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Culture and Values 7-10

Terms

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Goliardic verse
Term used to describe medieval student poetry and songs
Tessera
The small colored cubes that make up a mosiac
Canto
Literally, a "song"-used to describe part of the Commedia by Dante Alighieri
Vulgate
The Latin Bible translated by Saint Jerome in the fourth century, which was the normative text for the Western (Catholic) Church until modern times
Cantus
Early term for singing as opposed to musica, which meant the ordering of tones and intervals
Shari'a
The code of law that covers religious, civil, and criminal law. It is the law of the land in several Muslim countries
Seven Liberal Arts
The basic classic set of courses typically constituting education up to the university level made up of grammar, rhetoric, and dialects (the trivium) and arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy (quadrivium)
Tercet
A three-line stanza of a poem
Cloister
Technically, the covered interior walkways in a monastery, but more broadly, the interior of a monastery that was generally off-limits to laypeople
Arabesque
Decorative feature using highly complex interlaced lines (sometimes of fruits or foliage); the word derives from Islamic decorative arts
Mullion
A slender divider of light panels on a window
Monotheism
Religious belief that affirms that there is only one God, as opposed to polytheism, which accepts many gods, as or henotheism, which admits that there are many gods but only one is to be worshiped
Gargoyle
Extravagant animal carving, symbolizing the flight of demons, used on gothic churches to serve as drains
Legend
Stories meant to be read aloud; often used for stories about the saints in medieval literature
Trade fairs
Periodic gatherings of merchants for buying, trading, and selling. In the Middle Ages these fairs coincided with major religious holidays and were held roughly four times a year
Relics
Parts of a body or material (clothing, personal objects) associated with a saint
Pilgrimage church
A church designated as a pilgrimage destination as opposed to a church (e.g., Chartres) that was a pilgrimage designation but was also a cathedral
Flying arch
External curved buttresses of a Gothic church characteristic of that style
Codex
Book with bound pages of parchment used instead of scrolls
Sura
The name for a chapter in the Qur'an
Capitularies
Official letters with legal and administrative stipulations sent out under the imperial seal
Liturgy
The official public worship of the Christian church
Gregorian Chant
The plain unaccompanied song of the church liturgy, where the note are correlated with the syllables of the text being sung
Universitas
A guild of coorperative body. The academic universitas in the ancestor of the present-day university
Ramadan
The month in the Muslim (lunar) calendar in which fasting from before dawn to sundown is stipulated
Cathedral
The church of the bishop named for the seat or chair (cathedra) from which he preached and taught
Studium/Studia
An ancient name for the place where a community of scholars taught and wrote
Manuscript
Literally (from the Latin) a text written by hand. The way of book production before the invention of printing
Iconoclasm
Literally "image breaking"-movement in Christian East that militated again the use of icons in worship and devotion
Feudal
The highly structured social organization typical of the early Middle Ages based on a pyramidal model with the lord at the top and gradation down to the serfs, who were bound to the land
Scriptorium
The monastic room used by monks for the copying of manuscripts and their study
Arians
A dissident branch of early Christianity, which did not accept Jesus Christ as equal to the Father; name for the Alexandrian priest Aruis
Horarium
The daily schedule in a monastery or a church community; a term derived from the Latin word for an hour (hora)
Sarcophagus
Large coffins, usually carved from limestone used to bury bodies. The world literally means flesh eaters (from Greek sarx and phagein)
Couplet
Two lines of a poem in which the last words of each line typically rhyme
Votive chapel
A small church built as fulfillment of a vow or a promise most usually dedicated to the Virgin Mary or one of the saints
Orthodox
Greek term meaning both correct belief and correct worship. It later become the generic name for Eastern Christian which broke from Rome

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