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Individual Life and Family Development

Terms

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activity which teaches team cooperation, competition, and other social skills
sports
physical growth 8-10 years old
gain 6.6# and grows 2" per year
Drug experimentation in school age children most commonly involves glue sniffing and cigarette smoking
true
Problem manifested by stomach pains, aggressive and stubborn behavior in classroom
stress
Conservation
- physical properties of objects or quantities remain the same despite changes made in form or appearance (the ability to realize that something is the same even though it doesn't look the same)
Typical activity for the school age child is to tell
jokes
Most common illnesses in the school age child
URI ( upper respiratory infections) streptococcus, GI upsets
School age child pulse rate does what
decreases
abbreviation for a nutrition program available to families
WIC
Hormones that the school age boy begins to produce
Luteinizing hormone - stimulates androgen production
Second leading cause of death in the school age child
cancer
Favorite activity for school age child
collecting
Frontal sinuses develop by what age
6
Farsightedness
Hyperopic
Blood pressure increases in the school age child because of
the left ventricle enlarging
Characteristic behavior of dishonest behavior in children 8-10 years of age
lying
Type of reinforcement that rewards child for good behavior
positive
The school age childs fear of intrusive procedures (esp. the genital area) is best intervened by
providing plenty of privacy and preserving their modesty
Behavior common to school age children
teasing
Safety device for prevention of bicycle injuries
helmets
Reversibility
- imagine a process in reverse
Blurred vision caused by poorly focused image on the retina
Astigmatism
Type of injury which is the major cause of bicycle related fatalities
head
The tendency of school age children to hang out in groups or "gangs" should be discouraged as individual creativity can develop
false
Nocturnal emissions in a 12 year old boy are a cause for concern and referral
false this is normal
physical growth 6-8 years old
gain 5# and grows 2" per year
School age children generally respond positively to rules
true
Sullivan's Radius of Relationships for the school age child
Includes their neighborhood and school
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
10 year old profile
steady years, club activities and game playing become very structured and rules are enforced, privacy is enjoyed and interest in parents jobs and own future life plans increases, interest in reading increases for some, boys and girls play separately, although interest in the opposite sex is apparent
If a parent feels uncomfortable talking with the school age girl about menstruation, illustrated literature can be substituted
false it can be used as an aid
school age characteristics 9-11 years old
always on the go, responsibility increases, wants to work to earn money, greater eye hand coordination, dresses self completely, peer approval is very important, puberty sexual change begins
Piaget's Units of structure (Schema Cognitive Structures)
a network of associations that organize and guide individual's perceptions (assimilate)
School age play
more social, has strict rules- alone, small groups (same sex) (boys and girls clubs) ("best friends") like activities such as games, crafts, books, radio, TV, computers, collects everything, cooperates and shares, likes competitive games, wants to win, changes rules, teasing has a lasting effect at this stage,
the school age child enjoys tasks or chores that are complicated and take time to figure out
false
Industry competence acquisition characteristics (if successful at this stage they learn)
Perseverance, Diligence, Self-control, Cooperation, Compromise
6 year old profile
very active, coordination is good (can skip rope with practice, walk a straight line, print, cut and paste, tie laces, draw people, can talk in full sentences, easily using language, enjoys group and one to one play, attention of parent or teacher, may learn to read and enjoy time with books
Hospitalized children are genarlly eager to relinquish school activities, in fact, it is appropriate to discourage any desire to continue with school work at this time so that energies can be directed toward getting well
false they should be encouraged to continue their routines
Kohlberg's level of moral judgement where the child looks to others for approval and to society to define rules
conventional
Characteristic thinking of school age child
reversible
Incidence of injury is higher in boys or girls
boys
Industry
Interest in doing work of the world, Feeling can learn and solve problems, forming responsible work habits and attitudes, applies self to skills/tasks beyond play
Basic virtue of the school age child
method
Nutrition related problems in the school age child
hypertension ( due to high salt intake), Cardiovascular disease (due to high salt and fat intake), obesity, lactose intolerance, and calcium deficiencies
Piaget Cognitive Development stage
Concrete Operations
Leading cause of death in the school age child
MVA (motor vehicle accidents)
The secure child is more likely to do well in an open classroom setting
true
For the fear of loss of control in the school age child the best intervention method is
tell them "it's ok to cry"
Base for child's development of self-esteem
family
Articulation problems frequently surface during the school age years and may necessitate individual work with a speech therapist
true
Preconventional =
rule oriented - does not understand why something is wrong - limited understanding (views of others) - trust and loyalty - demanded MORAL CODE Parents teaching actions// Rituals/religious practices during this time help distinction between right and wrong
Teach child what behaviours are acceptable in society
Limits
Operations
Mental actions (allow child to do mentally what was done physically before)
Behavior during the school age children is predictable
false children are never predictable
Second most frequent fatal type of accident during teh school age years
drowning
12 year old profile
a sense of humor and ability to carry out an adult conversation are apparent, able to handle a great deal of responsibility and complete tasks, participates in activities with intensity and concentration, finds school interesting, circle of friends increases in size and talking with friends is favorite pastime
9 year old profile
eye-hand coordination is very good, improving success in sports, writing is more mature, peer group participation is very important, may belong to a club, capable of meeting personal and family responsibilities, mature enough to be separated from parents for some time, play is rough, although skill perfection is not strived for, talent for music or art becomes evident
lack of sleep in the school age child results in
irritability, interferes with: academic function and social relationships
Ovulation occurs secondary to the action of the luteinizing hormone in femalse
false luteinizing hormone is in males
School age hospitilazation fears
seperation, loss of control, bodily injury and pain, intrusive procedures, disability or death, losing place, being forgotten
School Age Child is
6- 11 years old
school age sleep requirements
vary 12 hours for younger, adn 10 hours for older
type of operations of cognitive development according to Piaget
concrete
habits common for school age child
nervous
Other characteristics of teh school age child
companionship becomes very important, they antagonize the opposite sex, they like secrets, have heroes, are courteous, and well mannered
Because parents may feel funny in talking about sex with their children, the task of sex education should always be left to educators or health professionals
false parents should be responsible and have frank discussions with children
school age characteristics
uses telephone, interested in money, knows right and left, learns to read, learns to tell time, has a sense of humor, recognizes property rts. (good time to start them on an allowance)
Erikson's basic virtues for the school age child
Method and Competence
Moral development in the school age child =
preconventional
Some common health problems are caused by not being immunized against
measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis (whooping cough), chickenpox
Cognitive ability of the school age child
classify
8 year old profile
actively seeking company of friends (especially of the same sex), spending little time with family or meeting family responsibilities, able to write as well as print and enjoys doing so, is graceful and enjoys sports, understand past, present, and future and asks related questions, collections become more structured, enjoys science projects, table games ( although has trouble losing), helping in the kithchen, reading comic books
school age fears
Seperation from parents and peers, separation anxiety... Loss of Control - cause for this is enforced dependency - altered family roles... Bodily Injury and Pain - fear of illness itself, disability and death, intrusive procedures (sexual nature)
School age child in regards to fear of altered family roles
fear losing place in home, family, and school environments fear they will be forgotten or replaced
Insufficient Discipline in the school age child causes
insecurity and doubt
Urinating at night or bedwetting
enuresis
It is normal for the school age child to emerge from the school age years somewhat doubtful and insecure
false
In the school age child hearts are small in comparison to body mass resulting in what
tiring easily after exercise
Because of the ravenous appetite of the school age child he/she is not likely to miss a meal
false they may forget to eat
Fear of the school age child is loss of bodily
control
Central concepts of Cognitive development (Piaget)
Decentering, Reversibility, and Conservation
Too Much Discipline in the school age child causes
acting out behavior
Term describing the transfer of feelings to a physical problem
Somatization
School age developmental tasks
basic adult concepts, greater dependence, tasks of everyday living, give without expectations, earning and saving money, impulses and feelings, social and sexual roles, growing out of egocentrism
Breakfast is necessary for the school age child despite his her ability to meet caloric requirements in other meals and snacks throughout the day
true
Behaviors associated with shool age fears
loneliness, boredom, isolation, withdrawal, depression, displaced anger, hostility, and frustration
According to research, school age children with an internal locus of control have greater difficulty coping with surgery than those with an extrenal locus of control
false
Industry Characteristics
Wins recognition by: producing things, solving problems, and finishing tasks to completion
concept that objects or quantities stay the same despite changes in appearance
conservation
Erikson's negative developmental crisis for school age child
Inferiority
Role of the Peer group in the school age child
provides security as they gain independence from parents
The school age child is able to feel sad when his friend cries because he/she is capable of accommodation
true
Freud's psychosexual stage (Latency)
drives - dormant, expanded peer relationships, repression- childhood sexuality, concentration- intellectual skill, greater composure and self control
Most frequent fatal type of accident during the school age years
vehicles
important group for school age children
peers
To prevent emotional problems from occuring in latchkey children, parents should encourage and allow children to verbalize how bad they feel about being alone when other children's parents are home, despite the guilt it may provoke in the parent
true
fear related to body for the school age child
integrity
Type of development including feelings and judgement
moral
Characteristics of Concrete operations (Piaget)
Not egocentric, - less self centered, more goal directed, Reasoning - should agree with others, Thinking - logical and reversible, Logical approach - solving problems, Beginning understanding of cause and effect, Understands - Logic of classes, how to classify, group and sort, carry out actions mentally without carrying out physically, hold concept in their mind while making decisions based on that concept
Guidance for the school age child
accept child as is, give greater responsibility (jobs around the house), avoid excessive demands, realistic limits, activity safety, encourage group acitivities, sex education, tolerate behavior extremes, don't harp on them about nervous habits, encourage good dental hygiene, and discourage dishonest behavior
The danger of failed Industry =
Inadequacy and Inferiority in a child who does not recieve recognition for his efforts
through the school age years, parents continue to be the most respected authortiy figure in teh child's eyes
false - it's peer groups and teachers
Factor important in the play of school age children
rules
Child's sense of self influenced by how others, especially peers, see him or her
self-concept
Extent to which an individual believes oneself to be capable significant, successful and worthy
self-esteem
Fear of the school age child is enforced
dependence
As a last resort, amphetamines may be prescribed for weight reduction in teh obese school age children
false not recommended due to adverse side effects
Inches school age child grows per year
two
Sexual Maturation School age boy
10-14 years old get taller and heavier, penile and testicle growth, facial, axillary, and pubic hair begin to grow, voice changes, spermatogenesis, nocturnal emissions
School age children and hygiene
hygiene becomes very important, still need reminders to bathe, brushing and flossing, need to see a dentist every 6 months, should use mouthwash because it reduces the amount of upper respiratory infections they are likely to get
Menstrual irregularity in the first year after menarche should be investigated to ensure that hormone levels are adequate
false irregularity should be normal for the first few months until your body adjusts
Common accidents in the school age child
injuries (higher for boys), head injuries (bicycle- related fatalities), drownings
Erikson's positive developmental crisis for school age child
industry
Persistant passing of stool in child's underpants after age four
Encorpresis
Erikson's task for the school age child
Industry vs. Inferiority
School age children on vegetarian diets are predisposed to protein adn calcium deficiencies
true
The permanent teeth develop in the same order as the deciduous teeth
true
important for decision making for the school age child
choices
Lymphatic tissue continues to grow and immunoglobolins reach adult lvls up to what age
9
Interventions for hospitalization fears
information (be accurate and honest), allow choices, discuss concerns/quesitons, respect privacy, peer contact, continue school work
Gender identification (which parent ) occurs with the early school age child
same sex
Basic virtue of the school age child
competence
Typical activity of the school age child is to tell
secrets
Lice
Pediculosis
Brain growth is complete with refinement of fine motor coordination and vision by when
10 years of age
11 year old profile
rebelliousness, instability, and criticizing behavior - apparent, school performance may lag, constant energy is apparent, participation in sports may decrease as growth may casuse clumsiness, icnrease interest in the opposite sex is apparent, "dirty" jokes and words are used, generally, this disappers, unless parental role modeling of such behavior occurs
Food prejudices are not likely to develop in the school age years since food preferences have been established in the toddler and preschool years
false peers can influence food prejudices
Decentering
consider more than one characteristic of something
7 year old profile
fine and gross motor skills are accurate (can jump, play hopscotch, skip rope well), introspection develops and the child strives for perfection in his work, reading improves as vision increases ability to read regular size print, sex differences in play preferences become evident, categorization and collecting activities begin, the concepts of a) conservation - change in shape does not necessarily mean a change in size) and B) accommodation - ability to imagine oneself in another's situation develop, some ability to tell time, add and subtract, make change, and name months and holidays, more aware of family responsibilities and roles, importance of promises, and a sense of justice (may lead to tattling), more props are required to play as imagination begins to decline
Discipline in the school age child teaches
boundaries and helps set limits on behavior
Characteristic thinking of the school age child
Logical
Problems in the school age child
school phobia, stealing, "latchkey" children, speech difficulties, drug experimentation
physical growth 10-12 years old
gain 10# and grow 2.5" per year
Promotion Interventions for the school age child for Cognitive Development (Piaget)
Long term memory improves middle and late childhood, practice critical thinking, encourage creativity, more analytical and logical, reading (central aspect of language)
Type of locus of control where the child feels that results are determined by others or fate
external
Physical growth in school age child
increased muscle mass, increased muscle strength, boys - better - gross motor skills, girls - better - fine motor skills, more erect posture
Hormones that the school age girl begins to produce
Follicle stimulating hormone - stimulates growth, stimulates maturation (ovarian follicles- montly)
If the school age child fails at Industry
feel inadequate, defeated, inferior, isolated, discouraged... unable to learn, do tasks, compete, compromise, or cooperate
Function provided by the peer group in the life of school age children
security
(Piaget) Concrete Operations =
Thought is made up of operations, reversible mental actions, permits organized thinking, permits ability to understand and follow rules (rules are very important here, able to imagine processes in reverse)
Nearsightedness
Myopia
Sexual Maturation School age girl
10-14 years old larger pelvic size pubic and axillary hair begin to show, begin menstruation
Although the school age child may appear responsible in some areas, family responsibilities, such as caring for younger siblings, are often avoided or met inadequately
false
In response to the fear of Bodily Injury and Pain their behaviors may be
seeks information, passively accepts , groans and whines, holds rigidly still, tries to act brave, may try to postpone everything
School age nutrition
decreased appetite, should get 3 meals plus snacks, participation during meal prep will help them want to eat more, develop food prejudices normally peer related, should be eating low salt foods, they will forget to eat must remind them
During the school age years, a child who appears to be left handed should be encouraged to use his/her right hand more frequently so a more stable adjustment can occur in adulthood
false it inhibits their individualtiy and creativity
Health problem sometimes occuring in school age children
depression
Rule goverened actions carried out in the mind, such as ordering and relating
operations

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