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Important Dates in Civilization


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Röntgen, Discovers X-rays in?
G Bell, Invented Telephone on
JJ. Thomson Discovers the Electron on
Darwin writes "Origin of the Species" in
Big Bang erupted
14 billion years ago
Formation of Earth
4600 MYA
Cambrian Explosion (massive first emergence of life)
543 MYA - 490 MYA
Age of Dinosaurs
245MYA - 65 MYA
Stone Age
5MYA - 2500 BC
Ice Age
70000 BC - 8000 BC
Neolithic Age(permanent settlements)
9000 BC - 4500 BC
Bronze Age
3200 BC - 1200 BC
Iron Age
1200 BC - 332 BC
Hellenistic Period
332 BC - 63 BC
Roman Period
63 BC - 476
Byzantine Period
330 - 1453
Middle Ages
476 - 1350
1350 - 1600
1500 - 1600
1600 - 1800
Industrial Revolution
1750 - 1900
Gutenberg invented the printing press in
the first wheel was used in Mesopotamia in the bronze age when?
3500 BC
Fleming discovered penicillin in
William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain built the first transistor in
Philo Taylor Farnsworth invented the TV in
the abacus was invented in Babylon in
3000 BC
the slide rule is developed by William Oughtred in
the first numerical calculating machines built in Paris by Blaise Pascal in
electricity discovered by Benjamin Franklin in
first commercially mechanical adding machine that was successful is developed by William Burroughs in
a large scale analog calculator, the differential analyzer, at MIT is built by Vannevar Bush in
the first public radio-telephone becomes operational between London and New York
Englishman Alan M. Turning made a machine defined to be capable of computing any calculatable function in
the first color broadcast is on TV on
first electric equipment is made at Hewlett-Packard Company in
at Bell Telephone Laboratories George Stibitz builds the first binary calculator in
an 8 bit microprocessor is introduced by Intel in
in the U.S. the total number of computers surpasses ten million in
the first car appeared on the streets in
The first atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico on
a 10 kilo ton atomic explosion was unleashed on Hiroshima on
Felix Hoffman invented aspirin in
John Deere invented the first steel plow in
Edison invented the first incandescent light bulb in
When was the first production car - the model T - first unleashed by Henry Ford?
Wilbur and Orville Wright invented the airplane in
The plague raged in Europe and wiped out half the population in
Isaac Newton invented the reflecting telescope in
Edward Jenne invented the smallpox vaccine in
Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in
Samuel Finley Breese Morse &
Sir Charles Wheatstone invented the telegraph in
Richard Jordan Gatling devised the machine gun in
Alfred Bernhard Nobel invented dynamite in
Clarence Birdseye crafted quick frozen food in
Charles Ginsberg and Ray Dolby invented the first videotape in
Bell Labs invented fibre optics in
Robert K. Jarvik planted the first artificial heart in
Selective breeding of corn (increased kernel size) started from
5000 BC
Cattle and pigs were first domesticated
6000 BC
Dolly was the first cloned sheep in
Julius Caesar (102-44 BC) was assassinated by disgruntled colleagues after establishing the Roman Empire
March 15, 44 BC
William of Normandy crossed the English Channel from France and defeated British King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. On Christmas Day, William was crowned King of England, and became known as William the Conqueror.
At Runnymede, King John of England (1167-1216) signed the Magna Carta, a 63-part document of human rights that became the foundation of the English legal system.
Marco Polo (1254-1324) returns from China after a 20-year stay, seeing more of Asia than any other European of his day.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) set sail Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) set sail on September 6, 1492 from Castille, Spain with three ships— the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. His expedition landed at San Salvador in the West Indies
1492 (sailed the ocean blue)
Isaac Newton (1643-1727) published the Principia where he developed the three laws of motion, demonstrated the structure of the universe, the movement of the planets, and calculated the mass of the heavenly bodies.
The 13 colonies in America met in Philadelphia to sign their Declaration of Independence, declaring themselves free of British rule and taxation.
The French middle class stormed the Bastille, capturing the royal fortress in Paris, and starting the French Revolution.
Napoleon defeated at Waterloo by Duke Wellington and was exiled to St. Helena where he died on May 8, 1821.
The Confederacy attacked an US Army post at Fort Sumter, starting the American Civil War. The four-year war resulted in the death of 364,511 Union troops & 133,821 Confederates.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian Serbs initiating World War I.
New York Stock Market crashed on Black Tuesday where stocks tumbled across the board.
Germany invaded Poland overrunning it in four weeks. Britain & France declared war on Germany two days later.
Chinese Communist Chairman Mao Tse-Tung (1893-1976) declared his country the People's Republic of China after defeating Chiang Kai-Shek's Kuomingtang forces who fled to Taiwan.
Soviet Union's Yuri A. Gagarin (1934-1968) became the first man to complete an orbit of Earth.
Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the Moon.
1989 German people attacked the Berlin Wall, chipping it with hammers and bashing it with rocks until the wall came tumbling down.
Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.
the year the great bard, William Shakespeare, was born
The unsinkable ship, the Titanic sunk.
UK - The Equal Franchise Bill was given a third unopposed reading in the House of Commons, giving all women over the age of 21 the right to vote in parliamentary elections.
WW2. The start of the largest war in human history, killing over 60 million people in Asia, Africa and Europe.
Charles Babbage developed the Analytical Engine
Roger Bannister breaks the four-minute mile.
nspiring civil rights campaigner, Martin Luther King, was shot dead in Memphis
9/11 They day the world stood still as evil struck America..
George Boole published "An Investigation of the Laws of Thought". His system for symbolic and logical reasoning became the basis of computing.
In the "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", the concept of storing a program in the same memory as data was described by John von Neumann.
Rudolf Bayer and Edward M. McCreight publish the seminal paper on B-trees, a critical data structure widely used for handling large datasets.
The World Wide Web Worm (WWWW) indexed 110,000 web pages by crawling along hypertext links and providing a central place to make search requests; this is one of the first (if not the first) web search engines.
The Spanish Inquisition was established by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy.
This beautiful equation connects three major constants of mathematics, Euler's Number e, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, pi, and the square root of -1, i.e., i.
e^ipi = -1
definition of pi
pi = c / d c=circum, d = diameter
definition of e
e = lim(n->inf) (1 + 1/n)^n
which function equals it's derivative
d(e^x)/dx = e^x
what is Pythagorean Theorem
a^2 + b^2 = c^2 where a & b are the short sides of a RA triangle
what is the fundamental theorem of calculus
d/dx int (a, x) f(s) ds = f(x)
This formula expresses the fact that differentiation and integration are inverse operations of each other.
what is the taylor series
f(x) = sum(i=0, inf)f_i(0)/i! x^i
This formula shows how to express an analytic function in terms of its derivatives.
What is an Eigenvalue Problems
Ax = lamda x In this equation, A is a square matrix (often a very large one), x is an unknown vector, and lambda is an unknown real or complex number. Many physical problems lead to equations like this. Usually the numbers lambda that satisfy the equation are significant to the dynamic behavior of the physical system, i.e., the behavior as time goes
What is a linear system
A x = b In this equation A is a square matrix (often a very large one), x is an unknown vector,. The equation also describes many physical systems and the solution x often describes a physical situation either at one point in time or for all time.
What is the mandelbrot set?
z0 = c, z_(n+1) = z_n^2 + c
What is the triangle inequality
||x + y || <= |x| + |y| Let x and y be vectors that form two sides of a triangle whose third side is x+y. The expression ||x|| denotes the length of a vector x. (It's more generally called a norm in mathematics.) The triangle inequality expresses the fact that the sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle cannot be less than the length of the third side. It is used ubiquitously throughout mathematics.
What is the Reverse Triangle Inequality
||x - y|| >= | ||x|| - ||y|| |
What is cantor's theorem
2^|S| > |S| Let S be a set, and let |S| denote its cardinality. If S is a finite set then its cardinality is the number of elements in it, and things are not very interesting. But the concept of cardinality makes sense also for infinite sets. That story makes a fascinating webpage. The power set of a set is the set of its subsets. It is easy to see that for finite sets S the cardinality of the power set equals 2|S|. Thus we denote by 2|S| the cardinality of the power set even for infinite sets S. Cantor's Theorem states that the cardinality of the power set of a set S always exceeds the cardinality of S itself. That's obvious for finite sets but far from trivial for infinite sets.
What is the eqn. that ties together Energy, mass, and the speed of light.
E = mc^2 Einstein's famous equations says that mass m is equivalent to energy E, and the amount of energy contained in a piece of mass is equal to the mass multiplied with the square of the speed of light, c. Without the fact described by this equation we wouldn't be around since the energy we obtain from the Sun is generated by converting mass to energy in the process of nuclear fusion.
What is the eqn. for gravitational force
F = G m_1 m_2 / d^2 If you have two objects of mass m 1 and m 2 at a distance d, then these two objects will attract each other with a force F given in this formula. G is the gravitational constant. It equals approximately 6.67*10-11Nm2kg-2. This formula determines the destiny of our Universe (i.e., whether it will expand forever or whether it will ultimately collapse in a Big Crunch after having originated in the Big Bang).
link e with trig functions
e^iz = cos z + i sin z
what is Fermat's Little Theorem
f p is a prime number and a is an integer then a^(p-1) - 1 is divisible by p or, equivalently, if p is a prime number and a is an integer then a^p - a is divisible by p
What is Euler's formula of graph theory?
V - E + F = 1 This is an important formula in graph theory. Draw any two-dimensional graph, that is, a set of a points called vertices, and some line segments called edges which connect the vertices. Make sure it is in one piece (connected in mathematical language). Then count up the number of vertices V, the number of edges E, and the number of faces (regions) F that it encloses.
what is the the difference of two squares formula
x^2 - y^2 = (x - y) ( x + y)
What is the The Prime Number Theorem
p(x) approx = x / log(x) What this means is that if x is any positive real number then pi(x), which is the number of primes less than x, is approximately x divided by log x (where log is to base e, sometimes called the natural log or ln). The ~ means that the approximation is such that pi(x) divided by x divided by log x gets closer and closer to 1 as x gets larger.
what is Wallis's Product?
pi / 2 = (2 x 2 x 4 x 4 x 6 x 6 ...) / 1 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 5 ...) Yet another formula that gives pi, and it was discovered by John Wallis
What is Gregory's Formula
tan -1(1) = pi / 4

pi / 4 = 1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + ...
According to Albert Einstein, when a body is in motion its time slows down. This formula allows the time (as measured by the moving body) to be compared with the rest time. For low velocities the effect is negligible. It is only when the body moves at a
t = t_0 sqrt( 1/ (1 - v^2 / c^2 )

* t is the time dilation for a moving body
* t0 is the time for the body at rest
* v is the velocity of the body
* c is the velocity of light
Louis De Broglie came out with the extraordinary idea that moving matter could behave as waves. The wavelength of the body can be calculated from this formula. Only very small bodies will give a measurable effect.
lamda_m = h sqrt( 1 - v^2 / c^ 2)/ (m_0 v)

* lm is the wavelength of the moving body
* m0 is the rest mass of the body
* v is the velocity of the body
* c is the velocity of light
* h is Planck's Constant
the fundamental theorem of algebra
every complex polynomial of degree n has exactly n roots (zeros), counted with multiplicity
Fundamental theorem of arithmetic
the fundamental theorem of arithmetic or unique factorization theorem is the statement that every positive integer greater than 1 is either a prime number or can be written as a product of prime numbers. Furthermore this factorization is unique except for the order.
fundamental theorem of natural selection
The rate of increase in fitness of any organism at any time is equal to its genetic variance in fitness at that time.
The rate of increase in the mean fitness of any organism at any time ascribable to natural selection acting through changes in gene frequencies is exactly equal to its genic variance in fitness at that time
Gödel's incompleteness theorem
For any formal theory in which basic arithmetical facts are provable, it is possible to construct an arithmetical statement which, if the theory is consistent, is true but neither provable nor refutable in the theory.
One can paraphrase the first theorem as saying that "we can never find an all-encompassing axiomatic system which is able to prove all mathematical truths, but no falsehoods."
what is Alan Turing's halting problem?
Given a description of a program and its initial input, determine whether the program, when executed on this input, ever halts (completes). The alternative is that it runs forever without halting.
Alan Turing proved in 1936 that a general algorithm to solve the halting problem for all possible inputs cannot exist. We say that the halting problem is undecidable over Turing machines.
what is a Markov algorithm
is a string rewriting system that uses grammar-like rules to operate on strings of symbols. Markov algorithms have been shown to be Turing-complete, which means that they are suitable as a general model of computation and can represent any mathematical expression from its simple notation
What is lambda calculus
he lambda calculus can be called the smallest universal programming language. The lambda calculus consists of a single transformation rule (variable substitution) and a single function definition scheme. The lambda calculus is universal in the sense that any computable function can be expressed and evaluated using this formalism. It is thus equivalent to Turing machines. However, the lambda calculus emphasizes the use of transformation rules, and does not care about the actual machine implementing them. It is an approach more related to software than to hardware
What is a Hilbert space?
A Hilbert Space is an inner product space that is also a Banach space (a complete normed space) under the norm defined by the inner product.

Every inner product <·,·> on a real or complex vector space H gives rise to a norm ||·|| as follows:
||x|| = sqrt( <x, x>)
A Banach space which also is an inner-product space with the inner product of a vector with itself being the same as the square of the norm of the vector.
what is the inner product or dot product?
In mathematics, the dot product, also known as the scalar product, is a binary operation which takes two vectors over the real numbers R and returns a real-valued scalar quantity. It is the standard inner product of the Euclidean space.
a.b = a_1*b_1 + a_2*b_2 + ... + a_n * b_n
chat about hilbert spaces
Hilbert spaces allow simple geometric concepts, like projection and change of basis to be applied to infinite dimensional spaces, such as function spaces. They provide a context with which to formalize and generalize the concepts of the Fourier series in terms of arbitrary orthogonal polynomials and of the Fourier transform, which are central concepts from functional analysis. Hilbert spaces are of crucial importance in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics.
Who conquered everest and when?
Edmund Hillary and Norgay Tensing in 1953.
When did Oscar Wilde die? When was he convicted of homosexual offenses.
1900 1985 convicted
When was different type of blood discovered
Who discovered quantum theory and when
Max Planck in 1900 l- energy comes in particles called quanta
When was the commonwealth of Australia born?
Who won the 1st Nobel prize for physics and when?
Roentgen in 1901 - discovery of xrays.
Which woman won the first Nobel prize and when and for what?
Madame Curie, 1903, physics, for finding thorium, polonium and radium.
When did Pavlov win his Nobel Prize and for what?
1904 - rang bell while feeding dog, took away the food and the bell made em salivate, neat!
What is Kepler's conjecture
what is the best way to pack an infinitely large number of spheres in an infinitely large space - he proposed that cubic packing (close packing) is the best way with a density of pi/(3*sqrt(2))
what is the "4 color theorem"
It states that any planar map (that is to say, a flat one) can be coloured with at most four colours in a way that no two regions with the same colour share a border.
What is a holyhedron?
In mathematics, a holyhedron is a certain 3-dimensional geometric body, a polyhedron in which each face contains a polygon-shaped hole and which contains at least one hole whose boundary shares no point with a face boundary. Is there a polyhedron in Euclidean three-dimensional space that has only finitely many plane faces, each of which is a closed connected subset of the appropriate plane whose relative interior in that plane is multiply connected?
what is the Goldbach conjecture?
that all positive even integers >=4 can be expressed as the sum of two primes

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