Important Dates in Civilization
Terms
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 Röntgen, Discovers Xrays in?
 1895
 G Bell, Invented Telephone on
 1876
 JJ. Thomson Discovers the Electron on
 1897
 Darwin writes "Origin of the Species" in
 1859
 Big Bang erupted
 14 billion years ago
 Formation of Earth
 4600 MYA
 Cambrian Explosion (massive first emergence of life)
 543 MYA  490 MYA
 Age of Dinosaurs
 245MYA  65 MYA
 Stone Age
 5MYA  2500 BC
 Ice Age
 70000 BC  8000 BC
 Neolithic Age(permanent settlements)
 9000 BC  4500 BC
 Bronze Age
 3200 BC  1200 BC
 Iron Age
 1200 BC  332 BC
 Hellenistic Period
 332 BC  63 BC
 Roman Period
 63 BC  476
 Byzantine Period
 330  1453
 Middle Ages
 476  1350
 Rennainance
 1350  1600
 Reformation
 1500  1600
 Enlightenment
 1600  1800
 Industrial Revolution
 1750  1900
 Gutenberg invented the printing press in
 1436
 the first wheel was used in Mesopotamia in the bronze age when?
 3500 BC
 Fleming discovered penicillin in
 1928
 William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain built the first transistor in
 1947
 Philo Taylor Farnsworth invented the TV in
 1927
 the abacus was invented in Babylon in
 3000 BC
 the slide rule is developed by William Oughtred in
 1622
 the first numerical calculating machines built in Paris by Blaise Pascal in
 1642
 electricity discovered by Benjamin Franklin in
 1780
 first commercially mechanical adding machine that was successful is developed by William Burroughs in
 1886
 a large scale analog calculator, the differential analyzer, at MIT is built by Vannevar Bush in
 1925
 the first public radiotelephone becomes operational between London and New York
 1927
 Englishman Alan M. Turning made a machine defined to be capable of computing any calculatable function in
 1936
 the first color broadcast is on TV on
 1940
 first electric equipment is made at HewlettPackard Company in
 1938
 at Bell Telephone Laboratories George Stibitz builds the first binary calculator in
 1937
 an 8 bit microprocessor is introduced by Intel in
 1972
 in the U.S. the total number of computers surpasses ten million in
 1983
 the first car appeared on the streets in
 1885
 The first atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico on
 1945
 a 10 kilo ton atomic explosion was unleashed on Hiroshima on
 1945
 Felix Hoffman invented aspirin in
 1897
 John Deere invented the first steel plow in
 1837
 Edison invented the first incandescent light bulb in
 1878
 When was the first production car  the model T  first unleashed by Henry Ford?
 1908
 Wilbur and Orville Wright invented the airplane in
 1903
 The plague raged in Europe and wiped out half the population in
 1347
 Isaac Newton invented the reflecting telescope in
 1668
 Edward Jenne invented the smallpox vaccine in
 1796
 Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in
 1821

Samuel Finley Breese Morse &
Sir Charles Wheatstone invented the telegraph in  1937
 Richard Jordan Gatling devised the machine gun in
 1861
 Alfred Bernhard Nobel invented dynamite in
 1866
 Clarence Birdseye crafted quick frozen food in
 1924
 Charles Ginsberg and Ray Dolby invented the first videotape in
 1956
 Bell Labs invented fibre optics in
 1975
 Robert K. Jarvik planted the first artificial heart in
 1982
 Selective breeding of corn (increased kernel size) started from
 5000 BC
 Cattle and pigs were first domesticated
 6000 BC
 Dolly was the first cloned sheep in
 1996
 Julius Caesar (10244 BC) was assassinated by disgruntled colleagues after establishing the Roman Empire
 March 15, 44 BC
 William of Normandy crossed the English Channel from France and defeated British King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. On Christmas Day, William was crowned King of England, and became known as William the Conqueror.
 1066
 At Runnymede, King John of England (11671216) signed the Magna Carta, a 63part document of human rights that became the foundation of the English legal system.
 1215
 Marco Polo (12541324) returns from China after a 20year stay, seeing more of Asia than any other European of his day.
 1295
 Christopher Columbus (14511506) set sail Christopher Columbus (14511506) set sail on September 6, 1492 from Castille, Spain with three shipsâ€” the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. His expedition landed at San Salvador in the West Indies
 1492 (sailed the ocean blue)
 Isaac Newton (16431727) published the Principia where he developed the three laws of motion, demonstrated the structure of the universe, the movement of the planets, and calculated the mass of the heavenly bodies.
 1687
 The 13 colonies in America met in Philadelphia to sign their Declaration of Independence, declaring themselves free of British rule and taxation.
 1776
 The French middle class stormed the Bastille, capturing the royal fortress in Paris, and starting the French Revolution.
 1789
 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo by Duke Wellington and was exiled to St. Helena where he died on May 8, 1821.
 1815
 The Confederacy attacked an US Army post at Fort Sumter, starting the American Civil War. The fouryear war resulted in the death of 364,511 Union troops & 133,821 Confederates.
 1861
 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (18631914) assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian Serbs initiating World War I.
 1914
 New York Stock Market crashed on Black Tuesday where stocks tumbled across the board.
 1929
 Germany invaded Poland overrunning it in four weeks. Britain & France declared war on Germany two days later.
 1939
 Chinese Communist Chairman Mao TseTung (18931976) declared his country the People's Republic of China after defeating Chiang KaiShek's Kuomingtang forces who fled to Taiwan.
 1949
 Soviet Union's Yuri A. Gagarin (19341968) became the first man to complete an orbit of Earth.
 1961
 Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the Moon.
 1969
 1989 German people attacked the Berlin Wall, chipping it with hammers and bashing it with rocks until the wall came tumbling down.
 1989
 Tim BernersLee invented the World Wide Web while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.
 1990
 the year the great bard, William Shakespeare, was born
 1564
 The unsinkable ship, the Titanic sunk.
 1912
 UK  The Equal Franchise Bill was given a third unopposed reading in the House of Commons, giving all women over the age of 21 the right to vote in parliamentary elections.
 1928
 WW2. The start of the largest war in human history, killing over 60 million people in Asia, Africa and Europe.
 1939
 Charles Babbage developed the Analytical Engine
 1837
 Roger Bannister breaks the fourminute mile.
 1954
 nspiring civil rights campaigner, Martin Luther King, was shot dead in Memphis
 1968
 9/11 They day the world stood still as evil struck America..
 2001
 George Boole published "An Investigation of the Laws of Thought". His system for symbolic and logical reasoning became the basis of computing.
 1845
 In the "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", the concept of storing a program in the same memory as data was described by John von Neumann.
 1945
 Rudolf Bayer and Edward M. McCreight publish the seminal paper on Btrees, a critical data structure widely used for handling large datasets.
 1972
 The World Wide Web Worm (WWWW) indexed 110,000 web pages by crawling along hypertext links and providing a central place to make search requests; this is one of the first (if not the first) web search engines.
 1994
 The Spanish Inquisition was established by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy.
 1478
 This beautiful equation connects three major constants of mathematics, Euler's Number e, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, pi, and the square root of 1, i.e., i.
 e^ipi = 1
 definition of pi
 pi = c / d c=circum, d = diameter
 definition of e
 e = lim(n>inf) (1 + 1/n)^n
 which function equals it's derivative
 d(e^x)/dx = e^x
 what is Pythagorean Theorem
 a^2 + b^2 = c^2 where a & b are the short sides of a RA triangle
 what is the fundamental theorem of calculus

d/dx int (a, x) f(s) ds = f(x)
This formula expresses the fact that differentiation and integration are inverse operations of each other.  what is the taylor series

f(x) = sum(i=0, inf)f_i(0)/i! x^i
This formula shows how to express an analytic function in terms of its derivatives.  What is an Eigenvalue Problems
 Ax = lamda x In this equation, A is a square matrix (often a very large one), x is an unknown vector, and lambda is an unknown real or complex number. Many physical problems lead to equations like this. Usually the numbers lambda that satisfy the equation are significant to the dynamic behavior of the physical system, i.e., the behavior as time goes
 What is a linear system
 A x = b In this equation A is a square matrix (often a very large one), x is an unknown vector,. The equation also describes many physical systems and the solution x often describes a physical situation either at one point in time or for all time.
 What is the mandelbrot set?
 z0 = c, z_(n+1) = z_n^2 + c
 What is the triangle inequality
 x + y  <= x + y Let x and y be vectors that form two sides of a triangle whose third side is x+y. The expression x denotes the length of a vector x. (It's more generally called a norm in mathematics.) The triangle inequality expresses the fact that the sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle cannot be less than the length of the third side. It is used ubiquitously throughout mathematics.
 What is the Reverse Triangle Inequality
 x  y >=  x  y 
 What is cantor's theorem
 2^S > S Let S be a set, and let S denote its cardinality. If S is a finite set then its cardinality is the number of elements in it, and things are not very interesting. But the concept of cardinality makes sense also for infinite sets. That story makes a fascinating webpage. The power set of a set is the set of its subsets. It is easy to see that for finite sets S the cardinality of the power set equals 2S. Thus we denote by 2S the cardinality of the power set even for infinite sets S. Cantor's Theorem states that the cardinality of the power set of a set S always exceeds the cardinality of S itself. That's obvious for finite sets but far from trivial for infinite sets.
 What is the eqn. that ties together Energy, mass, and the speed of light.
 E = mc^2 Einstein's famous equations says that mass m is equivalent to energy E, and the amount of energy contained in a piece of mass is equal to the mass multiplied with the square of the speed of light, c. Without the fact described by this equation we wouldn't be around since the energy we obtain from the Sun is generated by converting mass to energy in the process of nuclear fusion.
 What is the eqn. for gravitational force
 F = G m_1 m_2 / d^2 If you have two objects of mass m 1 and m 2 at a distance d, then these two objects will attract each other with a force F given in this formula. G is the gravitational constant. It equals approximately 6.67*1011Nm2kg2. This formula determines the destiny of our Universe (i.e., whether it will expand forever or whether it will ultimately collapse in a Big Crunch after having originated in the Big Bang).
 link e with trig functions
 e^iz = cos z + i sin z
 what is Fermat's Little Theorem
 f p is a prime number and a is an integer then a^(p1)  1 is divisible by p or, equivalently, if p is a prime number and a is an integer then a^p  a is divisible by p
 What is Euler's formula of graph theory?
 V  E + F = 1 This is an important formula in graph theory. Draw any twodimensional graph, that is, a set of a points called vertices, and some line segments called edges which connect the vertices. Make sure it is in one piece (connected in mathematical language). Then count up the number of vertices V, the number of edges E, and the number of faces (regions) F that it encloses.
 what is the the difference of two squares formula
 x^2  y^2 = (x  y) ( x + y)
 What is the The Prime Number Theorem
 p(x) approx = x / log(x) What this means is that if x is any positive real number then pi(x), which is the number of primes less than x, is approximately x divided by log x (where log is to base e, sometimes called the natural log or ln). The ~ means that the approximation is such that pi(x) divided by x divided by log x gets closer and closer to 1 as x gets larger.
 what is Wallis's Product?
 pi / 2 = (2 x 2 x 4 x 4 x 6 x 6 ...) / 1 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 5 ...) Yet another formula that gives pi, and it was discovered by John Wallis
 What is Gregory's Formula

tan 1(1) = pi / 4
pi / 4 = 1  1/3 + 1/5  1/7 + ...  According to Albert Einstein, when a body is in motion its time slows down. This formula allows the time (as measured by the moving body) to be compared with the rest time. For low velocities the effect is negligible. It is only when the body moves at a

t = t_0 sqrt( 1/ (1  v^2 / c^2 )
* t is the time dilation for a moving body
* t0 is the time for the body at rest
* v is the velocity of the body
* c is the velocity of light  Louis De Broglie came out with the extraordinary idea that moving matter could behave as waves. The wavelength of the body can be calculated from this formula. Only very small bodies will give a measurable effect.

lamda_m = h sqrt( 1  v^2 / c^ 2)/ (m_0 v)
* lm is the wavelength of the moving body
* m0 is the rest mass of the body
* v is the velocity of the body
* c is the velocity of light
* h is Planck's Constant  the fundamental theorem of algebra
 every complex polynomial of degree n has exactly n roots (zeros), counted with multiplicity
 Fundamental theorem of arithmetic
 the fundamental theorem of arithmetic or unique factorization theorem is the statement that every positive integer greater than 1 is either a prime number or can be written as a product of prime numbers. Furthermore this factorization is unique except for the order.
 fundamental theorem of natural selection

The rate of increase in fitness of any organism at any time is equal to its genetic variance in fitness at that time.
The rate of increase in the mean fitness of any organism at any time ascribable to natural selection acting through changes in gene frequencies is exactly equal to its genic variance in fitness at that time  Gödel's incompleteness theorem

For any formal theory in which basic arithmetical facts are provable, it is possible to construct an arithmetical statement which, if the theory is consistent, is true but neither provable nor refutable in the theory.
One can paraphrase the first theorem as saying that "we can never find an allencompassing axiomatic system which is able to prove all mathematical truths, but no falsehoods."  what is Alan Turing's halting problem?

Given a description of a program and its initial input, determine whether the program, when executed on this input, ever halts (completes). The alternative is that it runs forever without halting.
Alan Turing proved in 1936 that a general algorithm to solve the halting problem for all possible inputs cannot exist. We say that the halting problem is undecidable over Turing machines.  what is a Markov algorithm
 is a string rewriting system that uses grammarlike rules to operate on strings of symbols. Markov algorithms have been shown to be Turingcomplete, which means that they are suitable as a general model of computation and can represent any mathematical expression from its simple notation
 What is lambda calculus
 he lambda calculus can be called the smallest universal programming language. The lambda calculus consists of a single transformation rule (variable substitution) and a single function definition scheme. The lambda calculus is universal in the sense that any computable function can be expressed and evaluated using this formalism. It is thus equivalent to Turing machines. However, the lambda calculus emphasizes the use of transformation rules, and does not care about the actual machine implementing them. It is an approach more related to software than to hardware
 What is a Hilbert space?

A Hilbert Space is an inner product space that is also a Banach space (a complete normed space) under the norm defined by the inner product.
Every inner product <·,·> on a real or complex vector space H gives rise to a norm · as follows:
x = sqrt( <x, x>)
A Banach space which also is an innerproduct space with the inner product of a vector with itself being the same as the square of the norm of the vector.  what is the inner product or dot product?

In mathematics, the dot product, also known as the scalar product, is a binary operation which takes two vectors over the real numbers R and returns a realvalued scalar quantity. It is the standard inner product of the Euclidean space.
a.b = a_1*b_1 + a_2*b_2 + ... + a_n * b_n  chat about hilbert spaces
 Hilbert spaces allow simple geometric concepts, like projection and change of basis to be applied to infinite dimensional spaces, such as function spaces. They provide a context with which to formalize and generalize the concepts of the Fourier series in terms of arbitrary orthogonal polynomials and of the Fourier transform, which are central concepts from functional analysis. Hilbert spaces are of crucial importance in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics.
 Who conquered everest and when?
 Edmund Hillary and Norgay Tensing in 1953.
 When did Oscar Wilde die? When was he convicted of homosexual offenses.
 1900 1985 convicted
 When was different type of blood discovered
 1900
 Who discovered quantum theory and when
 Max Planck in 1900 l energy comes in particles called quanta
 When was the commonwealth of Australia born?
 1901
 Who won the 1st Nobel prize for physics and when?
 Roentgen in 1901  discovery of xrays.
 Which woman won the first Nobel prize and when and for what?
 Madame Curie, 1903, physics, for finding thorium, polonium and radium.
 When did Pavlov win his Nobel Prize and for what?
 1904  rang bell while feeding dog, took away the food and the bell made em salivate, neat!
 What is Kepler's conjecture
 what is the best way to pack an infinitely large number of spheres in an infinitely large space  he proposed that cubic packing (close packing) is the best way with a density of pi/(3*sqrt(2))
 what is the "4 color theorem"
 It states that any planar map (that is to say, a flat one) can be coloured with at most four colours in a way that no two regions with the same colour share a border.
 What is a holyhedron?
 In mathematics, a holyhedron is a certain 3dimensional geometric body, a polyhedron in which each face contains a polygonshaped hole and which contains at least one hole whose boundary shares no point with a face boundary. Is there a polyhedron in Euclidean threedimensional space that has only finitely many plane faces, each of which is a closed connected subset of the appropriate plane whose relative interior in that plane is multiply connected?
 what is the Goldbach conjecture?
 that all positive even integers >=4 can be expressed as the sum of two primes