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DNG Essential Life Science Vocabulary

Complete Bank of Essential Life Science Vocabulary for Friday Quiz


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Part of a cell that breaks down glucose molecules to release energy.
When organisms of the same kind become slightly different from one another. Differences between things.
The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Sexual Reproduction
When two sex cells join to form a zygote with combined genes from both parents.
To find the sum of a set of data, then divide it by the amount of numbers in the set; mean.
A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit.
An organism that eats producers or other organisms for energy.
The offspring of a certain parent or parents. One step in a lineage or family tree (parent generation, grandparent generation).
A symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is not affected.
An exchange of gases between living things so their cells can "burn" oxygen to make energy.
A combination of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function in the body.
Bacteria Cell
Microscopic, single-celled organisms without a nucleus. A prokaryote."
The amount of matter packed into a certain space. Mass divided by Volume
A community of different organisms and their nonliving environment.
Independent Variable
The factor being changed in an experiment. The factor that affects the outcome of an experiment.
A combination of gene pairs in a genotype which includes different traits; Tt.
A large, membrane-covered, bubble-like structure that stores water or other liquids.
Food Web
A diagram that shows the energy pathways in an ecosystem.
Any microscopic, one-celled organism that grows by getting slightly bigger before it divides.
Organisms that get food by breaking down living or dead materials in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients.
To examine, research, study, or experiment about something.
Anything that affects the activity of an organism, organ, or tissue.
Whiplike structure attached to certain cells that move like a paddle to provide locomotion in liquids (found on paramecium and sperm cells).
Carrying Capacity
The largest population that an environment can support, over a long period of time."
Conservation of Matter
Matter (anything that has mass and takes up space) cannot be created, but instead changes form.
Organ System
A group of organs that work together to perform a job in the body; circulatory, respiratory, digestive, immune, nervous, reproductive, etc.
Punnett Square
A tool used to visualize all the possible combinations of gene pairs from parents.
Nonliving factors in the environment. Things that have never been alive.
A lot is available. A plentiful suppy of something.
Particles of rocks and minerals that erode from one place and build up in another place, eventually forming new rock.
Substances that must be taken in by an organism to do normal growth and repair.
An organism that is hunted and eaten by another organism.
The movement of water across a cell membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration; diffusion in cells.
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed.
Dependent Variable
The factor that is measured in the outcome of an experiment.
Conservation of Energy
Energy (the ability to do work or action) cannot be created or destroyed, but instead changes form.
An organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes.
The membrane-covered structure that contains DNA and serves as a control center for the cell. The center of an atom, which holds the protons and neutrons.
To arrange things into groups based on similarities.
Cell division that produces sperm or egg cells.
Two or more species or individuals fighting to use the same limited resource.
When procedures can be done over again in the exact same way.
A characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment.
Dominant Trait
This trait physically shows when one dominant gene for a characteristic is inherited (Tt or TT).
Experimental Group
A trial in an experiment where only one factor is changed.
A known or unknown prejudice that makes it impossible to have honest and correct results.
Cell Membrane
A fatty layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the environment.
Organisms that grow by making more cells to add onto their bodies. Eukarote.
A molecule produced during photosynthesis and used to make energy during respiration.
A structure, found in plant and algae cells, that does photosynthesis."
A factor that is kept from changing in an experiment.
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds and released during reactions, like burning.
Information gathered from observation or research that describes events, characteristics, or quanities.
Describes living and dead factors in the environment.
An organism that hunts down eats other organisms.
Animal Cell
A small living part of a multicellular organism that eats to gain energy and reproduces sexually.
A change in an organisms DNA which causes a change in its genetics (When one of the base pairs is deleted, added, or switched).
Original Source
The very first place something comes from.
Nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes.
The most specific classification of living things, characterized by organisms that can mate and produce offspring.
Describes the slow genetic change in populations of organisms over many generations.
Hereditary material that controls all the activities of a cell and contains the information to make new cells. It provides instructions for making proteins.
The combination of all the chemical processes that occur in a cell or living organism.
Parts that are arranged with a specific organization for a specific purpose.
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction where a single parent produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
A combination of gene pairs in a genotype which includes traits that are the same; TT or tt.
Chemical Reaction
When two or more chemicals rearrange themselves to form new products. They release or absorb energy (heat, light, sound, etc)."
Information gathered with the five senses.
An explanation for many hypotheses and observations that have been supported by experiments.
A coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division.
An explanation or guess based on an observation or fact.
Limiting Factor
A resource that is needed for survival and can run out.
Fluids surrounding a cell's parts.
Organisms that make their own food, usually by using the energy from sunlight to make sugar.
A group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific job in the body.
The gradual development or regrowth of an ecosystem over time.
An organism on which a parasite lives and feeds.
Protist Cell
A microscopic, one-celled organism that is either plant-like or is animal-like, such as a paramecium, algae, or amoeba.
Anything that can independently carry out all life processes. A living thing.
When organisms in an ecosystem are dependent on each other.
Experimental Control
A trial in an experiment where all factors are kept from changing. The act of keeping factors from changing.
A guess that is based on prior knowledge and can be tested.
Carbon Dioxide
A molecule consisting of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. It is created during respiration and used during photosynthesis.
Renewable Resource
A thing we get from the environment that can be used and replaced, such as water and sunlight.
The union of an egg cell and sperm cell to form a zygote during sexual reproduction.
Recessive Trait
A trait that physically shows only when a pair of two are inherited (tt).
Common Ancestry
Organisms that have a close genetic relationship with the same extinct species.
Fossil Fuel
Stored chemical energy created over millions of years by trapping the energy of ancient plant matter (coal, oil, natural gas).
Cell Wall
A structure that surrounds the cell membrane of SOME cells and provides strength, support, and shape to the membrane."
A close, long-term relationship between two or more species.
Fossil Record
A historical sequence of life indicated by fossils. They are found in layers of the Earth's crust.
The process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar and oxygen.
A close connection, association, or interaction between two or more things.
A sugar molecule made by producers during photosynthesis and "burned" by all organisms during respiration to make energy.
When organisms mate or divide to make babies.
Hairlike structures that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion in liquids (found on protists, like paramecium).
Plant Cell
A small living part of a multicellular organism that makes its own food in chloroplast and reproduces sexually or asexually.
Natural Selection
The process by which organisms with a helpful trait survive and reproduce at higher rates than organisms without the helpful trait.
An explanation that uses data to support or disprove a hypothesis.
An action, duty, or role of something.

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