of the attachment sites of the muscle
insertion
more moveable bone is considered to be where the muscle ends
Strap muscle fiber
long and narrow. Thigh.
Basal cell carcinoma
Most common skin cancer, rarely fatal, but can be disfiguring
gastrocnemius
O: 2 heads: medial and lateral epicondyle of fibula; I: calcaneal tuberosity
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Origin
Lower third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral epicondyle of the humeral
erector spinea
o: illiac crests, ribs 3-12, vertebrae; i: rubs thoracic and cervical vertebrae; extends back
deltoid
O: clavicle; acromion; scapular spine | I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus | A: flexion; extension; abduction
Dogs & Cats
MT 2-5, MT 1 is usually absent unless a dewclaw is present
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
Malignant melanoma
worst kind, most rare but deadliest
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscles
myocardium
cardiac muscle
supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
Vastus Lateralis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg, stabilizes knee
Isotonic Contraction
Involves movement of the muscle contracting
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Triceps bracii
extend the elbow joint
Tuber sacrale
Dorsal-medial portion that articulates with the sacrum
Abductors
Muscles that cause abduction
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
Titin
Connects from M line to Z line
Isometric Contraction
Muscle contracts but there is no movement, muscle stays the same length
Extensor digiti minimi - Action
Extension of the little finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Weak elbow extension
vastus intermedius
O: femur | I: quadriceps tendon | A: extends knee
Pelvic Symphysis
Where the two halves of the pelvis join ventrally
Biceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
Gelatinous Marrow
Broken down marrow, in old and starving animals
Proximal
Near to the body proper
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
Acromion
Knob at end of scapula. Can feel in large animals, help guide injections
Transverse Plane
Right angles to the median plane
zygomaticus
o: zygomatic bone; i: skin and muscle at corner of lips; raises corners of mouth
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
BRACHIORADIALIS
O-RIDGE ABOVE LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I-ABOVE THE STYLOID PROCESS ON THE RADIUS/ A-FLEXES FOREARM
brachialis
flexes elbow
Hot thermoregulation
Perspire, evaporation cools skin, vessels dilate, blood nears surface of skin
Rectus Femoris
Ilium, patella, tibia, extends knee, flexes thigh
occipitalis
o: occiptal bone; i: scalp; pulls scalp posteriorly
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Cranial
Towards the head
Is a Type I Muscle Fiber slow or fast twitch
Slow
SEMI MEMBRANOS
O-ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I-MEDIAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA/ A-EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Flexor pollicis longus - Origin
Middle anterior surface of the radius and the anterior medial border of the ulna just distal to the coronoid process; occasionally a small head is present attaching on the medial epicondyle of the humerus
Sarcomere
The smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
SOLEUS
A-PLANTAR FLEXES FOOT
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS/ I-METACARPAL 5/ A-EXTEND AND ADDUCTS THE HAND
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
True Ribs
Articulate with the sternum on their own
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones. Front 'knee' of horse and other large animals. 6-8 short bones in 2 rows
vastus intermedius
O: femur | I: quadriceps tendon | A: extends knee
Ilium
Largest of the three bones of the pelvis. Cranial portion of each ox coxae. wing, body
Biceps
Flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
Cloven Hoofed
2 toed animal
Ruminants
MT 3 and MT 4 are fused like in the front leg
Flexion
To bend a joint
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Pelvic Limb
Hind Leg
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
Papillary layer
Top 1/5 of dermis, most is areolar connective tissue, dermal papillae "fingerprints"
pectoralis major
o:sternum, clavicle, 1-6 ribs ; i: proximal humerous ; adducts and flexes humerus
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
Coxofemoral Luxation
Dislocated hip
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
brachialis
flexes elbow
semimembranosus
o: ischial tuberosity; i: proximal tibia; flex knee and extend hip
Sternum
Makes up the floor of the chest (ventral) Made of individual sternebrae, that have cartilage between them. Eventually all fuse together with age, typically 7 or 8 found in common species
Chondroclasts
Cells that beak down cartilage
Muscles
ends in tendons
visceral muscle
the muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Peroneus brevis
Action: Everts and plantar flexes foot
Extensor digitorum - Action
Extension of the second, third, fourth, and fifth phalanges at the metacarpophalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, weak extension of the elbow
Gluteals
"Rump muscles" extend hip, and abduct limb ORIGIN: Ilium INSERTION: Greater Trochanter of the femur
Linea Alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
gluteus minimus
O: ilium | I: greater trochanter of femur | A: abducts and medially rotates thigh
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
O-ILIAC CREAST AND INGUINAL LIGAMENTS AND THORACIC LUMBAR FASCIA/ I- LOWER RIBS ABD LINEA ASPERA/ A- CONTRACTION OF BOTH COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND CONTRACTION OF ONE BENDS VERTEBRAL COLUMN LATERALLY
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
SEMITENDINOSIS
O: ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY/ I: PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A: EXTENDS THIGH AND FLEXES LEG
Pili
for protection from cold, sun, particles, produced by hair bulb and enclosed in hair follicle
Ventral
Towards the belly
True Ribs
Articulate with the sternum on their own
pectoralis major
o:sternum, clavicle, 1-6 ribs ; i: proximal humerous ; adducts and flexes humerus
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
Orbicularis oculi
muscle that allows winking, blinking
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
Thick protein filaments
Myocin
Marrow
Fills up the center of most living bones, where blood cells are made
Manubrium
First sterebrae, at the thoracic inlet
Haversian Canals
Channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
Frontal Bones
More rostral to parietal bones, make up caudal part of eye socket, have large sinus under them that communicate with the nasal passages, location from which horns and antlers grow
Red Marrow
Active bone marrow
VASTUS MEDIALIS
O- LINEA ASPERA/ I- TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-EXTENDS THE LEG
Long Bones - Characteristic
Very Strong, Broad at ends where they join other bones, large surface area for muscle attachment
Epiphyseal Line
No more growth
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Joint Capsule
Surrounds the joint cavity, has 2 layers
erector spinae
O: iliac crest; sacrum; lumbar spinous processes | I: iliocostalis = ribs; spinalis = spinous processes & skull; longissimus = ribs, transverse processes & mastoid process | A: extend vertebral column; maintain upright posture
Peroneus brevis
Insertion: base of metatarsal 5
Flexor pollicis longus - Origin
Middle anterior surface of the radius and the anterior medial border of the ulna just distal to the coronoid process; occasionally a small head is present attaching on the medial epicondyle of the humerus
Myosin
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
Acetabulum
Hip socket. Formed by all three bones of the pelvis. Where the femur articulates
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on ONE side of the body
Hemiplegia
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Agonist
The main muscle used to produce a movement
Atrophy
Loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
O-LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE HUMERUS/ I- METACARPAL 2/ A- EXTEND AND ABDUCTS HANDS
VASTUS MEDIALIS
O- LINEA ASPERA/ I- TIBIAL TUBEROSITY/ A-EXTENDS THE LEG
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
Organ
Groups of tissues that work together
Syndactyly
"mulefoot" in cattle, Recessive gene, foot looks like a horses foot, toes are fused together
Rectus abdominis
flexes veribral column, runs down medial stmoach
frontalis
o: cranial aponeurosis; i: skin of eyebrows; raises brows
Tibialis posterior
Action: Plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts food
Hot thermoregulation
Perspire, evaporation cools skin, vessels dilate, blood nears surface of skin
Arthritis
Inflammation or infection of the joint
Thin Filaments
Actin proteins
Flexor pollicis longus - Innervation
Median nerve, palmar interosseous branch (C8, T1)
SARTORIUS
O-ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE OF THE ILIUM/ I-PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/ A- FLEXES AND ROTATES THIGH LATERALLY AND FLEXES THE LEG THUS PLACING THE HEAL ON OPPOSITE KNEE
Meniscus
Inside the joint. Cartilage plates which help make the ends of the bones fit together better, can get torn
Crainium
Bones that surround the cranial cavity
Gastrocnemius
Calf Muscle, flexes stifle and extends hock, achilles tendon ORIGIN: Femur INSERION: Calcaneus-by achilles tendon
Abductor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Rectus Femoris
Ilium, patella, tibia, extends knee, flexes thigh
Extensor digiti minimi - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Atrophy
Muscle shrinkage, decrease in size of muscles
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C7, C8, and T1)
7th step in muscle contation
ATP unsticks the myosin heads and recocks it for next movement
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
brachioradialis
Origin: long head- supraglenoid tubercle and glenohumeral labrum & short head- tip of the coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: radial tuberosity &bicipital aponeurosis Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow (when supinated) & supinates forearm from neutral & stabilizes anterior aspect of shoulder & flexes shoulder (weak if at all) Blood: muscular branches of brachial artery Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Insertion
Each tendon splits and attaches to the sides of the middle phalanx of four fingers (palmer surface)
Trochlea
Patella rides in this groove of the distal femur
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Extensor digiti minimi - Insertion
Base of the midd