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socials studies chapter 6 test

Terms

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communion
The most important sacrament (church ritual) was called communion, in which people took bread and wine to remind them of Jesus's death on the cross for their sins.
scriptoria
what many monesteries had. a writing room where monks made copies of important works
Innocent III
became pope in 11998. innocent excommunicated many people. he also used an interdict
anti-semitism
Hatred of the Jews who were blamed for disease or economic problems (scapegoats)
university
Universities were created to educate and train scholars. They were like the gulds that trained craftspeople. University comes from a Latin word for "guild". In medieval universities, students studied grammar, logic, math, geometry, music and astonomy
lady of the manor
women had to run the manor when their husbands went to war.
Scholasticism
A new way of thinking in the 1100's. People who studied religion used reason to understand questions of faith
King Philip II
gathered with other emperors armies and headed east to fight Saladin
motte
a humen made or naturaly steep sided hill. one of the basic parts of a castle
Inquisition
the court that was established by the Pope in 1233. the Inquisition's job was to bring Heretics or those suspected of Heresy to trial (those people who didn't agree with the church's teaching)
Ethelbert
the ruler of the kingdom of kent. was converted to christianity by the 40 monks that gregory sent out.
Fredrick
Emperor Fredrick of the holy Roman Empire gathered with the armies of other Empires and headed east to fight Saladin
william the conqerer
ruled Normandy. william didnt like harold. william defeated harold. he was then crowned king of england and became known as william the conquerer.
Philip II
became king of France, he went to war against England and conquered many territories, as a result French kings gained more land and became more powerful
apprentice
a person could be an apprentice at the age of ten.
Vassal
a noble who served a lord of higher rank. the lord protected the vassal
Gobi Desert
Some people believe that the black death began somewhere in the Gobi
convents
Between 1000 and 1200 AD. Places where women from noble families could study and write about Christianity
Excommunicated
Gregory excommunicated Henry. this means that he was excluded from a church membership.
Plague outbreaks
a plague is a disease that spreads quickly and kills many people. Historians believe that the Mongol empire was partly responsible for the plague spreading so fast
Effects of the crusade
effected Europe in 2 ways. Increased trade between Europe and the middle east and they helped break down Feudalism
habeas corpus
developed by England, protects a person from being imprisoned indefinately without a trial
Parts of a castle
there was a motte, a bailey, a keep, a drawbridge, bedrooms, a castle school, a dungeon, a great hall, servants' quarters, a storeroom, a toilet, and a chapel
Black Death
a terrible plague that swept across europe and Asia. Many scientists believe that the black death was caused by fleas which were carried by rats.Many jews were blamed for the black death and expelled from Europe
Charles martel
the most powerful mayor. with the franks, charles defeated the muslims in the battle of tours.
Richard I
gathered with other emperors armies and headed east to fight Saladin
Gregory VII
was elected pope in AD 1073. he wanted to stop nobles and kings from interfering in church affairs.
trial jury
created by henry. decides whether a person is innocent or guilty
Visisgoths & ostrogoths
close tot he center of the old Roman Empire
Henry VII
The winning King from the war of the Roses
Otto
one of the strongest kings in Germany. fought the magyars and sent troups into italy to protect the pope. the pope declared otto the emperor of Rome
Battle Of Tours
the war that charles martel led the franks. they defeated the muslims in this battle
Joan of Arc
Went to King Charles of France and told him that her favorite Saints had urged her to free France from the English. Joan went with tthe army to fight in Orleans . A few months later the English captured Joan and gave her to the inquisition which had her burned at the stake and she becamed known as Joan of Arc
Kiev
The city in the middle of the Rus state created by Oleg
Henry II
Henry was the king of england and set up a central court. Henry set up Juries. he started the twi main Juries.
Normandy
the area in western France that the vikings conquered. was named after the norsemen who ruled it
Spain Ferdinand and Isabella
1469, Princess Isabella of Castille married Prince Ferdinand of Araqon. In 10 years they became King and Queen and joined their lands together and called it Spain. They wanted all of Spain to be Catholic and pressured Jews to Convert
manors
what the lands of the fiefs of the middle ages were known as. it was ruled by a lord
Thomas Aquinas
Scholastic ism greatest leader. He combined the church teachings with the ideas of Aristotle. He lived in the 1200's in Italy
Longboats
sturdy boats built by vikings. they could survive the atlantic and navigate shallow rivers
the Magna Carta
the document that John had to sign by nobles saying that he could no longer collect taxes. also that freemen accused of crimes had the right to a fair trial. another name for the Magna Carta was the Great Charter
Gregory I
took after patrick. aka; gregory the great. was pope, asked monks to become missionaries.
Franciscans
The first order of friars was founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209. These friars became knows as Franciscans. They lived in towns, taught Christianity to people, helped the poor and served as missionaries
The Spanish Inquisition
Bringing secret Jews to trial and torturing them and killed them because they believed they weren't Catholic
Angles & Saxons
invaded britain from denmark and germany. came together and became the anglo-saxons
Parliament
A gathering of people who advise and help someone make laws
Lombards
the Germanic people that Pepin and his army went to italy to defeat
Feudalism
the new order that was led to by the shift of power form kings to nobles
Common law
established by Henry II. a common law is a law that was the same throughout the whole kingdom
Cathedrals
Church leaders and wealthy merchants and nobles paid to build large new churches called cathedrals. They were built in the Romanesque or Gothic style
Notre Dame
French church meaning "our lady" named after Mary, the mother of Jesus
Vernacular
Everyday language that included versions of spanish, french, english italian and german
peasant life
peasants had to work year round. peasants took a break and went to church on feast days. the most important feast days were Christmas and Easter.
Novgorod
The only major city to survive the Mongol attack
Louis
Carlemagnes son who was weak and began the end of the empire. Louis's son divided the empire into three kingdomd
3 Kingdoms of Spain
Portugal in the West, Castille in the Center and Aragon on the South
Vladimir
A rus ruler who marred the Byzantine Emperor's sister, he became an Eastern Orthodox Christian and declared his people Eastern Orthodox
why women join convents
It was for widows and women unable or unwilling to marry
stained glass
picture bibles for christians who could not read. The pieces of stained glass often formed scenes from Jesus's life and teachings. They also let in sunlight, which came to symbolize the divine light of g-d
Orleans
where Joan of Arc and the french Army went
Caffa
the black death appeared in europe at the city of Caffa at the Black Sea. Caffa was a trade colony controlled by Italian merchants
chivalry
the code of rules that knights had to follow.
War of the Roses
During the 100 years war, a civil war ( a war between citizens of the same country) broke out in England between the nobles over who should be King and the winner was Henry VII
Alexander Nevsky
The leader of the Slavs of Novgorod. Helped to defeat the Swedes and Germans. The Mongol Khan rewarded Nevsky with the title Grand Duke
Franks
400's germanic people called the franks settled in France. many franks became caltholic
Ghettos
jews had to live in separate communities known as ghettos.
Abbot
the leader of a monestery. many abbots became involved in politics.
interdict
what innocent the third did. an interdict forbids priests from providing christian rituals to a group of people. the pope thought that by using one, local people would pressure thier ruler to obey
guilds
crafts people made this. a guild is a business group.
mass
Catholic worship service. On Sundays and holy days people went to mass
Papal states
the land that pepin had conquered from the Lombards. Pepin donated this land to the pope
Crusade
Holy War. Urban II asked Europe's lords to do to the Muslim Turks. The crusades began.
Vikings
a group from scandinavia whose raids terrified all of Europe
battle of hastings
the battle at which king william and hus armys defeated Harold
fief
the land granted to a vassal.
flying buttresses
Gothic churches uses flying buttresses. These stone suppports were built onto the cathedral's outside walls. They made it possible to build churches with thinner walls and large stained glass windows.
Alfred of wessex
later known as Alfred the great. united the anglo saxons kingdom and drove away the vikings. alfreds united kingdom became known as england.
the concordat of worms
an agreement between the pope and the ruler of a country. the concordat of worms was signed in the city of worms
European geography
rivers: rhine, Denube, Vistula, Volga, Seine, and Po. Mountains: Carpathians, Alps, and Pyrenees
Crecy
Where the first major battle of 100 years war took place
Crusade States
There are 4 states, the kingdom of Jerusalem and Palestine, the County of Odessa, the Principality of Antioch, in Asia Minor and the County of Tripoli where Lebanon is located today
Domesday book
the name of the book that holds the census that William took of Europe. it counted people, manors, and farm animals
Plague advanced through Europe
The ships carried the plague to Sicily. From there it spread into Europe. Eventually it spread through France and Germany and had arrived in England. It had reached Scandinavia, eastern europe and russia. 19-38 million europeans died
Slavs
A people. The Slavs divided into 3 major groups, The southern, the Western and the Eastern Slavs. The Southern Slavs became the Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians. The Western Slavs became the Poles, Czechs, and Slovacs. The Eastern Slavs became the Ukrainians and Russians
farming technology
a heavy wheeled plow with an iron blade: easily turned over western europeans dense clay soil.
peasant homes
simple. wood frame cottages plastered with clay. roofs were thatched with straw. better cottages had a main room for cooking and another room for sleeping
French fairs
was made to encourage flanders and italys trade.
keep
a part of a castle that had many stories.
Reconquista
When Christians fought to take back the Iberian peninsula (spain and Portugal) from the Muslims
grand jury
started by henry. decided whether people should be accused of a crime.
Henry IV
was angered by the popes decree.
life in cities
cities could be destroyed rapidly once a fire started because they had narrow streets, and touching, wooden houses. the cities were dirty and smelly.
towns and government
in exchange for paying taxes townspeople gained some basic rights from their lord. these rights included buying and selling property and serving in the army
Kremlin
the fortress at the center of Moscow, Ivan III had palaces and cathedrals built in the Kremlin
Moskow
Alexander Nevsky's son Daniel and his descendants became Moskow rulers. The rulers of Moscow married women from the ruling families in other Slavic towns. They also fought wars to expand Moscow's territory. Moscow became even more important when it became the headquarters for the Russian branch of the eastern orthodox church
barrel vaults
long rounded ceilings found in romanesque churches. These ceilings needed huge pillars and thick walls to hold them up. Windows were small and set back, they let in little light
Cherlemagne
Pepins son. invaded eastern germany and defeated the Saxons. Invaded spain and had them convert to christianity. charles conquest earned him the name of charlemagne or charles the great. the pope declared charlemagne the emperor of rome.
King John
henry son. king john raised taxes in England and punished his enemies without trial.
effects of the plague
some people believed that g-d was punishing them, others blamed the jews and the jews were expelled from europe
Crusades 1-4
The first Crusade captured Antioch and Syria. The second Crusade was sent by the Europeans to regain the lost lands, it was a total failure. The fall of Jerusalem led to the third Crusade. Pope Innocent III called for the 4th Crusade. Merchants from Venice used the Crusade to weaken their trading rival the Byzantine Empire
Rus
What the Slavs called their viking rulers
Daniel
Alexander Nevsky's son who became Moscow's ruler
Mayors of the palace
Pepin was mayor of the palace with the help of the pope and most frankish Nobles
Tatar
What the Slavs called the Mongols because one of the mongol tribes was the Tata people
master
what a journeyman became. to become this, a journeyman had to make a masterpiece-an outstanding example if the craft
Natural law
Aquinas originated the concept of Natural laws in which he believed that some laws are part of human nature. These laws do not have to be made by governments. Aquinas claimed that natural law gave peple cerain rights that the governement should not take away. These included the right to live, to learn, to worship and to reproduce. These ideals have influence many governments even to the present day
Ivan III
He drove out the Mongols from Russia in 1480 expanded Moscow's territory
Alhambra
Was a beautiful Mosque in the kingdom of Grenada
1st universitis
2 of the first european universities were in BolagnaItaly, and Paris France.
Patrick
a priest who traveled to ireland. he spread christianity and built many churches
3 Estates
3 estates or 3 classes are French society, Philip IV aka Philip the Fair, visited the 3 estates. the first estate was the clergy, or people who had been ordained as priests. The second estate was nobles and the third estate was townspeople or peasants
freemen
not many peseants were this. freemen had to pay fees, but could leave and marry whenever they wanted
Fjord
a steep sided valley that is an inlets of the sea. many of these were in Scandinavia
Aachen
what charlemagne made the capitol off his empire.
Iberian Peninsula
Spain and Portugal
Clovis
theking of france that became catholic and turned many franks catholic
Oleg
a viking leader who created a Rus state around the City of Kiev aka the kievan Rus
Roman Empire falls
the last empire fell in AD 476
Hughcapet
chosen King in 987, he was the first of the capetian kings of France, Capetians controlled the area around Paris
Urban II
Pope Urban II spoke before a large crowd in Eastern France and asked Europe's lords to launch a crusade or hole war against the muslim Turks. He urged them to capture Jerusalem and free the holy land from the Muslims where Jesus had lived
Holy roman empire
Ottos territory, which included most of germany and Northern Italy became known as the the Holy Roman Empire
100 years war
English King, claimed right to Normandy so the English king Edward III declared himself king of France. This angered the French even more. War began and lasted for more than 100 years
The estates general
France's first Parliament, it was caused by the 3 estates
Heresy
A religious belief that conflicts with Church teachings
Bailey
an open space next to the motte. it was the other main part of a castle
Henry V
of England went on Attack against france and the archers won and England gained control of Northern France again
Edward III
English King who declared himself king of France
journey man
what the apprentice became after 5 to 7 years and they had to work for wages.
Pepin
Charles Martels son, became mayor of the palace after charles' death. pepin became king of the franks. he defeated Lombards
monastery
the leader was called an abbot.
serfs
most peasants were serfs. a serf could not leave the manor, own property, or mrry without the lords permission.
Czar
Another work for Ivan III, It was short for Cesar and means emperor in Russian
Saladin
A muslim who became the ruler of Egypt. he united Muslims and declared war against the Christian States that crusaders had built
knights
a vassal who governed the people who lived on their fiefs. they were also known as worriers in armor who fought on horseback.
Edward I
English King, Called for a meeting of people from different parts of England, they helped advise him and help him make laws
great Council
the group that had to agree in order for king John to collect taxes
Pope Innocent III
Called for the 4th crusade
flanders
today flanders is part of belgium. it became the center of trade for northern Europe. was known for it's woolen clothes
Dominicans
Spanish priest named Dominic De Guzman founded another group of friars called the dominicans. The dominicans goal was to defend Church teachings. They spent years in study so they could defend their faith when preaching to well-educted people
scapegoats
when you are blamed for things that you didn't do. Blamed for other peoples troubles
stirrup
the new invention of the stirrup made it possible for a knight to stay sitting while charging and holding a lance
Mygars
a nomadic people who had settled in hugary.

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