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Euro Chapter 28


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Who was Vasalius?
Flemish scientist, wrote The Structure of the Human Body in 1543.
Who was William Harvey?
defines human blood circulation in 1628 book On the Movement of the Heart and Blood
Who was Malpighi?
Italian scientist who discovered the capillaries in 1661.
What 17th Century invention greatly aided the scientific rev?
the microscope
Who was Leeuwenhoek ?
Dutch scientist who discovered blood platelets, sperm, and bacteria in the microscope.
Who was Regnier de Graaf?
Dutch scientist who published the first description of female ovaries, challenging ancient theories about the non-importance of female reproduction.
Were botany, anatomy, and physiology very popular in the 17th century? Why not?
No, they didn't gain popularity until the 19th Century. Physics, math, and astronomy were more popular b/c they explained nature.
Who invented the logarithm?
Scottish mathematician John Napier. (1614)
Who invented coordinate geometry?
Who invented the theory of probabilities?
Who invented Calculus?
Leibniz (German) and Newton (English)
What was the Ptolemaic view of astronomy?
-cosmos= group of concentric spheres, series of balls within balls with the earth at the center. The entire cosmos revolved around the Earth. The cosmos was a “hierarchy of ascending perfection, the heavens were purer than the Earth. The earth is made of the ground, and nothing else. The other spheres were called “crystalline spheres” which each had their own “jewel”, or luminous/heavenly body/orb which traveled around the Earth, along with its own sphere. The moon, and other planets were all part of spheres very close to the Earth. The moon and other planets were made up of “pure light” The last sphere had all of the stars in it. Beyond that sphere was the empyrean, or heaven.
What was the Empyrean?
The area beyond the spheres of the cosmos; heaven.
What was the 14th/15th century math revival like?
In the 14th and 15th centuries, there was a revival of math when people started considering the philosophical doctrines of Pythagoras and Plato. They argued that numbers could solve the mystery of nature, simplicity was more truthful than complexity.
What did Nicholas Copernicus discover?
heliocentric/sun-centered theory. planets orbit around the sun in perfect circles (1543) -sun is the center of the solar system and the whole universe. As a whole, this system was much simpler than the confusing Ptolemaic concept, but many scientists didn't believe in it at first.
-earth is a planet revolving around the sun
Who was
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)?
expert on the positions/movements of heavenly bodies following Copernicus who never fully accepted the Copernican system.
Who was Johannes Kepler (German, 1571-1630)?
-assistant and follower of Tycho Brahe.
-“mathematical mystic”
-accepted and transcended Copernican theory
-discovered that planets revolve around the sun in ellipses, not circles.
-the closer a planet is to the sun, the faster it moves in orbit
-there is a cosmic mathematical relationship b/w space and time
-described movement of planets in math formulas
-proved that the rational mathematical world of Copernicus and Tycho’s physical world of stubborn facts weren’t in contradiction with eachother; they were in harmony. Math and the views of the naked eye worked together.
What did Galileo discover in astronomy?
-1609: Invents the telescope
-sees substance/surface of moon
-discovers that moon reflects the sun
-other planets have moons (Jupiter)
-all of these discoveries denied Ptolemaic theory that the earth was the center, esp. since they proved that other heavenly bodies were probably made of the same matter as Earth.
-With this discovery, and ultimately confirmation of Copernican theory, Galileo started to prove that the Earth and the heavens weren’t all that different from eachother. This in turn caused a backlash from the church against him.
*Before Galileo, scientists believed that heavenly bodies were simply “orbs” without dimension (except for the moon and sun), they were merely points of light.
What did Galileo discover in physics?
-1591: drops a 10 lb and 1 lb weight simultaneously from the top of the Tower of Pisa (almost a fable!) and from this later discovers mathematics of air resistance, friction, force, velocity, inertia. gravity, law of falling bodies.
What did Newton (1642-1727)discover (2)?
Gravity is a form of universal gravitation, or a similar pull characterizing all bodies in the solar system.
-answered why objects fall towards the earth and planets fall towards the sun.
-Newton invents calculus, uses other methods of measuring circular motion like the Dutch Huyghens’s pendulum to make his idea about universal gravitation a proven theory.
-1687: publishes Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
-all motion in the solar system can be timed and measured
-all matter moves relevant to universal gravitation
-this theory remained relevant for 200 years (but it’s mainly true)
What were some of the scientific institutions during Newton's lifetime, why were they important?
Royal Society of London, Royal Academy of Sciences in France (1666).important meeting places for scientists to exchange knowledge
-led to a growth in other sciences besides math/natural sciences—science of history, law, etc.
What were some of the Scientific Innovations during and after Newton’s time (1640-1730)
-understanding of the tide cycles
-more accurate timepieces
-longitude (e-w)
-easier navigation on the seas
-very accurate maps, good depictions of continents and oceans
What was the connection b/w calculus and the development of artillery?
-calculus’ work with curves and trajectories, along with new ways to produce metal, improved/increased the use of wartime artillery.
-armed forces were more expensive to maintain, calling for stronger state gov’ts.
-better weaponry made armies better than bands of nobles, strengthening the state
Describe the early development of the steam engine.
-1681: Frenchman Denis Papin invents first “steam-engine-like-device” used only for cooking
-Robert Boyle (Boyle’s Law about gas pressure) contributed
-1702: Thomas Newcomen produced steam engine known as Newcomen’s engine, from which James Watt later developed the modern steam engine.
-Newcomen’s engine burned so much fuel that it could only be used in coal mines, pumping water from coal pits.
-helped save labor, cheapen coal production…*first use of steam for economic purposes
What were some of the negative reactions to the scientific rev.?
Negative Reactions to new science
-discoveries about astronomy and elimination of the Ptolemaic view made people realize their insignificance in the cosmos.
-Discoveries (especially about astronomy) didn’t correlate to the bible…begins an intense disconnect b/w science and religion
-helped secularize society
Who was Blaise Pascal?
-17th century scientist, mathematician, devout Christian, “spiritually tormented”
-published Thoughts (Pensées)- “I am terrified by the eternal silence of infinite spaces”
-but, Pascal had hope in the power of knowledge and mankind

What were some of the positive reactions to the scientific rev?
-By the 19th century, the growing popularity of the Newtonian System (universal gravitation?) led to a confidence in human powers to understand the math, science of the universe
-Alexander Pope: Nature and nature’s laws lay hid at night; God said, “Let Newton be”, and all was light.”
-human power was now emphasized over human insignificance
What is natural law?
natural law= the universe is fundamentally orderly and there is a natural rightness or justice, universally the same for all people and knowable by reason.
-belief in natural law becomes very popular by the 19th century
-very important in political theory
-people began wanting to refashion human society based on natural law
*Natural law stated that there was no competition in nature, everything was essentially perfect; this was before Darwin!

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